Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Emx1
Description: empty spiracles homeobox 1
Alias: homeobox protein EMX1, empty spiracles homolog 1, empty spiracles-like protein 1
- Yoshida M, Suda Y, Matsuo I, Miyamoto N, Takeda N, Kuratani S, et al. Emx1 and Emx2 functions in development of dorsal telencephalon. Development. 1997;124:101-11 pubmedThe genes Emx1 and Emx2 are mouse cognates of a Drosophila head gap gene, empty spiracles, and their expression patterns have suggested their involvement in regional patterning of the forebrain...
- Batista Brito R, Rossignol E, Hjerling Leffler J, Denaxa M, Wegner M, Lefebvre V, et al. The cell-intrinsic requirement of Sox6 for cortical interneuron development. Neuron. 2009;63:466-81 pubmed publisher..It is, however, necessary for their normal positioning and maturation. As a consequence, the specific removal of Sox6 from this population results in a severe epileptic encephalopathy. ..
- Livet J, Weissman T, Kang H, Draft R, Lu J, Bennis R, et al. Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system. Nature. 2007;450:56-62 pubmed..The ability of the Brainbow system to label uniquely many individual cells within a population may facilitate the analysis of neuronal circuitry on a large scale. ..
- Backman M, Machon O, Mygland L, van den Bout C, Zhong W, Taketo M, et al. Effects of canonical Wnt signaling on dorso-ventral specification of the mouse telencephalon. Dev Biol. 2005;279:155-68 pubmed..of beta-catenin in the telencephalon before neurogenesis results in downregulated expression of dorsal markers Emx1, Emx2 and Ngn2, and in ectopic up-regulation of ventral markers Gsh2, Mash1 and Dlx2 in the pallium...
- Muzio L, Mallamaci A. Foxg1 confines Cajal-Retzius neuronogenesis and hippocampal morphogenesis to the dorsomedial pallium. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4435-41 pubmed..Remarkably, in the absence of Foxg1, additional inactivation of the medial fates promoter Emx2, although not suppressing cortical specification, conversely rescues overproduction of Reelin(on) neurons. ..
- Bishop K, Garel S, Nakagawa Y, Rubenstein J, O Leary D. Emx1 and Emx2 cooperate to regulate cortical size, lamination, neuronal differentiation, development of cortical efferents, and thalamocortical pathfinding. J Comp Neurol. 2003;457:345-60 pubmedThe homeobox transcription factors Emx1 and Emx2 are expressed in overlapping patterns that include cortical progenitors in the dorsal telencephalic neuroepithelium...
- Hitoshi S, Tropepe V, Ekker M, van der Kooy D. Neural stem cell lineages are regionally specified, but not committed, within distinct compartments of the developing brain. Development. 2002;129:233-44 pubmed..Thus, neural stem cells and their progeny are regionally specified in the developing brain, but this regional identity can be altered by local inductive cues. ..
- Yun K, Potter S, Rubenstein J. Gsh2 and Pax6 play complementary roles in dorsoventral patterning of the mammalian telencephalon. Development. 2001;128:193-205 pubmed..The role of Pax6 in dorsalizing the telencephalon is similar to its role in the spinal cord, supporting the hypothesis that some dorsoventral patterning mechanisms are used at all axial levels of the central nervous system. ..
- Armentano M, Chou S, Tomassy G, Leingartner A, O Leary D, Studer M. COUP-TFI regulates the balance of cortical patterning between frontal/motor and sensory areas. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1277-86 pubmed..We conclude that COUP-TFI is required for balancing patterning of neocortex into frontal/motor and sensory areas by acting in its expression domain to repress frontal/motor area identities and to specify sensory area identities. ..
- Cecchi C, Boncinelli E. Emx homeogenes and mouse brain development. Trends Neurosci. 2000;23:347-52 pubmedMammalian homeogenes of the Emx family, Emx1 and Emx2, are expressed in the developing cerebral cortex and are involved in the patterning of the rostral brain...
- Kwan K, Lam M, Krsnik Z, Kawasawa Y, Lefebvre V, Sestan N. SOX5 postmitotically regulates migration, postmigratory differentiation, and projections of subplate and deep-layer neocortical neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16021-6 pubmed publisher..Thus, SOX5 postmitotically regulates the migration, postmigratory differentiation, and subcortical projections of subplate and deep-layer neurons. ..
- Mallamaci A, Iannone R, Briata P, Pintonello L, Mercurio S, Boncinelli E, et al. EMX2 protein in the developing mouse brain and olfactory area. Mech Dev. 1998;77:165-72 pubmed..We also observe that the EMX2 and EMX1 homeoproteins display complementary expression patterns in olfactory bulbs and amygdaloid complex...
