Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Dmd
Description: dystrophin, muscular dystrophy
Alias: DXSmh7, DXSmh9, Dp427, Dp71, dys, mdx, pke, dystrophin, X-linked muscular dystrophy, dystrophin Dp71 delta110 isoform, dystrophin Dp71c isoform, dystrophin Dp71d delta71,74 isoform, dystrophin Dp71d delta74 isoform, dystrophin Dp71d(delta71,73-74), dystrophin Dp71f delta74 isoform
Publications204 found, 100 shown here
- Muscle-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor I counters muscle decline in mdx miceElisabeth R Barton
Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Cell Biol 157:137-48. 2002Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked degenerative disorder of muscle caused by the absence of the protein dystrophin. A major consequence of muscular dystrophy is that the normal regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle cannot ..
- Loss of dystrophin causes aberrant mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle fibersAshok Kumar
Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
FASEB J 18:102-13. 2004b>Dystrophin is a cytoskeletal protein found at the inner surface of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers. We hypothesize that deficiency of dystrophin increases muscle compliance and causes an aberrant mechanotransduction in muscle fibers...
- Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice display a reduced life span and are susceptible to spontaneous rhabdomyosarcomaJeffrey S Chamberlain
Department of Neurology, K243b HSB, Box 357720, 1959 N E Pacific St, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195 7720, USA
FASEB J 21:2195-204. 2007..dystrophy exist, but the most effective model for characterizing the structural and functional properties of dystrophin and therapeutic interventions has been the mdx mouse...
- Accurate quantification of dystrophin mRNA and exon skipping levels in duchenne muscular dystrophyPietro Spitali
Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Lab Invest 90:1396-402. 2010..Digital array results show that 1 ng of mdx gastrocnemius muscle-derived mRNA contains approximately 1100 dystrophin transcripts and that 665 transcripts are sufficient to determine exon-skipping levels...
- MyoD is required for myogenic stem cell function in adult skeletal muscleL A Megeney
Institute for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Cancer Research Group, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Genes Dev 10:1173-83. 1996..Mice lacking both MyoD and dystrophin displayed a marked increase in severity of myopathy leading to premature death, suggesting a role for MyoD in ..
- The mdx mouse diaphragm reproduces the degenerative changes of Duchenne muscular dystrophyH H Stedman
School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104
Nature 352:536-9. 1991..and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are genetically homologous and both characterized by a complete absence of dystrophin, the limb muscles of adult mdx mice suffer neither the detectable weakness nor the progressive degeneration that ..
- Plectin 1f scaffolding at the sarcolemma of dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers through multiple interactions with beta-dystroglycanGünther A Rezniczek
Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, University of Vienna, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
J Cell Biol 176:965-77. 2007..and in vitro binding assays using recombinant protein fragments revealed the direct binding of plectin to dystrophin (utrophin) and beta-dystroglycan, the key components of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex...
- Shifts in macrophage phenotypes and macrophage competition for arginine metabolism affect the severity of muscle pathology in muscular dystrophyS Armando Villalta
Molecular, Cellular and Integrative Physiology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
Hum Mol Genet 18:482-96. 2009Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common, lethal, muscle-wasting disease of childhood...
- PGC-1alpha regulates the neuromuscular junction program and ameliorates Duchenne muscular dystrophyChristoph Handschin
Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Genes Dev 21:770-83. 2007..Since a subset of genes controlled by PGC-1alpha and GABP is dysregulated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), we examined the effects of transgenic PGC-1alpha in muscle of mdx mice...
- Fibrinogen drives dystrophic muscle fibrosis via a TGFbeta/alternative macrophage activation pathwayBerta Vidal
Program on Differentiation and Cancer, Center for Genomic Regulation CRG, Pompeu Fabra University UPF, E 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Genes Dev 22:1747-52. 2008..Here, we show that fibrinogen accumulates in dystrophic muscles of DMD patients and mdx mice...
- An ankyrin-based mechanism for functional organization of dystrophin and dystroglycanGai Ayalon
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Cell 135:1189-200. 2008beta-dystroglycan (DG) and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) are localized at costameres and neuromuscular junctions in the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle...
- Contraction-induced injury to single permeabilized muscle fibers from mdx, transgenic mdx, and control miceG S Lynch
Institute of Gerontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2007, USA
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 279:C1290-4. 2000Muscle fibers of mdx mice that lack dystrophin are more susceptible to contraction-induced injury, particularly when stretched...
- Overexpression of the cytotoxic T cell GalNAc transferase in skeletal muscle inhibits muscular dystrophy in mdx miceHolly H Nguyen
Department of Neuroscience, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California at San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093 0691, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:5616-21. 2002Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a congenital X-linked myopathy caused by lack of dystrophin protein expression...
- X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) in the mouseG Bulfield
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81:1189-92. 1984An X chromosome-linked mouse mutant (gene symbol, mdx) has been found that has elevated plasma levels of muscle creatine kinase and pyruvate kinase and exhibits histological lesions characteristic of muscular dystrophy...
- Leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-6 are produced by diseased and regenerating skeletal muscleJ B Kurek
Melbourne Neuromuscular Research Centre, St Vincent s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
Muscle Nerve 19:1291-301. 1996..Using in situ hybridization we have localized mRNA for LIF expression in the mdx diaphragm, suggesting that local production of these molecules by regenerating muscle itself, as well as by other ..
- A role for nitric oxide in muscle repair: nitric oxide-mediated activation of muscle satellite cellsJ E Anderson
Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 0W3
Mol Biol Cell 11:1859-74. 2000..NOS-inhibited release of normal cells, in agreement with reports of displaced and reduced NOS expression in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscle and the complete loss of NOS-I expression in knockout mice...
- Caveolin-3 null mice show a loss of caveolae, changes in the microdomain distribution of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, and t-tubule abnormalitiesF Galbiati
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein Comprehensive Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
J Biol Chem 276:21425-33. 2001..muscle tissue from these caveolin-3 null mice reveals: (i) mild myopathic changes; (ii) an exclusion of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex from lipid raft domains; and (iii) abnormalities in the organization of the T-tubule system,..
- uPA deficiency exacerbates muscular dystrophy in MDX miceMonica Suelves
Program on Differentiation and Cancer, Center for Genomic Regulation, E 08003, Barcelona, Spain
J Cell Biol 178:1039-51. 2007..We identify a function of the protease urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in mdx mice, a mouse model of DMD...
- Sildenafil reverses cardiac dysfunction in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophyCandace M Adamo
Departments of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19079-83. 2010..Patients with DMD lack expression of the protein dystrophin as a result of mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene...
- Decreased myocardial nNOS, increased iNOS and abnormal ECGs in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophyB L Bia
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QU, UK
J Mol Cell Cardiol 31:1857-62. 1999Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a devastating neuromuscular disease caused by lack of the protein, dystrophin, in skeletal muscle and heart, although the biochemical mechanism by which dystrophin loss causes muscle dysfunction is unknown...
- Effective rescue of dystrophin improves cardiac function in dystrophin-deficient mice by a modified morpholino oligomerBo Wu
McColl Lockwood Laboratory for Muscular Dystrophy, Neuromuscular ALS Center, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28231, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14814-9. 2008..its application is limited by low potency and inefficiency in systemic delivery, especially failure to restore dystrophin in heart...
- Cardiac expression of a mini-dystrophin that normalizes skeletal muscle force only partially restores heart function in aged Mdx miceBrian Bostick
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, The University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA
Mol Ther 17:253-61. 2009..Synthetic mini-/micro-dystrophin genes have yielded impressive skeletal muscle protection in animal models...
- Attenuated muscle regeneration is a key factor in dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophyYen Hui Chiu
Institute of Human Genetics, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 3BZ, UK
Hum Mol Genet 18:1976-89. 2009..This study reveals a novel pathomechanism affecting muscle regeneration and maintenance in dysferlinopathy and highlights enhancement of the neutrophil response as a potential therapeutic avenue in these disorders...
- Expression of caveolin-3 in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Caveolin-3 is a component of the sarcolemma and co-fractionates with dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoproteinsK S Song
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 1479, USA
J Biol Chem 271:15160-5. 1996..plasma membrane) and coincides with the distribution of another muscle-specific plasma membrane marker protein, dystrophin. In addition, caveolin-3 protein expression is dramatically induced during the differentiation of C2C12 skeletal ..
- Force and power output of fast and slow skeletal muscles from mdx mice 6-28 months oldG S Lynch
Institute of Gerontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2007, USA
J Physiol 535:591-600. 20011. Differences in the effect of age on structure-function relationships of limb muscles of mdx (dystrophin null) and control mice have not been resolved...
- Increased leakage of calcium ion from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the mdx mouseA Takagi
Department of Neurology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
J Neurol Sci 110:160-4. 1992..function of the contractile system and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were analyzed in the skeletal muscle of the mdx mouse. Activation of the contractile system by calcium ion and the maximum force generation was normal...
- Morphometric analysis of mdx diaphragm muscle fibres. Comparison with hindlimb musclesJ P Louboutin
URA CNRS 1340, CHR G R Laënnec, Nantes, France
Neuromuscul Disord 3:463-9. 1993Histological, histochemical and morphometric characteristics of diaphragm muscles from mdx and control mice were compared with those of hindlimb muscles [extensor digitorum longus (EDL), tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SA) muscles]...
- A role for mast cells in the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy? Correlations in dystrophin-deficient humans, dogs, and miceJ R Gorospe
Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA 15261
J Neurol Sci 122:44-56. 1994b>Dystrophin deficiency has been shown to be the underlying cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
- Delay of muscle degeneration and necrosis in mdx mice by calpain inhibitionM A Badalamente
Department of Orthopedics, Health Science Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York, USA
Muscle Nerve 23:106-11. 2000Inhibition of muscle degeneration by the tripeptide calpain inhibitor, leupeptin, was tested in vivo in a dystrophin-deficient mdx murine model...
