Amy2a5

Summary

Gene Symbol: Amy2a5
Description: amylase 2a5
Alias: 1810008N23Rik, Amy-2, Amy2, mAmy2-2, pancreatic alpha-amylase, 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, amylase 2, pancreatic, amylase 2a5, pancreatic
Species: mouse
Products:     Amy2a5

Top Publications

  1. Kaplan R, Chapman V, Ruddle F. Electrophoretic variation of alpha-amylase in two inbred strains of Mus musculus. J Hered. 1973;64:155-7 pubmed
  2. Hamerton J, Povey S, Morton N. Report of the Committee on the Genetic Constitution of Chromosome 1. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1984;37:3-21 pubmed
  3. Slater E, Hesse H, Muller J, Beato M. Glucocorticoid receptor binding site in the mouse alpha-amylase 2 gene mediates response to the hormone. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:907-14 pubmed
    ..The DNA binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor binds to a single site in the amylase promoter as a monomer, suggesting that both receptor binding sites as well as an additional short-lived factor are required to obtain induction. ..
  4. Jonsson J, Carlsson L, Edlund T, Edlund H. Insulin-promoter-factor 1 is required for pancreas development in mice. Nature. 1994;371:606-9 pubmed
    ..These findings show that IPF1 is needed for the formation of the pancreas and suggest that it acts to determine the fate of common pancreatic precursor cells and/or to regulate their propagation. ..
  5. Krapp A, Knöfler M, Ledermann B, Burki K, Berney C, Zoerkler N, et al. The bHLH protein PTF1-p48 is essential for the formation of the exocrine and the correct spatial organization of the endocrine pancreas. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3752-63 pubmed
    ....
  6. Slack J. Developmental biology of the pancreas. Development. 1995;121:1569-80 pubmed
    ....
  7. Petrucco S, Wellauer P, Hagenbuchle O. The DNA-binding activity of transcription factor PTF1 parallels the synthesis of pancreas-specific mRNAs during mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:254-64 pubmed
    ..The appearance of the factor at this early stage of development suggests that it plays an important role during pancreas differentiation. ..
  8. Kingsmore S, Moseley W, Watson M, Sabina R, Holmes E, Seldin M. Long-range restriction site mapping of a syntenic segment conserved between human chromosome 1 and mouse chromosome 3. Genomics. 1990;7:75-83 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the data suggest profound conservation of genomic organization during mammalian evolution. ..
  9. Bloor J, Meisler M, Nielsen J. Genetic determination of amylase synthesis in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:373-7 pubmed
    ..Congenic lines with different amylase phenotypes have been established. Genetic analysis reveals the close linkage of cis-acting sites determining rate of synthesis and electrophoretic mobility of mouse pancreatic amylase. ..
  10. Sumazaki R, Shiojiri N, Isoyama S, Masu M, Keino Masu K, Osawa M, et al. Conversion of biliary system to pancreatic tissue in Hes1-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 2004;36:83-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, biliary epithelium has the potential for pancreatic differentiation and Hes1 determines biliary organogenesis by preventing the pancreatic differentiation program, probably by directly repressing transcription of Neurog3. ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Kaplan R, Chapman V, Ruddle F. Electrophoretic variation of alpha-amylase in two inbred strains of Mus musculus. J Hered. 1973;64:155-7 pubmed
  2. Hamerton J, Povey S, Morton N. Report of the Committee on the Genetic Constitution of Chromosome 1. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1984;37:3-21 pubmed
  3. Slater E, Hesse H, Muller J, Beato M. Glucocorticoid receptor binding site in the mouse alpha-amylase 2 gene mediates response to the hormone. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:907-14 pubmed
    ..The DNA binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor binds to a single site in the amylase promoter as a monomer, suggesting that both receptor binding sites as well as an additional short-lived factor are required to obtain induction. ..
