vif

Summary

Gene Symbol: vif
Description: p23
Alias: p23, Vif
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Products:     vif

Top Publications

  1. Zheng Y, Irwin D, Kurosu T, Tokunaga K, Sata T, Peterlin B. Human APOBEC3F is another host factor that blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. J Virol. 2004;78:6073-6 pubmed
    ..Similar to APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F also induced G to A hypermutations in HIV genomic DNA, and the viral Vif protein counteracted its activity...
  2. Chiu Y, Greene W. Multifaceted antiviral actions of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. Trends Immunol. 2006;27:291-7 pubmed
    ..Insights into how the action of A3G is circumvented by HIV-1 through the action of its Vif protein, and the surprising mechanisms by which A3G is regulated within the cell, offer exciting new opportunities ..
  3. Huthoff H, Malim M. Identification of amino acid residues in APOBEC3G required for regulation by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif and Virion encapsidation. J Virol. 2007;81:3807-15 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vif serves to neutralize the human antiviral proteins apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G [A3G]) and A3F...
  4. Bernacchi S, Henriet S, Dumas P, Paillart J, Marquet R. RNA and DNA binding properties of HIV-1 Vif protein: a fluorescence study. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26361-8 pubmed
    The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is a small basic protein essential for viral fitness and pathogenicity. Some "non-permissive" cell lines cannot sustain replication of Vif(-) HIV-1 virions...
  5. Kao S, Goila Gaur R, Miyagi E, Khan M, Opi S, Takeuchi H, et al. Production of infectious virus and degradation of APOBEC3G are separable functional properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif. Virology. 2007;369:329-39 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vif regulates viral infectivity by inhibiting the encapsidation of APOBEC3G (APO3G) through proteasomal degradation of the protein...
  6. Dussart S, Courcoul M, Bessou G, Douaisi M, Duverger Y, Vigne R, et al. The Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is posttranslationally modified by ubiquitin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;315:66-72 pubmed
    The viral infectivity factor (Vif), one of the six HIV-1 auxiliary genes, is absolutely necessary for productive infection in primary CD4-positive T lymphocytes and macrophages...
  7. Izumi T, Takaori Kondo A, Shirakawa K, Higashitsuji H, Itoh K, Io K, et al. MDM2 is a novel E3 ligase for HIV-1 Vif. Retrovirology. 2009;6:1 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle by antagonizing a host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G)...
  8. Gourraud P, Karaouni A, Woo J, Schmidt T, Oksenberg J, Hecht F, et al. APOBEC3H haplotypes and HIV-1 pro-viral vif DNA sequence diversity in early untreated human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..locus on chromosome 22, paired with population sequences of pro-viral human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vif from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, from 96 recently HIV-1-infected treatment-naive adults...
  9. Marcsisin S, Narute P, Emert Sedlak L, Kloczewiak M, Smithgall T, Engen J. On the solution conformation and dynamics of the HIV-1 viral infectivity factor. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:1008-22 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Vif [viral (also called virion) infectivity factor], one of several HIV accessory proteins, targets APOBEC3 proteins ..
  10. Zhang W, Du J, Evans S, Yu Y, Yu X. T-cell differentiation factor CBF-? regulates HIV-1 Vif-mediated evasion of host restriction. Nature. 2011;481:376-9 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Vif forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with cullin 5 (CUL5), elongin B and elongin C , which promotes the ..