- Overexpression of a calpastatin transgene in mdx muscle reduces dystrophic pathologyMelissa J Spencer
Department of Pediatrics and UCLA Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
Hum Mol Genet 11:2645-55. 2002Reduced sarcolemmal integrity in dystrophin-deficient muscles of mdx mice and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients has been reported to result in altered calcium homeostasis...
- Cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 is regulated by a multiprotein complex composed of syntrophins and dystrophinBruno Gavillet
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Circ Res 99:407-14. 2006..These experiments revealed that the C-terminus associates with dystrophin, and that this interaction was mediated by alpha- and beta-syntrophin proteins...
- Postnatal overexpression of the CT GalNAc transferase inhibits muscular dystrophy in mdx mice without altering muscle growth or neuromuscular development: evidence for a utrophin-independent mechanismRui Xu
Center for Gene Therapy, Columbus Children s Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, 700 Children s Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
Neuromuscul Disord 17:209-20. 2007..overexpression of Galgt2 did not reproducibly increase the expression of utrophin, synaptic laminins, or dystrophin-associated glycoproteins along infected myofibers...
- Systemic administration of micro-dystrophin restores cardiac geometry and prevents dobutamine-induced cardiac pump failureDeWayne Townsend
Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Mol Ther 15:1086-92. 2007..DMD) is a fatal disease of striated muscle deterioration resulting from the loss of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Most patients develop significant cardiomyopathy, with heart failure being the second leading cause of death in ..
- Lateral transmission of force is impaired in skeletal muscles of dystrophic mice and very old ratsKrishnan S Ramaswamy
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2200, USA
J Physiol 589:1195-208. 2011The dystrophin–glycoprotein complex (DGC) provides an essential link from the muscle fibre cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix...
- Chronic AMPK activation evokes the slow, oxidative myogenic program and triggers beneficial adaptations in mdx mouse skeletal muscleVladimir Ljubicic
Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Neuromuscular Disease, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H 8M5
Hum Mol Genet 20:3478-93. 2011..dystrophy (DMD) is to up-regulate utrophin in skeletal muscle in an effort to compensate for the lack of dystrophin. We previously hypothesized that promotion of the slow, oxidative myogenic program, which triggers utrophin up-..
- β1D chain increases α7β1 integrin and laminin and protects against sarcolemmal damage in mdx miceJianming Liu
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Hum Mol Genet 21:1592-603. 2012The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex connects myofibers with extracellular matrix laminin. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, this linkage system is absent and the integrity of muscle fibers is compromised...
- TRPC1 binds to caveolin-3 and is regulated by Src kinase - role in Duchenne muscular dystrophyOthon L Gervasio
School of Medical Sciences, Discipline of Physiology F13, Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
J Cell Sci 121:2246-55. 2008..calcium (Ca(2+))-permeable channel, is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)...
- Laminin-111 protein therapy prevents muscle disease in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophyJachinta E Rooney
Department of Pharmacology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7991-6. 2009Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. Loss of dystrophin results in reduced sarcolemmal integrity and increased susceptibility to muscle damage...
- The molecular basis of muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse: a point mutationP Sicinski
Medical Research Unit, MRC Centre, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Science 244:1578-80. 1989..In both mouse and man the mutations lie within the dystrophin gene, but the phenotypic differences of the disease in the two species confer much interest on the molecular ..
- Complete cloning of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cDNA and preliminary genomic organization of the DMD gene in normal and affected individualsM Koenig
Cell 50:509-17. 1987The 14 kb human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cDNA corresponding to a complete representation of the fetal skeletal muscle transcript has been cloned...
- Utrophin-dystrophin-deficient mice as a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophyA E Deconinck
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Cell 90:717-27. 1997The absence of dystrophin at the muscle membrane leads to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle-wasting disease that is inevitably fatal in early adulthood...
- Integrin-linked kinase deletion from mouse cortex results in cortical lamination defects resembling cobblestone lissencephalyAgnieszka Niewmierzycka
Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
J Neurosci 25:7022-31. 2005..This study demonstrates a critical role for Ilk in cortical lamination and suggests that Ilk-associated pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of cobblestone lissencephalies...
- Interplay of IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in macrophages and myofibers promotes muscle degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophySwarnali Acharyya
Human Cancer Genetics Program and Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
J Clin Invest 117:889-901. 2007Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked disorder associated with dystrophin deficiency that results in chronic inflammation and severe skeletal muscle degeneration...
- Deregulated protein kinase A signaling and myospryn expression in muscular dystrophyJoseph G Reynolds
Department of Biology, Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
J Biol Chem 283:8070-4. 2008..of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a degenerative muscle disease caused by a deficiency in the costameric protein dystrophin. Accordingly, the notion of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, and by extension the costamere, as harboring ..