  4. Jonsson J, Carlsson L, Edlund T, Edlund H. Insulin-promoter-factor 1 is required for pancreas development in mice. Nature. 1994;371:606-9 pubmed
    ..These findings show that IPF1 is needed for the formation of the pancreas and suggest that it acts to determine the fate of common pancreatic precursor cells and/or to regulate their propagation. ..
  5. Krapp A, Knöfler M, Ledermann B, Burki K, Berney C, Zoerkler N, et al. The bHLH protein PTF1-p48 is essential for the formation of the exocrine and the correct spatial organization of the endocrine pancreas. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3752-63 pubmed
    ....
  6. Slack J. Developmental biology of the pancreas. Development. 1995;121:1569-80 pubmed
    ....
  7. Petrucco S, Wellauer P, Hagenbuchle O. The DNA-binding activity of transcription factor PTF1 parallels the synthesis of pancreas-specific mRNAs during mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:254-64 pubmed
    ..The appearance of the factor at this early stage of development suggests that it plays an important role during pancreas differentiation. ..
  8. Kingsmore S, Moseley W, Watson M, Sabina R, Holmes E, Seldin M. Long-range restriction site mapping of a syntenic segment conserved between human chromosome 1 and mouse chromosome 3. Genomics. 1990;7:75-83 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the data suggest profound conservation of genomic organization during mammalian evolution. ..
  9. Bloor J, Meisler M, Nielsen J. Genetic determination of amylase synthesis in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:373-7 pubmed
    ..Congenic lines with different amylase phenotypes have been established. Genetic analysis reveals the close linkage of cis-acting sites determining rate of synthesis and electrophoretic mobility of mouse pancreatic amylase. ..
  10. Sumazaki R, Shiojiri N, Isoyama S, Masu M, Keino Masu K, Osawa M, et al. Conversion of biliary system to pancreatic tissue in Hes1-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 2004;36:83-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, biliary epithelium has the potential for pancreatic differentiation and Hes1 determines biliary organogenesis by preventing the pancreatic differentiation program, probably by directly repressing transcription of Neurog3. ..
  11. Kawahira H, Ma N, Tzanakakis E, McMahon A, Chuang P, Hebrok M. Combined activities of hedgehog signaling inhibitors regulate pancreas development. Development. 2003;130:4871-9 pubmed
    ..Reduction of Fgf10 expression in Hhip homozygous mutants suggests that at least some of the observed phenotypes result from hedgehog-mediated inhibition of Fgf signaling at early stages. ..
  12. Nammo T, Yamagata K, Hamaoka R, Zhu Q, Akiyama T, Gonzalez F, et al. Expression profile of MODY3/HNF-1alpha protein in the developing mouse pancreas. Diabetologia. 2002;45:1142-53 pubmed
    ..HNF-1alpha is expressed by both endocrine cells and exocrine cells of the pancreas from the foetal stage along with other transcription factors, so HNF-1alpha might play a role during development. ..
  13. Hjorth J, Lusis A, Nielsen J. Multiple structural genes for mouse amylase. Biochem Genet. 1980;18:281-302 pubmed
    ..We conclude that at least four structural genes code for pancreatic amylase while only a single gene, different from any of the pancreatic genes, codes for salivary amylase. ..
  14. Kim S, Selleri L, Lee J, Zhang A, Gu X, Jacobs Y, et al. Pbx1 inactivation disrupts pancreas development and in Ipf1-deficient mice promotes diabetes mellitus. Nat Genet. 2002;30:430-5 pubmed
    ..Mutations affecting the Ipf1 protein may promote diabetes mellitus in mice and humans. This study suggests that perturbation of Pbx1 activity may also promote susceptibility to diabetes mellitus. ..
  15. Li H, Arber S, Jessell T, Edlund H. Selective agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in mice lacking homeobox gene Hlxb9. Nat Genet. 1999;23:67-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, dorsally Hlxb9 is required for specifying the gut epithelium to a pancreatic fate and ventrally for ensuring proper endocrine cell differentiation. ..
