Pck1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pck1
Description: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1
Alias: GTP, PCK, PEPCK-C, Pepck, RATPEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, cytosolic [GTP], phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (soluble), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, cytosolic, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, cytosolic (GTP), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
Species: rat
Products:     Pck1

Top Publications

  1. Ballard F, Hanson R. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase in developing rat liver. Biochem J. 1967;104:866-71 pubmed
    ..7. It is suggested that the appearance of the soluble phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase at birth initiates the rapid increase in overall gluconeogenesis at this stage. ..
  2. Zhao S, Xu W, Jiang W, Yu W, Lin Y, Zhang T, et al. Regulation of cellular metabolism by protein lysine acetylation. Science. 2010;327:1000-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that acetylation plays a major role in metabolic regulation. ..
  3. Cao H, van der Veer E, Ban M, Hanley A, Zinman B, Harris S, et al. Promoter polymorphism in PCK1 (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:898-903 pubmed
    We sequenced the promoter and coding regions of PCK1 encoding cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from genomic DNA of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)...
  4. Niu Y, Liu W, Tian C, Xie M, Gao L, Chen Z, et al. Effects of bis(alpha-furancarboxylato)oxovanadium(IV) on glucose metabolism in fat-fed/streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;572:213-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggested that BEOV had anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitizing effects in the diabetic rats, exhibiting the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..
  5. Berry M, Gregory R, Grivell A, Henly D, Phillips J, Wallace P, et al. Evidence that stimulation of gluconeogenesis by fatty acid is mediated through thermodynamic mechanisms. FEBS Lett. 1988;231:19-24 pubmed
    ..e. mitochondrial membrane and redox potentials and cellular phosphorylation potential). These findings suggest that the fatty acid stimulation of glucose synthesis is in part mediated through thermodynamic mechanisms. ..
  6. Caton P, Nayuni N, Khan N, Wood E, Corder R. Fructose induces gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis through a SIRT1-dependent mechanism. J Endocrinol. 2011;208:273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1?) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK; gene code Pck1) gene expression, PEPCK activity, and hepatocyte glucose production...
  7. Santra S, Cameron J, Shyr C, Zhang L, Drögemöller B, Ross C, et al. Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency presenting with acute liver failure following gastroenteritis. Mol Genet Metab. 2016;118:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed a homozygous 12-bp deletion in PCK1 (MIM 614168) encoding cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK); enzymatic studies subsequently confirmed its pathogenic nature...
  8. Choudhury M, Qadri I, Rahman S, Schroeder Gloeckler J, Janssen R, Friedman J. C/EBP? is AMP kinase sensitive and up-regulates PEPCK in response to ER stress in hepatoma cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;331:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ER stress contributed to transcriptional activation of the gluconeogenic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter in Huh7 and HepG2 cells via cAMP binding motif (CRE site)...
  9. Hsieh C, Huang C, Bederman I, Yang J, Beidelschies M, Hatzoglou M, et al. Function of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in mammary gland epithelial cells. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1352-62 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we have shown that Pck1 expression in mammary gland adipocytes and white adipose tissue maintains triglyceride stores through glyceroneogenesis, and these lipids were used for synthesis of milk triglycerides during lactation...
  10. Yamada K, Ogata Kawata H, Matsuura K, Miyamoto K. SHARP-2/Stra13/DEC1 as a potential repressor of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:1509-14 pubmed
    ..protein-2 (SHARP-2) transcriptional repressor on the expression of rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene was examined...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Ballard F, Hanson R. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase in developing rat liver. Biochem J. 1967;104:866-71 pubmed
    ..7. It is suggested that the appearance of the soluble phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase at birth initiates the rapid increase in overall gluconeogenesis at this stage. ..
  2. Zhao S, Xu W, Jiang W, Yu W, Lin Y, Zhang T, et al. Regulation of cellular metabolism by protein lysine acetylation. Science. 2010;327:1000-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that acetylation plays a major role in metabolic regulation. ..
  3. Cao H, van der Veer E, Ban M, Hanley A, Zinman B, Harris S, et al. Promoter polymorphism in PCK1 (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:898-903 pubmed
    We sequenced the promoter and coding regions of PCK1 encoding cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from genomic DNA of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)...
  4. Niu Y, Liu W, Tian C, Xie M, Gao L, Chen Z, et al. Effects of bis(alpha-furancarboxylato)oxovanadium(IV) on glucose metabolism in fat-fed/streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;572:213-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggested that BEOV had anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitizing effects in the diabetic rats, exhibiting the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..