- Muscular dystrophy begins early in embryonic development deriving from stem cell loss and disrupted skeletal muscle formationDeborah Merrick
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Dis Model Mech 2:374-88. 2009..Disruption of myogenesis occurs earlier in mdx mutants, which lack a functional form of dystrophin, than in cav-3(-/-) mutants, which lack the Cav3 gene that encodes the protein caveolin-3; this finding is ..
- Flt-1 haploinsufficiency ameliorates muscular dystrophy phenotype by developmentally increased vasculature in mdx miceMayank Verma
Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Hum Mol Genet 19:4145-59. 2010..dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene coding for the protein dystrophin. Recent work demonstrates that dystrophin is also found in the vasculature and its absence results in vascular ..
- Differential requirement for individual sarcoglycans and dystrophin in the assembly and function of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complexA A Hack
Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, Section of Cardiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
J Cell Sci 113:2535-44. 2000Sarcoglycan is a multimeric, integral membrane glycoprotein complex that associates with dystrophin. Mutations in individual sarcoglycan subunits have been identified in inherited forms of muscular dystrophy...
- Cytoplasmic gamma-actin contributes to a compensatory remodeling response in dystrophin-deficient muscleLaurin M Hanft
Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:5385-90. 2006b>Dystrophin mechanically links the costameric cytoskeleton and sarcolemma, yet dystrophin-deficient muscle exhibits abnormalities in cell signaling, gene expression, and contractile function that are not clearly understood...
- Skeletal muscle-specific ablation of gamma(cyto)-actin does not exacerbate the mdx phenotypeKurt W Prins
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
PLoS ONE 3:e2419. 2008We previously documented a ten-fold increase in gamma(cyto)-actin expression in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle and hypothesized that increased gamma(cyto)-actin expression may participate in an adaptive cytoskeletal remodeling ..
- Dystrophin glycoprotein complex dysfunction: a regulatory link between muscular dystrophy and cancer cachexiaSwarnali Acharyya
Human Cancer Genetics Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Cancer Cell 8:421-32. 2005..We report that tumor-induced alterations in the muscular dystrophy-associated dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) represent a key early event in cachexia...
- Overexpression of the cytotoxic T cell (CT) carbohydrate inhibits muscular dystrophy in the dyW mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy 1ARui Xu
Center for Gene Therapy, Columbus Children s Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
Am J Pathol 171:181-99. 2007..of recent studies have demonstrated therapeutic effects of transgenes on the development of muscle pathology in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but none have been shown also to be effective in mouse models for ..
- Protein-DNA array-based identification of transcription factor activities differentially regulated in skeletal muscle of normal and dystrophin-deficient mdx miceCharu Dogra
Musculoskeletal Disease Center, Jerry L Pettis Memorial Veteren Affairs Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92357, USA
Mol Cell Biochem 312:17-24. 2008Inactivation of dystrophin gene is the primary cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in humans and mdx mice...
- A growth stimulus is needed for IGF-1 to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy in vivoThea Shavlakadze
School of Anatomy and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, WA, Australia
J Cell Sci 123:960-71. 2010Here, we characterise new strains of normal and dystrophic (mdx) mice that overexpress Class 2 IGF-1 Ea in skeletal myofibres...
- Upregulation of store-operated Ca2+ entry in dystrophic mdx mouse muscleJoshua N Edwards
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299:C42-50. 2010..of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscle fibers from healthy (wild-type, WT) and dystrophic mdx mouse. The mdx fibers were found to have normal activation and deactivation properties of SOCE...
- T-cell-dependent fibrosis in the mdx dystrophic mouseJ Morrison
Muscle Cell Biology Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom
Lab Invest 80:881-91. 2000..be driven by the continuous degeneration and regeneration of muscle both in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and in the mdx mouse homolog...
- Diaphragm rescue alone prevents heart dysfunction in dystrophic miceAlastair Crisp
MRC Annex Building, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
Hum Mol Genet 20:413-21. 2011..X-linked recessive disease caused, in most cases, by the complete absence of the 427 kDa cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. There is no effective treatment, and affected individuals die from respiratory failure and cardiomyopathy by ..
- Effect of voluntary wheel-running exercise on muscles of the mdx mouseG T Carter
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California, School of Medicine, Davis 95616, USA
Neuromuscul Disord 5:323-32. 1995The purpose of this study is to determine whether dystrophin-deficient mdx mice are more susceptible to muscle injury and functional impairment than normal C57 mice when allowed to exercise voluntarily on mouse wheels...
- Prevention of pathology in mdx mice by expression of utrophin: analysis using an inducible transgenic expression systemS Squire
MRC Functional Genetics Unit, Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QX, UK
Hum Mol Genet 11:3333-44. 2002Duchenne muscular dystrophy results from the absence of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein...