  16. Rukstalis J, Habener J. Snail2, a mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, expressed in progenitor cells of the developing endocrine pancreas. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:471-9 pubmed
    ..EMT-like events appear to be involved in the development of the mammalian pancreas in vivo. ..
  17. Lee C, Sund N, Behr R, Herrera P, Kaestner K. Foxa2 is required for the differentiation of pancreatic alpha-cells. Dev Biol. 2005;278:484-95 pubmed
    ..By marker gene analysis, we show that the expression of the alpha-cell transcription factors Arx, Pax6, and Brn4 does not require Foxa2 in the transcriptional hierarchy governing alpha-cell differentiation. ..
  18. Heiser P, Lau J, Taketo M, Herrera P, Hebrok M. Stabilization of beta-catenin impacts pancreas growth. Development. 2006;133:2023-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a previously unappreciated temporal/spatial role for beta-catenin signaling in the regulation of pancreas organ growth. ..
  19. Hu B, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Kilimann M. The paralemmin protein family: identification of paralemmin-2, an isoform differentially spliced to AKAP2/AKAP-KL, and of palmdelphin, a more distant cytosolic relative. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;285:1369-76 pubmed
    ..We have mapped the mouse palmdelphin gene to distal chromosome 3 between Amy2 and Abcd3, in a region homologous to human chromosome 1p22-p21 where the human palmdelphin gene is located...
  20. Chu K, Tsai M. Neuronatin, a downstream target of BETA2/NeuroD1 in the pancreas, is involved in glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Diabetes. 2005;54:1064-73 pubmed
    ..These results suggest for the first time an important role for NNAT in insulin secretion and for proper beta-cell function. ..
  21. Hagenbuchle O, Bovey R, Young R. Tissue-specific expression of mouse-alpha-amylase genes: nucleotide sequence of isoenzyme mRNAs from pancreas and salivary gland. Cell. 1980;21:179-87 pubmed
    ..This observation may have implications for the mechanism of translation initiation in eucaroytes. ..
  22. Asayesh A, Sharpe J, Watson R, Hecksher Sørensen J, Hastie N, Hill R, et al. Spleen versus pancreas: strict control of organ interrelationship revealed by analyses of Bapx1-/- mice. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2208-13 pubmed
    ....
  23. Sweetser D, Birkenmeier E, Klisak I, Zollman S, Sparkes R, Mohandas T, et al. The human and rodent intestinal fatty acid binding protein genes. A comparative analysis of their structure, expression, and linkage relationships. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:16060-71 pubmed
    ..Human gene mapping studies were carried out using a panel of mouse-human somatic cell hybrid clones as well as in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  24. Sjodin A, Dahl U, Semb H. Mouse R-cadherin: expression during the organogenesis of pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. Exp Cell Res. 1995;221:413-25 pubmed
    ..The subcellular localization in these tissues is on both the apical and basolateral surfaces. The potential function of R-cadherin, in particular its role in pancreas development, is discussed. ..
  25. Pulkkinen M, Spencer Dene B, Dickson C, Otonkoski T. The IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is required for proper growth and branching of pancreatic ductal epithelium but not for differentiation of exocrine or endocrine cells. Mech Dev. 2003;120:167-75 pubmed
    ..Our results thus suggest that Fgfr2b-mediated signaling plays a major role in pancreatic ductal proliferation and branching morphogenesis, but has little effect on endocrine and exocrine differentiation. ..
  26. Sosa Pineda B, Chowdhury K, Torres M, Oliver G, Gruss P. The Pax4 gene is essential for differentiation of insulin-producing beta cells in the mammalian pancreas. Nature. 1997;386:399-402 pubmed
    ..A default pathway would explain the elevated number of alpha cells in the absence of Pax4. ..
  27. Pin C, Rukstalis J, Johnson C, Konieczny S. The bHLH transcription factor Mist1 is required to maintain exocrine pancreas cell organization and acinar cell identity. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:519-30 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we propose that Mist1(KO) mice represent a new genetic model for chronic pancreas injury and that the Mist1 protein serves as a key regulator of acinar cell function, stability, and identity. ..