  5. Berry M, Gregory R, Grivell A, Henly D, Phillips J, Wallace P, et al. Evidence that stimulation of gluconeogenesis by fatty acid is mediated through thermodynamic mechanisms. FEBS Lett. 1988;231:19-24 pubmed
    ..e. mitochondrial membrane and redox potentials and cellular phosphorylation potential). These findings suggest that the fatty acid stimulation of glucose synthesis is in part mediated through thermodynamic mechanisms. ..
  6. Caton P, Nayuni N, Khan N, Wood E, Corder R. Fructose induces gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis through a SIRT1-dependent mechanism. J Endocrinol. 2011;208:273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1?) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK; gene code Pck1) gene expression, PEPCK activity, and hepatocyte glucose production...
  7. Santra S, Cameron J, Shyr C, Zhang L, Drögemöller B, Ross C, et al. Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency presenting with acute liver failure following gastroenteritis. Mol Genet Metab. 2016;118:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed a homozygous 12-bp deletion in PCK1 (MIM 614168) encoding cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK); enzymatic studies subsequently confirmed its pathogenic nature...
  8. Choudhury M, Qadri I, Rahman S, Schroeder Gloeckler J, Janssen R, Friedman J. C/EBP? is AMP kinase sensitive and up-regulates PEPCK in response to ER stress in hepatoma cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;331:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ER stress contributed to transcriptional activation of the gluconeogenic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter in Huh7 and HepG2 cells via cAMP binding motif (CRE site)...
  9. Hsieh C, Huang C, Bederman I, Yang J, Beidelschies M, Hatzoglou M, et al. Function of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in mammary gland epithelial cells. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1352-62 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we have shown that Pck1 expression in mammary gland adipocytes and white adipose tissue maintains triglyceride stores through glyceroneogenesis, and these lipids were used for synthesis of milk triglycerides during lactation...
  10. Yamada K, Ogata Kawata H, Matsuura K, Miyamoto K. SHARP-2/Stra13/DEC1 as a potential repressor of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:1509-14 pubmed
    ..protein-2 (SHARP-2) transcriptional repressor on the expression of rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene was examined...
  11. Wynshaw Boris A, Lugo T, Short J, Fournier R, Hanson R. Identification of a cAMP regulatory region in the gene for rat cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). Use of chimeric genes transfected into hepatoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:12161-9 pubmed
    ..1.1.32) (PEPCK) in rat liver...
  12. Dong Y, Zhang H, Wang X, Feng Q, Chen X, Su Q. A Leu184Val polymorphism in PCK1 gene is associated with type 2 diabetes in Eastern Chinese population with BMI<23 kg/m2. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;83:227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..29 [95% CI 1.03-1.64]), especially in subgroup with the BMI<23 kg/m(2) (P=0.018). The enzymatic activity of PEPCK-C containing Leu184 was higher than that of PEPCK-C containing Val184 (P<0.01)...
  13. Oda H, Okuda Y, Yoshida Y, Kimura N, Kakinuma A. Phenobarbital reduces blood glucose and gluconeogenesis through down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene expression in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;466:306-11 pubmed publisher
    The regulatory mechanism of phosphoenolpyruvate carboykinase (GTP) (EC 4.1.1.32) (PEPCK) gene expression and gluconeogenesis by phenobarbital (PB), which is known to induce drug-metabolizing enzymes, was investigated...
  14. Lewis C, Seyer J, Carlson G. Cysteine 288: an essential hyperreactive thiol of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). J Biol Chem. 1989;264:27-33 pubmed
    ..0. Purification and sequencing of the labeled peptide identifies the hyperreactive essential cysteine as Cys-288. This cysteine lies between two putative phosphoryl-binding domains and within a hydrophobic sequence. ..
  15. Zhang J. Suppression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression by reduced endogenous glutathione level. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1772:1175-81 pubmed
    ..to reduced mRNA levels of several key enzymes in energy homeostasis, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylkinase (PEPCK), the rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis...
  16. Azzout Marniche D, Gaudichon C, Blouet C, Bos C, Mathe V, Huneau J, et al. Liver glyconeogenesis: a pathway to cope with postprandial amino acid excess in high-protein fed rats?. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1400-7 pubmed
    ..This evidence is based on the concomitant upregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene expression, downregulation of glucose 6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC1) gene expression, an absence of ..
  17. Duplus E, Glorian M, Tordjman J, Berge R, Forest C. Evidence for selective induction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression by unsaturated and nonmetabolized fatty acids in adipocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2002;85:651-61 pubmed
    ..Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) plays a key role in this pathway...
  18. Gómez Valadés A, Méndez Lucas A, Vidal Alabró A, Blasco F, Chillon M, Bartrons R, et al. Pck1 gene silencing in the liver improves glycemia control, insulin sensitivity, and dyslipidemia in db/db mice. Diabetes. 2008;57:2199-210 pubmed publisher
    Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C; encoded by Pck1) catalyzes the first committed step in gluconeogenesis. Extensive evidence demonstrates a direct correlation between PEPCK-C activity and glycemia control...