- rAAV6-microdystrophin rescues aberrant Golgi complex organization in mdx skeletal musclesJustin M Percival
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Box 357290, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Traffic 8:1424-39. 2007..Thus, we investigated GC organization in the dystrophin-deficient muscles of mdx mice, a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
- Inhibitory control over Ca(2+) sparks via mechanosensitive channels is disrupted in dystrophin deficient muscle but restored by mini-dystrophin expressionMartin D H Teichmann
Medical Biophysics, Department of Systems Physiology, Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Ruprecht Karls University, Heidelberg, Germany
PLoS ONE 3:e3644. 2008..They may be related to mechanosensitive pathways but the mechanisms are elusive. Also, it is not known whether truncated dystrophins can correct the dystrophic disinhibition...
- Oxidative stress by monoamine oxidases is causally involved in myofiber damage in muscular dystrophySara Menazza
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
Hum Mol Genet 19:4207-15. 2010..effect on the dystrophic phenotype of Col6a1(-/-) mice, a model of Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital MD, and mdx mice, a model of Duchenne MD...
- The coexistence of embryonic and adult acetylcholine receptors in sarcolemma of mdx dystrophic mouse muscle: an effect of regeneration or muscular dystrophy?D Költgen
Physiologisches Institut, Technischen Universitat Munchen, FRG
Neurosci Lett 173:79-82. 1994In the sarcolemma of innervated dystrophic mdx mouse muscle we found the embryonic and the adult nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, where normally after innervation only the adult type would be expected, as can be shown with comparative ..
- Muscular weakness in the mdx mouseF Muntoni
Istituto di Neuropsichiatria Infantile, Cagliari, Italy
J Neurol Sci 120:71-7. 1993..We conclude that dystrophin deficiency induces muscle degeneration and significant weakness in mdx mice, but only in an early period...
- Altered activity of signaling pathways in diaphragm and tibialis anterior muscle of dystrophic miceJoshua M Lang
Muscle Biology Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60608, USA
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 229:503-11. 2004Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a musculoskeletal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene...
- Myonucleus-related properties in soleus muscle fibers of mdx miceMasahiro Terada
Osaka University, Japan
Cells Tissues Organs 191:248-59. 2010..and total number of myonuclei in single soleus muscle fibers, sampled from tendon to tendon, were analyzed in mdx and wild-type (WT) mice. Apoptotic myonuclei and the microscopic structure around the myonuclei were also analyzed...
- Eccentric contractions lead to myofibrillar dysfunction in muscular dystrophyBert Blaauw
Dept of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Univ of Padua, Padua, Italy
J Appl Physiol (1985) 108:105-11. 2010It is commonly accepted that skeletal muscles from dystrophin-deficient mdx mice are more susceptible than those from wild-type mice to damage from eccentric contractions...
- Bowman-Birk inhibitor attenuates dystrophic pathology in mdx miceC A Morris
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
J Appl Physiol (1985) 109:1492-9. 2010..Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) results from a loss of dystrophin protein and involves an ongoing inflammatory response, with matrix remodeling and activation of transforming ..
- Urocortins improve dystrophic skeletal muscle structure and function through both PKA- and Epac-dependent pathwaysJulie Reutenauer-Patte
Laboratory of Pharmacology, Geneva Lausanne School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland
Am J Pathol 180:749-62. 2012In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the absence of dystrophin causes progressive muscle wasting and premature death. Excessive calcium influx is thought to initiate the pathogenic cascade, resulting in muscle cell death...
- Abnormalities in structure and function of limb skeletal muscle fibres of dystrophic mdx miceS I Head
Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Proc Biol Sci 248:163-9. 1992In this study we have shown that the skeletal muscle fibres from adult (older than 26 weeks) mdx mice have gross structural deformities. We have characterized the onset and age dependence of this feature in mdx mice...
- New mdx mutation disrupts expression of muscle and nonmuscle isoforms of dystrophinG A Cox
Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109 0618
Nat Genet 4:87-93. 1993The dystrophin gene encodes several tissue-specific protein isoforms that are generated by alternative splicing and by transcription from at least three separate promoters...
- Evolution of the mdx mouse cardiomyopathy: physiological and morphological findingsJohn G Quinlan
Departments of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, 4011 Medical Science Building, 231 Cincinnati, OH 45267 0525, USA
Neuromuscul Disord 14:491-6. 2004..In order to determine if the cardiac function of the mdx mouse is similarly disturbed, we performed murine echocardiograms and left heart catheterization studies, along ..
- Prevention of dystrophin-deficient cardiomyopathy in twenty-one-month-old carrier mice by mosaic dystrophin expression or complementary dystrophin/utrophin expressionBrian Bostick
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Missouri, School of Medicine, One Hospital Dr, M610G, MSB, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
Circ Res 102:121-30. 2008A cure for dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy requires treating both skeletal muscle and the heart...
- Generation and characterization of transgenic mice with the full-length human DMD genePeter A C 't Hoen
Center for Human and Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Postal Zone S4 P, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
J Biol Chem 283:5899-907. 2008We report the generation of mice with an intact and functional copy of the 2.3-megabase human dystrophin gene (hDMD), the largest functional stretch of human DNA thus far integrated into a mouse chromosome...