  28. Moseley W, Seldin M. Definition of mouse chromosome 1 and 3 gene linkage groups that are conserved on human chromosome 1: evidence that a conserved linkage group spans the centromere of human chromosome 1. Genomics. 1989;5:899-905 pubmed
    ..These studies provide a model for examination of specific evolutionary events. ..
  29. Fazio E, Everest M, Colman R, Wang R, Pin C. Altered Glut-2 accumulation and beta-cell function in mice lacking the exocrine-specific transcription factor, Mist1. J Endocrinol. 2005;187:407-18 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we have identified that the loss of a regulatory gene in the exocrine compartment can affect the endocrine component, providing a possible link between susceptibility for various pancreatic diseases. ..
  30. Hamel C, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Redmond T. The gene for the retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 is localized to human 1p31 and mouse 3. Genomics. 1994;20:509-12 pubmed
    ..By the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization, this localization was refined to 1p31. The mouse and human loci for this potential candidate gene for hereditary retinal disease do not match those of any known disease in mouse or man. ..
  31. Taguchi T, Bellacosa A, Zhou J, Gilbert D, Lazo P, Copeland N, et al. Chromosomal localization of the Ox-44 (CD53) leukocyte antigen gene in man and rodents. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1993;64:217-21 pubmed
    ..Comparative mapping data presented in this report demonstrate conservation of synteny within the region encompassing this gene in mouse (Cd53), human (CD53), and rat (CD53). ..
  32. Shima Y, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Chisaka O, Takeichi M, et al. Differential expression of the seven-pass transmembrane cadherin genes Celsr1-3 and distribution of the Celsr2 protein during mouse development. Dev Dyn. 2002;223:321-32 pubmed
    ..Celsr2 is mapped to a distal region of the mouse chromosome 3. We discussed possible functions of seven-pass transmembrane cadherins in mouse development. ..
  33. Lane P, Eicher E. Gene order in linkage group XVI of the house mouse. J Hered. 1979;70:239-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that LG XVI is not carried on Chr 12, and preliminary data indicates it is most likely carried on Chr 3. ..
  34. Dower N, Seldin M, Pugh S, Stone J. Organization and chromosomal locations of Rap1a/Krev sequences in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:162-7 pubmed
    ..Rap1a-rs2 is more distantly related to the gene sequence and is located on Chr 2 near Actc-1. ..
  35. Gartner J, Kearns W, Rosenberg C, Pearson P, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Localization of the 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein to human 1p21-p22 and mouse 3. Genomics. 1993;15:412-4 pubmed
    ..The PXMP1 gene was assigned to human chromosome 1p21-p22 by in situ hybridization and its murine homologue (Pxmp-1) to chromosome 3 by interspecific backcross analysis. ..
  36. Hagenbuchle O, Schibler U, Petrucco S, Van Tuyle G, Wellauer P. Expression of mouse Amy-2a alpha-amylase genes is regulated by strong pancreas-specific promoters. J Mol Biol. 1985;185:285-93 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the weak Amy-1a promoter, which directs the synthesis of the mRNA containing the liver-type leader sequence, also is active in the pancreas and, hence, in all alpha-amylase-producing tissues. ..
  37. Pittet A, Schibler U. Mouse alpha-amylase loci, Amy-1a and Amy-2a, are closely linked. J Mol Biol. 1985;182:359-65 pubmed
    ..Transcription termination on Amy-1a occurs within 3 X 10(3) base-pairs downstream from the polyadenylation site in both parotid gland and liver, in which this gene is transcribed at different rates from different promoters. ..
  38. Arden S, Zahn T, Steegers S, Webb S, Bergman B, O Brien R, et al. Molecular cloning of a pancreatic islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein. Diabetes. 1999;48:531-42 pubmed
    ....