  19. Reshef L, Olswang Y, Cassuto H, Blum B, Croniger C, Kalhan S, et al. Glyceroneogenesis and the triglyceride/fatty acid cycle. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:30413-6 pubmed
  20. Perrone C, Mattocks D, Plummer J, Chittur S, Mohney R, Vignola K, et al. Genomic and metabolic responses to methionine-restricted and methionine-restricted, cysteine-supplemented diets in Fischer 344 rat inguinal adipose tissue, liver and quadriceps muscle. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2012;5:132-57 pubmed publisher
    ..only caused the transcriptional upregulation of genes associated with fatty acid synthesis but also of Lpin1, Pc, Pck1 and Pdk1, genes that are associated with glyceroneogenesis...
  21. Wu J, Hou S, Wang W, Yin M, Cheng N, Ge L, et al. Hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression after gastric bypass surgery in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:16938-47 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) after gastric bypass surgery (GBS) in rats with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM)...
  22. Wilson H, McFie P, Roesler W. Different transcription factor binding arrays modulate the cAMP responsivity of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene promoter. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43895-902 pubmed
    The cAMP responsiveness of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter is mediated by a cAMP response unit, which includes three CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPs) sites, and a cAMP response element (CRE)...
  23. Kong S, Firth S, Baxter R, Delhanty P. Regulation of the acid-labile subunit in sustained endotoxemia. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;283:E692-701 pubmed
    ..cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3, cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and suppression of GH receptor (GHR)...
  24. Zhang Y, Li R, Chen W, Li Y, Chen G. Retinoids induced Pck1 expression and attenuated insulin-mediated suppression of its expression via activation of retinoic acid receptor in primary rat hepatocytes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;355:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, such as the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene (Pck1)...
  25. Olswang Y, Cohen H, Papo O, Cassuto H, Croniger C, Hakimi P, et al. A mutation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-binding site in the gene for the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase reduces adipose tissue size and fat content in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:625-30 pubmed
    ..in mice by specifically eliminating the expression of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), an enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the pathway...
  26. Zorzoli A, Turkenkopf I, Mueller V. Gluconeogenesis in developing rat kidney cortex. Biochem J. 1969;111:181-5 pubmed
    ..starvation was studied in perinatal animals. The results indicate that the ability to increase the rate of glucose synthesis as a result of starvation is not present at birth, but develops some time after the second postnatal day. ..
  27. Short J, Wynshaw Boris A, Short H, Hanson R. Characterization of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) promoter-regulatory region. II. Identification of cAMP and glucocorticoid regulatory domains. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:9721-6 pubmed
    Hormonal regulatory elements within the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (EC 4.1.1.32) (PEPCK) promoter region were mapped using a series of 5' deletions linked to the amino-3'-glycosyl phosphotransferase structural gene...
  28. Sun Z, Wu X, Li W, Peng H, Shen X, Ma L, et al. RhoA/rock signaling mediates peroxynitrite-induced functional impairment of Rat coronary vessels. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2016;16:193 pubmed
    ..2 and 1.5. Peroxynitrite-induced coronary vascular dysfunction may be mediated, at least in part, through increased expressions and activities of RhoA, ROCK1, and ROCK2. ..
  29. Gouni Berthold I, Giannakidou E, Faust M, Berthold H, Krone W. Association of the promoter polymorphism -232C/G of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene (PCK1) with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 2006;23:419-25 pubmed
    ..The present data suggest that, in a German Caucasian population, the -232C/G polymorphism of the PEPCK gene is not associated with Type 2 diabetes.
  30. Jitrapakdee S, St Maurice M, Rayment I, Cleland W, Wallace J, Attwood P. Structure, mechanism and regulation of pyruvate carboxylase. Biochem J. 2008;413:369-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review summarizes these advances and also offers some prospects in terms of future directions for the study of this important enzyme. ..
  31. Rajas F, Jourdan Pineau H, Stefanutti A, Mrad E, Iynedjian P, Mithieux G. Immunocytochemical localization of glucose 6-phosphatase and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in gluconeogenic tissues reveals unsuspected metabolic zonation. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007;127:555-65 pubmed
    ..localization of Glucose-6-phosphatase (Glc6Pase) and cytosolic form of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in the digestive system (liver, small intestine and pancreas) and the kidney...
  32. Yerkovich S, Rigby P, Fournier P, Olynyk J, Yeoh G. Kupffer cell cytokines interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10 combine to inhibit phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis in cultured hepatocytes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:1462-72 pubmed
    ..In addition this study suggests these cytokines inhibit phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase production and thereby hepatic gluconeogenesis. ..