- Preservation of muscle force in Mdx3cv mice correlates with low-level expression of a near full-length dystrophin proteinDejia Li
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Missouri, School of Medicine, One Hospital Dr M610G, MSB, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
Am J Pathol 172:1332-41. 2008The complete absence of dystrophin causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Its restoration by greater than 20% is needed to reduce muscle pathology and improve muscle force...
- Hypernitrosylated ryanodine receptor calcium release channels are leaky in dystrophic muscleAndrew M Bellinger
Clyde and Helen Wu Center for Molecular Cardiology, Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
Nat Med 15:325-30. 2009Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and early death resulting from dystrophin deficiency...
- Sarcolemmal nNOS anchoring reveals a qualitative difference between dystrophin and utrophinDejia Li
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, The University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
J Cell Sci 123:2008-13. 2010Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. In normal muscle, dystrophin helps maintain sarcolemmal stability...
- Nitrosative stress elicited by nNOSµ delocalization inhibits muscle force in dystrophin-null miceDejia Li
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, The University of Missouri, Missouri 65212, USA
J Pathol 223:88-98. 2011The mechanism of force reduction is not completely understood in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a dystrophin-deficient lethal disease. Nitric oxide regulates muscle force...
- Genotyping mdx, mdx3cv, and mdx4cv mice by primer competition polymerase chain reactionJin Hong Shin
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
Muscle Nerve 43:283-6. 2011..Their disease is caused by point mutations in the dystrophin gene. Despite widespread use of these models, genotyping has not always been straightforward...
- Distinct pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiomyopathy in hearts lacking dystrophin or the sarcoglycan complexDeWayne Townsend
Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
FASEB J 25:3106-14. 2011Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) 2C-F result from the loss of dystrophin and the sarcoglycans, respectively...
- Skeletal muscle pathology in X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouseY Tanabe
Acta Neuropathol 69:91-5. 1986..analyses were performed chronologically on muscles from mutant mice with X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx), and the findings were compared with those in nondystrophic control animals (C57BL/10ScSn)...
- A nitric oxide synthase transgene ameliorates muscular dystrophy in mdx miceM Wehling
Department of Physiological Science, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
J Cell Biol 155:123-31. 2001b>Dystrophin-deficient muscles experience large reductions in expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which suggests that NO deficiency may influence the dystrophic pathology...
- The role of utrophin and Dp71 for assembly of different dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DPCs) in the choroid plexus and microvasculature of the brainT Haenggi
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Neuroscience 129:403-13. 2004..present in the choroid plexus epithelium and vascular endothelial cells, whereas the short C-terminal isoform of dystrophin (Dp71) is localized in the glial end-feet surrounding blood vessels...
- Akt activation prevents the force drop induced by eccentric contractions in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscleBert Blaauw
Department of Biomedical Sciences, CNR Institute of Neurosciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Hum Mol Genet 17:3686-96. 2008..This specific sign of the susceptibility of dystrophin-deficient muscles to mechanical stress can be used as a quantitative test to measure the efficacy of therapeutic ..
- Abnormal cardiac morphology, function and energy metabolism in the dystrophic mdx mouse: an MRI and MRS studyWen Zhang
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Sherrington Building, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
J Mol Cell Cardiol 45:754-60. 2008..Transsarcolemmal creatine uptake was 12% lower in mdx mouse hearts. We conclude that the absence of dystrophin in adult mdx mouse heart, as in the heart of human patient, is associated with right ventricular dilatation, ..
- Dystrophin and utrophin do not play crucial roles in nonmuscle tissues in miceJ A Rafael
Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, UK
Muscle Nerve 22:517-9. 1999The loss of full-length dystrophin from skeletal muscle leads to the clinical features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
- Large-scale analysis of differential gene expression in the hindlimb muscles and diaphragm of mdx mouseA V Tkatchenko
Laboratoire de Physiopathologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, INSERM Unité 300, Faculte de Pharmacie, 34060, Montpellier, France
Biochim Biophys Acta 1500:17-30. 2000The mdx mouse is an animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by the absence of dystrophin. Mdx limb muscles substantially compensate for the lack of dystrophin while the diaphragm is affected like DMD skeletal ..
- Antisense-induced exon skipping and synthesis of dystrophin in the mdx mouseC J Mann
Australian Neuromuscular Research Institute, Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:42-7. 2001Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle wasting disease arising from defects in the dystrophin gene, typically nonsense or frameshift mutations, that preclude the synthesis of a functional protein...
- Regulation of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel by the actin-binding proteins alpha-actinin and dystrophinAbbas Sadeghi
Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 282:C1502-11. 2002The actin-binding proteins dystrophin and alpha-actinin are members of a family of actin-binding proteins that may link the cytoskeleton to membrane proteins such as ion channels...
- Calcium entry through stretch-inactivated ion channels in mdx myotubesA Franco
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0450
Nature 344:670-3. 1990..in understanding the molecular basis of human X-linked muscular dystrophies have come from the identification of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein associated with the surface membrane...