- Mangale V, Hirokawa K, Satyaki P, Gokulchandran N, Chikbire S, Subramanian L, et al. Lhx2 selector activity specifies cortical identity and suppresses hippocampal organizer fate. Science. 2008;319:304-9 pubmed publisher..In addition to providing functional evidence for Lhx2 selector activity, these findings show that the cortical hem is a hippocampal organizer. ..
- Guo H, Christoff J, Campos V, Jin X, Li Y. Normal corpus callosum in Emx1 mutant mice with C57BL/6 background. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;276:649-53 pubmedThe Emx1 gene is a mouse homologue of a Drosophila head gap gene, empty spiracles...
- Hevner R, Shi L, Justice N, Hsueh Y, Sheng M, Smiga S, et al. Tbr1 regulates differentiation of the preplate and layer 6. Neuron. 2001;29:353-66 pubmed..These results show that Tbr1 is a common genetic determinant for the differentiation of early-born glutamatergic neocortical neurons and provide insights into the functions of these neurons as regulators of cortical development. ..
- Kohwi M, Petryniak M, Long J, Ekker M, Obata K, Yanagawa Y, et al. A subpopulation of olfactory bulb GABAergic interneurons is derived from Emx1- and Dlx5/6-expressing progenitors. J Neurosci. 2007;27:6878-91 pubmed..A subset of Dlx2+ OB interneurons was derived from cells expressing Emx1, a transcription factor largely restricted to the pallium during development...
- Karalay O, Doberauer K, Vadodaria K, Knobloch M, Berti L, Miquelajauregui A, et al. Prospero-related homeobox 1 gene (Prox1) is regulated by canonical Wnt signaling and has a stage-specific role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5807-12 pubmed publisher....
- Wei B, Nie Y, Li X, Wang C, Ma T, Huang Z, et al. Emx1-expressing neural stem cells in the subventricular zone give rise to new interneurons in the ischemic injured striatum. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:819-30 pubmed publisher..Genetic fate mapping reveals that newly born CR+ interneurons are generated from Emx1-expressing neural stem cells in the dorsal-lateral SVZ...
- Madisen L, Mao T, Koch H, Zhuo J, Berenyi A, Fujisawa S, et al. A toolbox of Cre-dependent optogenetic transgenic mice for light-induced activation and silencing. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:793-802 pubmed publisher..When combined with the hundreds of available Cre driver lines, this optimized toolbox of reporter mice will enable widespread investigations of neural circuit function with unprecedented reliability and accuracy. ..
- Chou S, Perez Garcia C, Kroll T, O Leary D. Lhx2 specifies regional fate in Emx1 lineage of telencephalic progenitors generating cerebral cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1381-9 pubmed publisher..including six-layer neocortex and three-layer olfactory cortex, generated by telencephalic progenitors of an Emx1 lineage. The mechanism specifying region-specific subpopulations in this lineage is unknown...
- De Pietri Tonelli D, Pulvers J, Haffner C, Murchison E, Hannon G, Huttner W. miRNAs are essential for survival and differentiation of newborn neurons but not for expansion of neural progenitors during early neurogenesis in the mouse embryonic neocortex. Development. 2008;135:3911-21 pubmed publisher..role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this process, we conditionally ablated Dicer in the developing mouse neocortex using Emx1-Cre, which is specifically expressed in the dorsal telencephalon as early as embryonic day (E) 9.5...
- Beggs H, Schahin Reed D, Zang K, Goebbels S, Nave K, Gorski J, et al. FAK deficiency in cells contributing to the basal lamina results in cortical abnormalities resembling congenital muscular dystrophies. Neuron. 2003;40:501-14 pubmed..In addition, FAK is required within neurons during development because neuron-specific fak deletion alters dendritic morphology in the absence of lamination defects. ..
- Zhou L, Bar I, Achouri Y, Campbell K, De Backer O, Hebert J, et al. Early forebrain wiring: genetic dissection using conditional Celsr3 mutant mice. Science. 2008;320:946-9 pubmed publisher..These observations provide in vivo evidence that Celsr3-mediated interactions between axons and guidepost cells govern axonal tract formation in mammals. ..
- Pulvers J, Huttner W. Brca1 is required for embryonic development of the mouse cerebral cortex to normal size by preventing apoptosis of early neural progenitors. Development. 2009;136:1859-68 pubmed publisher..Here we investigated the role of Brca1 during mouse embryonic cortical development by deleting floxed Brca1 using Emx1-Cre, which leads to conditional gene ablation specifically in the dorsal telencephalon after embryonic day (E) 9.5...