  39. Strahler J, Meisler M. Two distinct pancreatic amylase genes are active in YBR mice. Genetics. 1982;101:91-102 pubmed
    ..Two differences between isozymes A1 and B1 were identified among the 77 residues compared. This result demonstrates that two distinct amylase genes are expressed in YBR pancreas. ..
  40. Ohuchi H, Hori Y, Yamasaki M, Harada H, Sekine K, Kato S, et al. FGF10 acts as a major ligand for FGF receptor 2 IIIb in mouse multi-organ development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;277:643-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FGF10 acts as a major ligand for FGFR2b in mouse multi-organ development. ..
  41. Moseley W, Morisaki T, Sabina R, Holmes E, Seldin M. Ampd-2 maps to distal mouse chromosome 3 in linkage with Ampd-1. Genomics. 1990;6:572-4 pubmed
  42. Tosi M, Bovey R, Astolfi S, Bodary S, Meisler M, Wellauer P. Multiple non-allelic genes encoding pancreatic alpha-amylase of mouse are expressed in a strain-specific fashion. EMBO J. 1984;3:2809-16 pubmed
    ..Models which could account for the mouse strain-specific differences with respect to the number of pancreatic alpha-amylase isozymes and their variable but genetically determined quantitative ratios are discussed. ..
  43. Dessimoz J, Bonnard C, Huelsken J, Grapin Botton A. Pancreas-specific deletion of beta-catenin reveals Wnt-dependent and Wnt-independent functions during development. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1677-83 pubmed
    ..These effects are likely to be due to the function of beta-catenin at the membrane. Mice later recover from pancreatitis and regenerate normal pancreas and duodenal villi from the wild-type (wt) cells that escape beta-catenin deletion. ..
  44. Fujitani Y, Fujitani S, Boyer D, Gannon M, Kawaguchi Y, Ray M, et al. Targeted deletion of a cis-regulatory region reveals differential gene dosage requirements for Pdx1 in foregut organ differentiation and pancreas formation. Genes Dev. 2006;20:253-66 pubmed
    ....
  45. Gumucio D, Wiebauer K, Dranginis A, Samuelson L, Treisman L, Caldwell R, et al. Evolution of the amylase multigene family. YBR/Ki mice express a pancreatic amylase gene which is silent in other strains. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:13483-9 pubmed
    ..Comparison of pancreatic amylase genes from different inbred strains provides evidence for several duplication and deletion events during the recent evolution of this chromosome region. ..
  46. Dranginis A, Morley M, Nesbitt M, Rosenblum B, Meisler M. Independent regulation of nonallelic pancreatic amylase genes in diabetic mice. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:12216-9 pubmed
    ..The results provide genetic evidence that individual copies of the amylase structural gene are associated with divergent cis-acting insulin-responsive sequences. ..
  47. Sugino H. Comparative genomic analysis of the mouse and rat amylase multigene family. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:355-60 pubmed
    ..This is the second report of amylase genomic organization in mammals and the first in the rodents. ..
  48. Kido Y, Nakae J, Hribal M, Xuan S, Efstratiadis A, Accili D. Effects of mutations in the insulin-like growth factor signaling system on embryonic pancreas development and beta-cell compensation to insulin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36740-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Igf1r and Insr are required for embryonic development of the exocrine but not of the endocrine pancreas and that defects of Igf1r do not alter glucose homeostasis as long as the insulin receptor system remains intact. ..
  49. Mikkelsen B, Clark M, Christiansen G, Klintebaek O, Nielsen J, Thomsen K, et al. The structure of two distinct pancreatic amylase genes in mouse strain YBR. Biochem Genet. 1985;23:511-24 pubmed
    ..Parts of the amino acid sequence of A beta and B beta have previously been determined, and we report here the sequencing of a 4-kb DNA fragment from Pan-II beta which establishes that this gene codes for B beta. ..
  50. Murtaugh L, Law A, Dor Y, Melton D. Beta-catenin is essential for pancreatic acinar but not islet development. Development. 2005;132:4663-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data are consistent with a crucial role for canonical Wnt signals in acinar lineage specification and differentiation. ..