- Dystrophin-associated proteins are greatly reduced in skeletal muscle from mdx miceK Ohlendieck
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242
J Cell Biol 115:1685-94. 1991b>Dystrophin, the protein product of the human Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene, exists in skeletal muscle as a large oligomeric complex that contains four glycoproteins of 156, 50, 43, and 35 kD and a protein of 59 kD...
- Excitation contraction coupling in normal and mdx miceS Hollingworth
Department of Physiological Sciences, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Muscle Nerve 13:16-20. 1990The protein dystrophin is absent from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and from the muscles of mdx mice...
- The mdx mouse skeletal muscle myopathy: I. A histological, morphometric and biochemical investigationG R Coulton
Department of Histopathology, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, London
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 14:53-70. 1988Skeletal muscle has been examined in a colony of the mdx strain of myopathic mice...
- Ultrastructure of the skeletal muscle in the X chromosome-linked dystrophic (mdx) mouse. Comparison with Duchenne muscular dystrophyM J Cullen
Muscular Dystrophy Group Research Laboratories, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Acta Neuropathol 77:69-81. 1988..It has been proposed that the differences are due to secondary biochemical changes consequent on the absence of dystrophin in both conditions...
- Muscle development in mdx mutant miceJ Dangain
Muscle Nerve 7:700-4. 1984Mechanical and contractile properties of tibialis anterior (TA) muscles from X-linked muscular dystrophic (mdx) mutant mice at different stages of development are compared to those of muscles from normal control animals...
- Expression of human full-length and minidystrophin in transgenic mdx mice: implications for gene therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophyD J Wells
Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, London, UK
Hum Mol Genet 4:1245-50. 1995..reduce the myopathic phenotype in transgenic mdx mice, even when expressed at only 20-30% of endogenous dystrophin levels at the sarcolemma...
- Expression of full-length and truncated dystrophin mini-genes in transgenic mdx miceS F Phelps
Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109 0618, USA
Hum Mol Genet 4:1251-8. 1995Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy are caused by defects in the dystrophin gene, and are candidates for treatment by gene therapy...
- Muscular degeneration in Duchenne's dystrophy may be caused by a mitochondrial defectB Lucas-Heron
Laboratoire de Physiologie, UER de Medecine, Nantes, France
Med Hypotheses 44:298-300. 1995..to account for this disease have not been swept away by the discovery of the DMD gene and the deficient protein, dystrophin, since the exact cellular role played by the latter is still unknown...
- Radiation inhibition of mdx mouse muscle regeneration: dose and age factorsJ G Quinlan
Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Ohio
Muscle Nerve 18:201-6. 1995A single hind limb was irradiated with 12, 18, 24, or 30 Gy in mdx and C57 mice aged 12, 21, or 42 days to determine regeneration inhibition dose-response curves in different aged dystrophic mice and to characterize radiation side-..
- Mechanical function of dystrophin in muscle cellsC Pasternak
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110
J Cell Biol 128:355-61. 1995We have directly measured the contribution of dystrophin to the cortical stiffness of living muscle cells and have demonstrated that lack of dystrophin causes a substantial reduction in stiffness...
- Time course of changes in plasma membrane permeability in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouseA McArdle
Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
Muscle Nerve 17:1378-84. 1994Control C57Bl/10 and mutant, dystrophin-deficient mdx mice of different ages were used to study the permeability of the plasma membrane to cytosolic components, to a vital stain (procion orange) and to extracellular 45calcium...
- Does muscular dystrophy affect metabolic rate? A study in mdx miceE E Dupont-Versteegden
Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio 78284 7756
J Neurol Sci 121:203-7. 1994In this study metabolic consequences of muscular dystrophy were investigated using the mdx mouse model. Measurements were performed on C57BL/10SNJ (control) and dystrophic (mdx) mice of ages 4-6 weeks (young) and 1 year (adult), i.e...
- Novel hybrid AAV vectors for cystic fibrosis gene therapyDongsheng Duan; Fiscal Year: 2008..This is a generic approach independent of the transgene sequence. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Cardiac Contraction-Relaxation CouplingPAULUS JANSSEN; Fiscal Year: 2008....
- FASEB Summer Conference on: The Biology of Calpains in Health and DiseaseMelissa Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2007..The proposed program will provide the forum by which the momentum in this field may be maintained. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Study of Intrinsic Bladder Activity by Optical ImagingAnthony Kanai; Fiscal Year: 2007..To study the neural-chemical control of spontaneous detrusor activity; and III.) To determine the origin of detrusor overactivity in partially obstructed bladders. ..
- THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES FOR MUSCULAR DYSTROPHYMelissa Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2006..Collectively, these findings can provide the basis for design of immune interventions to reduce the pathology of dystrophin deficient muscle.
- Use of Albuterol in Spinal Cord InjuryRichard Zeman; Fiscal Year: 2002..PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Use of beta 2-agonists like albuterol alone or together with x-irradiation maybe useful therapies for spinal cord injuries. ..