- Theil T, Alvarez Bolado G, Walter A, Ruther U. Gli3 is required for Emx gene expression during dorsal telencephalon development. Development. 1999;126:3561-71 pubmed..a molecular level, disruption of dorsal telencephalon development in Xt(J)/Xt(J) embryos correlates with a loss of Emx1 and Emx2 expression...
- Toresson H, Potter S, Campbell K. Genetic control of dorsal-ventral identity in the telencephalon: opposing roles for Pax6 and Gsh2. Development. 2000;127:4361-71 pubmed....
- Iwasato T, Datwani A, Wolf A, Nishiyama H, Taguchi Y, Tonegawa S, et al. Cortex-restricted disruption of NMDAR1 impairs neuronal patterns in the barrel cortex. Nature. 2000;406:726-31 pubmed..Our findings indicate that cortical NMDARs are essential for the aggregation of layer IV cells into barrels and for development of the full complement of thalamocortical patterns. ..
- Cappello S, Böhringer C, Bergami M, Conzelmann K, Ghanem A, Tomassy G, et al. A radial glia-specific role of RhoA in double cortex formation. Neuron. 2012;73:911-24 pubmed publisher..These data not only demonstrate that RhoA is largely dispensable for migration in neurons but also showed that defects in radial glial cells, rather than neurons, can be sufficient to produce SBH. ..
- Iwasato T, Nomura R, Ando R, Ikeda T, Tanaka M, Itohara S. Dorsal telencephalon-specific expression of Cre recombinase in PAC transgenic mice. Genesis. 2004;38:130-8 pubmed..Here we report the isolation of a DNA fragment containing the Emx1 gene promoter, which is responsible for dorsal telencephalon-specific expression...
- Assimacopoulos S, Grove E, Ragsdale C. Identification of a Pax6-dependent epidermal growth factor family signaling source at the lateral edge of the embryonic cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6399-403 pubmed..We find that the antihem is lost in mice homozygous for the Small eye (Pax6) mutation and suggest the loss of EGF signaling at least partially explains defects in cortical patterning and cell migration in Small eye mice. ..
- Kawase Koga Y, Otaegi G, Sun T. Different timings of Dicer deletion affect neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing mouse central nervous system. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2800-12 pubmed publisher..Our studies of different timings of Dicer deletion demonstrate the importance of the Dicer-mediated microRNA pathway in regulating distinct phases of neurogenesis and gliogenesis during the CNS development. ..
- Fode C, Ma Q, Casarosa S, Ang S, Anderson D, Guillemot F. A role for neural determination genes in specifying the dorsoventral identity of telencephalic neurons. Genes Dev. 2000;14:67-80 pubmed....
- Betley J, Wright C, Kawaguchi Y, Erdelyi F, Szabo G, Jessell T, et al. Stringent specificity in the construction of a GABAergic presynaptic inhibitory circuit. Cell. 2009;139:161-74 pubmed publisher..The organization of a GABAergic circuit that mediates presynaptic inhibition in the mammalian CNS is therefore controlled by a stringent program of sensory recognition and signaling. ..
- Kawase Koga Y, Low R, Otaegi G, Pollock A, Deng H, Eisenhaber F, et al. RNAase-III enzyme Dicer maintains signaling pathways for differentiation and survival in mouse cortical neural stem cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:586-94 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate important functions for Dicer in regulating NSC development by maintaining proper signaling pathways related to cell survival and differentiation. ..
- Gu X, Li C, Wei W, Lo V, Gong S, Li S, et al. Pathological cell-cell interactions elicited by a neuropathogenic form of mutant Huntingtin contribute to cortical pathogenesis in HD mice. Neuron. 2005;46:433-44 pubmed..Our study provides genetic evidence that pathological cell-cell interactions elicited by neuropathogenic forms of mhtt can critically contribute to cortical pathogenesis in a HD mouse model. ..
- Madisen L, Zwingman T, Sunkin S, Oh S, Zariwala H, Gu H, et al. A robust and high-throughput Cre reporting and characterization system for the whole mouse brain. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:133-40 pubmed publisher..Our expression data are displayed in a public online database to help researchers assess the utility of various Cre-driver lines for cell-type-specific genetic manipulation. ..
- Piñon M, Tuoc T, Ashery Padan R, Molnar Z, Stoykova A. Altered molecular regionalization and normal thalamocortical connections in cortex-specific Pax6 knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8724-34 pubmed publisher..Our findings indicate that Pax6 expression gradients in cortical progenitors do not directly impart thalamocortical or corticofugal areal identity. ..