Detail Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zheng Y, Irwin D, Kurosu T, Tokunaga K, Sata T, Peterlin B. Human APOBEC3F is another host factor that blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. J Virol. 2004;78:6073-6 pubmed
    ..Similar to APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F also induced G to A hypermutations in HIV genomic DNA, and the viral Vif protein counteracted its activity...
  2. Chiu Y, Greene W. Multifaceted antiviral actions of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. Trends Immunol. 2006;27:291-7 pubmed
    ..Insights into how the action of A3G is circumvented by HIV-1 through the action of its Vif protein, and the surprising mechanisms by which A3G is regulated within the cell, offer exciting new opportunities ..
  3. Huthoff H, Malim M. Identification of amino acid residues in APOBEC3G required for regulation by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif and Virion encapsidation. J Virol. 2007;81:3807-15 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vif serves to neutralize the human antiviral proteins apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G [A3G]) and A3F...
  4. Bernacchi S, Henriet S, Dumas P, Paillart J, Marquet R. RNA and DNA binding properties of HIV-1 Vif protein: a fluorescence study. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26361-8 pubmed
    The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is a small basic protein essential for viral fitness and pathogenicity. Some "non-permissive" cell lines cannot sustain replication of Vif(-) HIV-1 virions...
  5. Kao S, Goila Gaur R, Miyagi E, Khan M, Opi S, Takeuchi H, et al. Production of infectious virus and degradation of APOBEC3G are separable functional properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif. Virology. 2007;369:329-39 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vif regulates viral infectivity by inhibiting the encapsidation of APOBEC3G (APO3G) through proteasomal degradation of the protein...
  6. Dussart S, Courcoul M, Bessou G, Douaisi M, Duverger Y, Vigne R, et al. The Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is posttranslationally modified by ubiquitin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;315:66-72 pubmed
    The viral infectivity factor (Vif), one of the six HIV-1 auxiliary genes, is absolutely necessary for productive infection in primary CD4-positive T lymphocytes and macrophages...
  7. Izumi T, Takaori Kondo A, Shirakawa K, Higashitsuji H, Itoh K, Io K, et al. MDM2 is a novel E3 ligase for HIV-1 Vif. Retrovirology. 2009;6:1 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle by antagonizing a host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G)...
  8. Gourraud P, Karaouni A, Woo J, Schmidt T, Oksenberg J, Hecht F, et al. APOBEC3H haplotypes and HIV-1 pro-viral vif DNA sequence diversity in early untreated human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..locus on chromosome 22, paired with population sequences of pro-viral human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vif from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, from 96 recently HIV-1-infected treatment-naive adults...
  9. Marcsisin S, Narute P, Emert Sedlak L, Kloczewiak M, Smithgall T, Engen J. On the solution conformation and dynamics of the HIV-1 viral infectivity factor. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:1008-22 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Vif [viral (also called virion) infectivity factor], one of several HIV accessory proteins, targets APOBEC3 proteins ..
  10. Zhang W, Du J, Evans S, Yu Y, Yu X. T-cell differentiation factor CBF-? regulates HIV-1 Vif-mediated evasion of host restriction. Nature. 2011;481:376-9 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Vif forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with cullin 5 (CUL5), elongin B and elongin C , which promotes the ..
  11. Kitamura S, Ode H, Nakashima M, Imahashi M, Naganawa Y, Kurosawa T, et al. The APOBEC3C crystal structure and the interface for HIV-1 Vif binding. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:1005-10 pubmed publisher
    ..However, HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) counteracts the antiviral activity of most A3 proteins by targeting them for proteasomal degradation...
  12. Navarro F, Landau N. Recent insights into HIV-1 Vif. Curr Opin Immunol. 2004;16:477-82 pubmed
    The lentiviruses, including HIV-1 (but excluding equine infectious anemia virus), encode a viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein...
  13. Greene W, Debyser Z, Ikeda Y, Freed E, Stephens E, Yonemoto W, et al. Novel targets for HIV therapy. Antiviral Res. 2008;80:251-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This review contains concise summaries of discussed topics that included Vif-APOBEC3G, LEDGF/p75, TRIM 5alpha, virus assembly and maturation, and Vpu...
  14. Romani B, Engelbrecht S, Glashoff R. Antiviral roles of APOBEC proteins against HIV-1 and suppression by Vif. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1579-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion infectivity factor (Vif), APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F are incorporated into HIV-1 virions and hypermutate the viral genomic DNA by their cytidine ..
  15. Smith J, Bu W, Burdick R, Pathak V. Multiple ways of targeting APOBEC3-virion infectivity factor interactions for anti-HIV-1 drug development. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30:638-46 pubmed publisher
    ..APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) and the mechanism by which the virally encoded virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein induces their proteasomal degradation provide fresh opportunities for the development of novel antiviral ..
  16. Zhou X, Evans S, Han X, Liu Y, Yu X. Characterization of the interaction of full-length HIV-1 Vif protein with its key regulator CBF? and CRL5 E3 ubiquitin ligase components. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33495 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for viral replication because of its ability to eliminate the host's antiviral response to HIV-1 that is mediated by the APOBEC3 family of cellular ..