  33. Cadoudal T, Glorian M, Massias A, Fouque F, Forest C, Benelli C. Retinoids upregulate phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glyceroneogenesis in human and rodent adipocytes. J Nutr. 2008;138:1004-9 pubmed
    ..Glyceroneogenesis and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), which is the key enzyme in this pathway, are both regulated by a series of hormones and nutrients, among which ..
  34. Beale E, Chrapkiewicz N, Scoble H, Metz R, Quick D, Noble R, et al. Rat hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). Structures of the protein, messenger RNA, and gene. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:10748-60 pubmed
    ..We conclude that mRNAPEPCK synthesis initiates with an adenine residue 69 base pairs 5' of the BglII site; this corresponds to the 3' most transcription initiation site determined in vitro. ..
  35. Lelli S, San Martín de Viale L, Mazzetti M. Response of glucose metabolism enzymes in an acute porphyria model. Role of reactive oxygen species. Toxicology. 2005;216:49-58 pubmed
    ..ROS) through assays on hepatic key gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic enzymes; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP), respectively...
  36. Wimhurst J, Manchester K. Induction and suppression of the key enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in isolated perfused rat liver in response to glucose, fructose and lactate. Biochem J. 1973;134:143-56 pubmed
    ..4.1.1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.32), fructose 1,6-diphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) and glucose 6-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3...
  37. Dunten P, Belunis C, Crowther R, Hollfelder K, Kammlott U, Levin W, et al. Crystal structure of human cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase reveals a new GTP-binding site. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:257-64 pubmed
    We report crystal structures of the human enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) with and without bound substrates...
  38. Allen Jennings A, Hartman M, Kociba G, Hai T. The roles of ATF3 in liver dysfunction and the regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20020-5 pubmed
    ..site derived from the promoter of the gene encoding the gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Furthermore, transient transfection assays indicated that ATF3 repressed the activity of the PEPCK promoter...
  39. Strakovsky R, Zhang X, Zhou D, Pan Y. Gestational high fat diet programs hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression and histone modification in neonatal offspring rats. J Physiol. 2011;589:2707-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to increased transcription rate, a gestational HF diet resulted in modifications of the Pck1 histone code in livers of offspring...
  40. Takaya J, Iharada A, Okihana H, Kaneko K. Upregulation of hepatic 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 expression in calcium-deficient rats. Ann Nutr Metab. 2011;59:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A low-Ca diet alters glucocorticoid metabolism, which leads to hepatic upregulation of 11?-HSD1, and is possibly a key mechanism inducing the metabolic complications of Ca deficiency. ..
  41. Chakravarty K, Wu S, Chiang C, Samols D, Hanson R. SREBP-1c and Sp1 interact to regulate transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in the liver. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:15385-95 pubmed
    ..SREBP-2, inhibit transcription of the gene encoding the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK-C). There are two SREBP regulatory elements (SREs) in the PEPCK-C gene promoter (-322 to -313 and -590 to -581)...
  42. Miller W, Daluge S, Garvey E, Hopkins S, Reardon J, Boyd F, et al. Phosphorylation of carbovir enantiomers by cellular enzymes determines the stereoselectivity of antiviral activity. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:21220-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, the contrasting HIV-inhibitory activities of carbovir enantiomers were due to differential phosphorylation by cellular enzymes and not due to enantioselectivity of HIV reverse transcriptase. ..
  43. Luo M, Chen L, Zheng J, Zeng T, Deng X. [The effect of calorie restriction on the expression of liver's gluconeogenesis genes of rats fed a high fat diet]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2008;16:125-8 pubmed
    ..on the high fat diet rats mRNA expressions of liver forkhead box O1(FoxO1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P) and to explore the possible mechanisms...
  44. Devine J, Eubank D, Clouthier D, Tontonoz P, Spiegelman B, Hammer R, et al. Adipose expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter requires peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor binding to an adipocyte-specific enhancer in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:13604-12 pubmed
    ..has been mapped to approximately 1 kilobase pair upstream of the cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene...
  45. Novak C, Escande C, Gerber S, Chini E, Zhang M, Britton S, et al. Endurance capacity, not body size, determines physical activity levels: role of skeletal muscle PEPCK. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5869 pubmed publisher
    ..identified one potential mechanism for the lean, active phenotype in rats, namely high levels of skeletal muscle PEPCK. Therefore, the lean phenotype is characterized by high endurance capacity and high activity and may stem from ..
  46. Lienenlüke B, Christ B. Impact of interleukin-6 on the glucose metabolic capacity in rat liver. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007;128:371-7 pubmed
    ..by monitoring glycogen degradation and the expression of the gluconeogenic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) in rat livers during the daily feeding rhythm. Eight hours after i.p...