- Caronia G, Wilcoxon J, Feldman P, Grove E. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in the developing telencephalon controls formation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and modifies fear-related behavior. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6291-301 pubmed publisher....
- Simon R, Brylka H, Schwegler H, Venkataramanappa S, Andratschke J, Wiegreffe C, et al. A dual function of Bcl11b/Ctip2 in hippocampal neurogenesis. EMBO J. 2012;31:2922-36 pubmed publisher..Together, our data define an important novel regulatory pathway in hippocampal development, by linking transcriptional functions of Bcl11b to Desmoplakin, a molecule known to act on cell adhesion. ..
- Muzio L, Di Benedetto B, DiBenedetto B, Stoykova A, Boncinelli E, Gruss P, et al. Emx2 and Pax6 control regionalization of the pre-neuronogenic cortical primordium. Cereb Cortex. 2002;12:129-39 pubmed....
- Hippenmeyer S, Youn Y, Moon H, Miyamichi K, Zong H, Wynshaw Boris A, et al. Genetic mosaic dissection of Lis1 and Ndel1 in neuronal migration. Neuron. 2010;68:695-709 pubmed publisher..Comparisons with previous genetic perturbations of Lis1 and Ndel1 also suggest a surprising degree of cell-nonautonomous function for these proteins in regulating neuronal migration. ..
- Stegeman S, Jolly L, Premarathne S, Gecz J, Richards L, Mackay Sim A, et al. Loss of Usp9x disrupts cortical architecture, hippocampal development and TGFβ-mediated axonogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68287 pubmed publisher..Deletion of Usp9x from the dorsal telencephalon only, by mating with Emx1-cre mice, was compatible with survival to adulthood but resulted in reduction or loss of the corpus callosum, a ..
- Xuan S, Baptista C, Balas G, Tao W, Soares V, Lai E. Winged helix transcription factor BF-1 is essential for the development of the cerebral hemispheres. Neuron. 1995;14:1141-52 pubmed..These results suggest that BF-1 controls the morphogenesis of the telencephalon by regulating the rate of neuroepithelial cell proliferation and the timing of neuronal differentiation. ..
- Simeone A, Gulisano M, Acampora D, Stornaiuolo A, Rambaldi M, Boncinelli E. Two vertebrate homeobox genes related to the Drosophila empty spiracles gene are expressed in the embryonic cerebral cortex. EMBO J. 1992;11:2541-50 pubmedWe cloned two homeobox genes, Emx1 and Emx2, related to empty spiracles, a gene expressed in very anterior body regions during early Drosophila embryogenesis, and studied their expression in mouse embryos...
- Yoshida M, Assimacopoulos S, Jones K, Grove E. Massive loss of Cajal-Retzius cells does not disrupt neocortical layer order. Development. 2006;133:537-45 pubmed..Our findings indicate, however, that the sheet of reelin-rich CR cells that covers the neocortical primordium is not required to direct layer order. ..
- Shu T, Li Y, Keller A, Richards L. The glial sling is a migratory population of developing neurons. Development. 2003;130:2929-37 pubmed..These data indicate that the sling may be a source of, or migratory pathway for, developing neurons in the rostral forebrain, suggesting additional functions for the sling independent of callosal axon guidance. ..
- Bareyre F, Kerschensteiner M, Misgeld T, Sanes J. Transgenic labeling of the corticospinal tract for monitoring axonal responses to spinal cord injury. Nat Med. 2005;11:1355-60 pubmed..Some of these new collaterals form additional direct synapses onto motoneurons. We propose that CST-YFP mice will be useful for evaluating strategies designed to maximize such remodeling and to promote regeneration. ..
- Niewmierzycka A, Mills J, St Arnaud R, Dedhar S, Reichardt L. Integrin-linked kinase deletion from mouse cortex results in cortical lamination defects resembling cobblestone lissencephaly. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7022-31 pubmed..This study demonstrates a critical role for Ilk in cortical lamination and suggests that Ilk-associated pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of cobblestone lissencephalies. ..
- Schmidt E, Warner Schmidt J, Otopalik B, Pickett S, Greengard P, Heintz N. Identification of the cortical neurons that mediate antidepressant responses. Cell. 2012;149:1152-63 pubmed publisher..Our data identify corticostriatal projection neurons as critical for the response to antidepressants, and suggest that the regulation of serotonergic tone in this single cell type plays a pivotal role in antidepressant therapy. ..
- Li H, Wang D, Shen Q, Schonemann M, Gorski J, Jones K, et al. Inactivation of Numb and Numblike in embryonic dorsal forebrain impairs neurogenesis and disrupts cortical morphogenesis. Neuron. 2003;40:1105-18 pubmed..Using Emx1(IREScre) to induce more restricted inactivation of Numb in the dorsal forebrain of numblike null mice beginning at ..