  51. Georgia S, Bhushan A. Beta cell replication is the primary mechanism for maintaining postnatal beta cell mass. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:963-8 pubmed
    ....
  52. Karn R, Petersen T, Hjorth J, Nieles J, Roepstorff P. Characterization of the amino termini of mouse salivary and pancreatic amylases. FEBS Lett. 1981;126:293-6 pubmed
  53. Alanentalo T, Chatonnet F, Karlen M, Sulniute R, Ericson J, Andersson E, et al. Cloning and analysis of Nkx6.3 during CNS and gastrointestinal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:162-70 pubmed
    ..2 both in the CNS and in the gut. Transient Nkx6.2 expression was also detected in the developing pancreas. However, analysis of Nkx6.2(-/-) mice did not display any obvious aberrations of pancreatic or stomach development. ..
  54. De Lisle R, Isom K. Expression of sulfated gp300 and changes in glycosylation during pancreatic development. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996;44:57-66 pubmed
    ..Levels of reactivity of PNA and MAA were reciprocal, suggesting that sialylation of galactose (which can block peanut agglutinin binding) was not constant on gp300 during development. ..
  55. Esni F, Ghosh B, Biankin A, Lin J, Albert M, Yu X, et al. Notch inhibits Ptf1 function and acinar cell differentiation in developing mouse and zebrafish pancreas. Development. 2004;131:4213-24 pubmed
    ..These results define a normal inhibitory role for Notch in the regulation of exocrine pancreatic differentiation. ..
  56. Hald J, Hjorth J, German M, Madsen O, Serup P, Jensen J. Activated Notch1 prevents differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells and attenuate endocrine development. Dev Biol. 2003;260:426-37 pubmed
    ....
  57. Bodary S, Grossi G, Hagenbuchle O, Wellauer P. Members of the Amy-2 alpha-amylase gene family of mouse strain CE/J contain duplicated 5' termini. J Mol Biol. 1985;182:1-10 pubmed
    ..No transcription initiation has been detected at the orphon cap site using run-off transcription in isolated pancreatic nuclei in vitro. ..
  58. Osborn L, Rosenberg M, Keller S, Meisler M. Tissue-specific and insulin-dependent expression of a pancreatic amylase gene in transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:326-34 pubmed
    ..Both constructs were dependent on insulin and induced by dexamethasone. Thus, the transferred genes contained the sequences required for tissue-specific and hormonally regulated expression. ..
  59. Johnson C, Kowalik A, Rajakumar N, Pin C. Mist1 is necessary for the establishment of granule organization in serous exocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Mech Dev. 2004;121:261-72 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that Mist1 is necessary for complete differentiation and maturation of serous exocrine cells through the combined regulation of several exocrine specific genes. ..
  60. Schibler U, Pittet A, Young R, Hagenbuchle O, Tosi M, Gellman S, et al. The mouse alpha-amylase multigene family. Sequence organization of members expressed in the pancreas, salivary gland and liver. J Mol Biol. 1982;155:247-66 pubmed
  61. Blatt C, Saxe D, Marzluff W, Lobo S, Nesbitt M, Simon M. Mapping and gene order of U1 small nuclear RNA, endogenous viral env sequence, amylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase-3 on mouse chromosome 3. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1988;14:133-42 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization to chromosome spreads confirmed the assignment of the Ulb small nuclear RNA (snRNA) gene cluster and the gamma-fibrinogen gene to the center of chromosome 3. ..
  62. Kedees M, Guz Y, Vuguin P, Vargas C, Cui L, Steiner D, et al. Nestin expression in pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells of mice lacking glucagon signaling. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1126-33 pubmed
    ..We conclude that nestin+ cells located in the pancreatic primordium generate the cells of the endocrine and exocrine lineages. Furthermore, our results suggest that nestin expression is regulated by glucagon signaling. ..