- Pathogenesis of autoimmune myositis: Role of MHC Class 1Kanneboyina Nagaraju; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- Epsilon-sarcoglycan in LGMD Type 2DKevin Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Apoptosis in Laminin alpha2-Deficient Muscle PathologyJANICE DOMINOV; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Notch Signaling and Satellite Cell ActivationTHOMAS RANDO; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- Mechanisms of Spinal Cord InjuryRichard Zeman; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Ischemia and the Pathogenesis of Muscular DystrophyGail Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2008..dystrophies, is a crippling, incurable disease caused by mutation of the gene encoding the sarcolemmal protein dystrophin. There currently is no effective treatment for DMD because the mechanism by which dystrophin deficiency produces ..
- Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research CenterJeffrey Chamberlain; Fiscal Year: 2007..studies in dystrophic mice that lead to a phase I clinical tdal of gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)...
- Altered phosphodiesterase expression in diseased muscleTIMOTHY BLOOM; Fiscal Year: 2007..reported decreases in PDE expression in skeletal muscle from the mdx mouse, a model with the same defect in the dystrophin gene that causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
- FASEB Conference:Skeletal muscle satellite and stem cellsTHOMAS RANDO; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] We fully anticipate that progress in this field will pave the way for stem cell therapies for a variety of degenerative, inflammatory, and age-related disorders. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- The Role of Cytokeratins in Skeletal Muscle InjuryRICHARD LOVERING; Fiscal Year: 2006..single-fibers to the whole-muscle findings and to mdx fibers transfected with a virus expressing a functional dystrophin, 2) To determine whether muscles lacking cytokeratin K8 or K19 are dystrophic and/or more susceptible to injury, ..
- Use of Tempol for Spinal Cord InjuryRichard Zeman; Fiscal Year: 2004..Optimization of tempol treatment may lead to a therapeutic modality for SCI. ..
- REGULATION OF MYOTENDINOUS JUNCTION STRUCTUREJames Tidball; Fiscal Year: 2001..Hind limb immobilization at shortened length followed by remobilization will be used to examine the effect of inhibition of NOS on sarcomere addition. ..
- Use of Clenbuterol for Enhancement of Stem Cell TherapyRichard Zeman; Fiscal Year: 2002..The method will be patented, licensed and marketed as a new therapy. ..
- ESTROGEN/SYMPATHETIC VASOCONSTRICTION IN SKELETAL MUSCLEGail Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- Enhancement of Myoblast Chemotactic MigrationJANICE DOMINOV; Fiscal Year: 2003..Normal myoblasts and those induced by cytokines will be injected into tail veins of mdx mice (model for DMD) undergoing muscle regeneration and extravasation into tissues assessed...
- Myostatin in Muscle Growth and RegenerationKathryn Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2005..In addition to the ultimate goal of providing clinical applications for muscle disease, this multidisciplinary approach should provide excellent training for a career integrating clinical myology and molecular neuroscience. ..
- Cellular Signaling and Muscular DystrophiesTHOMAS RANDO; Fiscal Year: 2005..Others, such as those due to dystrophin mutations, are due to abnormalities of protein complexes that are postulated to transduce signals from the ..
- OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MUSCLE CELL DEATHTHOMAS RANDO; Fiscal Year: 2005..3 explore the mechanism of increased susceptibility to oxidative stress of muscles that have abnormalities in dystrophin expression which, in vivo, cause muscular dystrophies...
- Myeloid Cell Function in Muscular DystrophyJames Tidball; Fiscal Year: 2005..Although mutations in the dystrophin gene are primarily responsible for DMD and animal models of DMD, many features of dystrophinopathies indicate ..
- Extraocular muscle stem cells for DMD therapyTejvir Khurana; Fiscal Year: 2005..DMD) is a fatal disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene that results in an absence or severe reduction of dystrophin. Current therapies can not significantly slow down, let alone cure the disease...
- Pathogenic mechanisms that initiate DMDRobert Grange; Fiscal Year: 2006..The loss of dystrophin, and additional proteins of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex from the muscle membrane characterize DMD...
- Dystrophic Cardiomyopathies in mdxDeWayne Townsend; Fiscal Year: 2006..DMD results from the absence of dystrophin, a large protein found primarily in striated muscle...
- Enhancing Recovery of Muscle after Rotator Cuff RepairElisabeth Barton; Fiscal Year: 2006..Ultimately, the goal the of proposed study is to develop appropriate therapeutic strategies for the treatment of rotator cuff injury. ..
- Molecular Characterization of Extraocular Muscle (EOM)Tejvir S Khurana; Fiscal Year: 2010..gravis, Grave's disease and mitochondrial myopathies;they are spared, however, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), despite the widespread involvement of all other skeletal muscle groups...
- Jeffrey S Chamberlain; Fiscal Year: 2016..Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive, lethal disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene...
- Regulation of Utrophin Promoter in MuscleTejvir Khurana; Fiscal Year: 2009DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Utrophin (dystrophin related protein) shares extensive sequence homology and organizational motifs with dystrophin, and is considered to be the autosomal homolog of dystrophin...