- Bishop K, Rubenstein J, O Leary D. Distinct actions of Emx1, Emx2, and Pax6 in regulating the specification of areas in the developing neocortex. J Neurosci. 2002;22:7627-38 pubmed..The transcription factors EMX1, EMX2, and PAX6 have been proposed to regulate arealization...
- Gorski J, Talley T, Qiu M, Puelles L, Rubenstein J, Jones K. Cortical excitatory neurons and glia, but not GABAergic neurons, are produced in the Emx1-expressing lineage. J Neurosci. 2002;22:6309-14 pubmed..of an internal ribosome entry site and Cre recombinase coding region into the 3'-untranslated region of the mouse Emx1 gene, we have generated a strain of mice, Emx1(IRES)cre, that expresses the Cre recombinase in a spatial and ..
- Puelles L, Kuwana E, Puelles E, Bulfone A, Shimamura K, Keleher J, et al. Pallial and subpallial derivatives in the embryonic chick and mouse telencephalon, traced by the expression of the genes Dlx-2, Emx-1, Nkx-2.1, Pax-6, and Tbr-1. J Comp Neurol. 2000;424:409-38 pubmed..These may underlie similar histogenetic specification processes and field homologies, including some comparable connectivity patterns. ..
- Iwasato T, Inan M, Kanki H, Erzurumlu R, Itohara S, Crair M. Cortical adenylyl cyclase 1 is required for thalamocortical synapse maturation and aspects of layer IV barrel development. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5931-43 pubmed publisher..They also suggest that the formation of the gross morphological features of barrels is independent of postsynaptic AC1 in the barrel cortex. ..
- Qiu M, Anderson S, Chen S, Meneses J, Hevner R, Kuwana E, et al. Mutation of the Emx-1 homeobox gene disrupts the corpus callosum. Dev Biol. 1996;178:174-8 pubmed..Heterozygotes show partial penetrance for the corpus callosum abnormality. The histology and various molecular properties of the cerebral cortex appear normal in the mutant mice. ..
- Li G, Kataoka H, Coughlin S, Pleasure S. Identification of a transient subpial neurogenic zone in the developing dentate gyrus and its regulation by Cxcl12 and reelin signaling. Development. 2009;136:327-35 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that the relocation of neural precursors in the dentate gyrus consists of discrete steps regulated by multiple pathways. ..
- Lee L, Iwasato T, Itohara S, Erzurumlu R. Exuberant thalamocortical axon arborization in cortex-specific NMDAR1 knockout mice. J Comp Neurol. 2005;485:280-92 pubmed....
- Yang Y, Baltus A, Mathew R, Murphy E, Evrony G, Gonzalez D, et al. Microcephaly gene links trithorax and REST/NRSF to control neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Cell. 2012;151:1097-112 pubmed publisher..Our results reveal ZNF335 as an essential link between H3K4 complexes and REST/NRSF and provide the first direct genetic evidence that this pathway regulates human neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation...
- Chen C, Lee G, Pourmorady A, Sock E, Donoghue M. Orchestration of Neuronal Differentiation and Progenitor Pool Expansion in the Developing Cortex by SoxC Genes. J Neurosci. 2015;35:10629-42 pubmed publisher..This work reveals an intricately structured molecular architecture for SoxC molecules, with Sox11 acting in a select set of cortical neurons and Sox4 playing an unanticipated role in designating secondary progenitors. ..
- Grigaravicius P, Kaminska E, Hübner C, McKinnon P, von Deimling A, Frappart P. Rint1 inactivation triggers genomic instability, ER stress and autophagy inhibition in the brain. Cell Death Differ. 2016;23:454-68 pubmed publisher..Altogether, our findings highlight the crucial roles of Rint1 in vivo in genomic stability maintenance, as well as in prevention of ER stress and autophagy. ..
- Shah B, Lutter D, Tsytsyura Y, Glyvuk N, Sakakibara A, Klingauf J, et al. Rap1 GTPases Are Master Regulators of Neural Cell Polarity in the Developing Neocortex. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:1253-1269 pubmed publisher..Taken together, the loss of RGC and neuronal polarity results in the disruption of cortical organization. ..
- Khoshkhoo S, Vogt D, Sohal V. Dynamic, Cell-Type-Specific Roles for GABAergic Interneurons in a Mouse Model of Optogenetically Inducible Seizures. Neuron. 2017;93:291-298 pubmed publisher..These results show how an optogenetically induced seizure model can be leveraged to pinpoint a new target for seizure control: VIP interneurons. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..