  17. Liddament M, Brown W, Schumacher A, Harris R. APOBEC3F properties and hypermutation preferences indicate activity against HIV-1 in vivo. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1385-91 pubmed
    ..also a potent retroviral restrictor but that its activity, unlike that of APOBEC3G, is partially resistant to HIV-1 Vif and results in a clear 5'-GA --> -AA retroviral hypermutation preference...
  18. Green L, Liu Y, He J. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection and replication by enhancing viral incorporation of innate anti-HIV-1 protein A3G: a non-pathogenic Nef mutant-based anti-HIV strategy. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the major functions of HIV-1 virion infectivity protein (Vif) protein is to target A3G for ubiquitination/proteasome-mediated degradation and, as a result, evade the host ..
  19. Mercenne G, Bernacchi S, Richer D, Bec G, Henriet S, Paillart J, et al. HIV-1 Vif binds to APOBEC3G mRNA and inhibits its translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:633-46 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) allows productive infection of non-permissive cells (including most natural HIV-1 targets) by counteracting the cellular cytosine deaminases APOBEC-3G (hA3G) and hA3F...
  20. Zhen A, Wang T, Zhao K, Xiong Y, Yu X. A single amino acid difference in human APOBEC3H variants determines HIV-1 Vif sensitivity. J Virol. 2010;84:1902-11 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is not clear whether HIV-1 Vif can recognize and suppress the antiviral activity of A3H variants, as it does with other APOBEC3 proteins...
  21. Nagao T, Yamashita T, Miyake A, Uchiyama T, Nomaguchi M, Adachi A. Different interaction between HIV-1 Vif and its cellular target proteins APOBEC3G/APOBEC3F. J Med Invest. 2010;57:89-94 pubmed
    We examined a series of site-directed point mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif for their interaction with cellular anti-viral factors APOBEC3G/APOBEC3F...
  22. Ali A, Wang J, Nathans R, Cao H, Sharova N, Stevenson M, et al. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) inhibitors that block viral replication. ChemMedChem. 2012;7:1217-29 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein, essential for in vivo viral replication, protects the virus from innate antiviral cellular factor apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, ..
  23. Akari H, Fujita M, Kao S, Khan M, Shehu Xhilaga M, Adachi A, et al. High level expression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Vif inhibits viral infectivity by modulating proteolytic processing of the Gag precursor at the p2/nucleocapsid processing site. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12355-62 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Vif protein has a crucial role in regulating viral infectivity. However, we found that newly synthesized Vif is rapidly degraded by cellular proteases...
  24. Mehle A, Wilson H, Zhang C, Brazier A, McPike M, Pery E, et al. Identification of an APOBEC3G binding site in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif and inhibitors of Vif-APOBEC3G binding. J Virol. 2007;81:13235-41 pubmed
    ..HIV-1 Vif binds APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F and targets these proteins for ubiquitination by forming an E3 ubiquitin ligase with ..
  25. Wang T, Zhang W, Tian C, Liu B, Yu Y, Ding L, et al. Distinct viral determinants for the packaging of human cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3C. Virology. 2008;377:71-9 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3G and other APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases inhibit a variety of retroviruses, including Vif-deficient HIV-1. These host proteins are packaged into viral particles and inhibit the replication of virus in new target cells...
  26. Nathans R, Cao H, Sharova N, Ali A, Sharkey M, Stranska R, et al. Small-molecule inhibition of HIV-1 Vif. Nat Biotechnol. 2008;26:1187-92 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 protein Vif, essential for in vivo viral replication, targets the human DNA-editing enzyme, APOBEC3G (A3G), which inhibits replication of retroviruses and hepatitis B virus...
  27. Albin J, Harris R. Interactions of host APOBEC3 restriction factors with HIV-1 in vivo: implications for therapeutics. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2010;12:e4 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 thwarts this restriction activity through its accessory protein virion infectivity factor (Vif), which uses multiple mechanisms to prevent APOBEC3 proteins such as APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F from entering viral ..
  28. Cen S, Peng Z, Li X, Li Z, Ma J, Wang Y, et al. Small molecular compounds inhibit HIV-1 replication through specifically stabilizing APOBEC3G. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16546-52 pubmed publisher
    APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a host inhibitor for human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1). However, HIV-1 Vif binds hA3G and induces its degradation...
  29. Mehle A, Strack B, Ancuta P, Zhang C, McPike M, Gabuzda D. Vif overcomes the innate antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by promoting its degradation in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7792-8 pubmed
    Viruses must overcome diverse intracellular defense mechanisms to establish infection. The Vif (virion infectivity factor) protein of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) acts by overcoming the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G (CEM15), a ..
  30. Peng G, Lei K, Jin W, Greenwell Wild T, Wahl S. Induction of APOBEC3 family proteins, a defensive maneuver underlying interferon-induced anti-HIV-1 activity. J Exp Med. 2006;203:41-6 pubmed
    ..As a counterattack, HIV virion infectivity factor (Vif) targets APOBEC3G for proteasomal proteolysis to exclude it from budding virions...
  31. Marin M, Golem S, Rose K, Kozak S, Kabat D. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif functionally interacts with diverse APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases and moves with them between cytoplasmic sites of mRNA metabolism. J Virol. 2008;82:987-98 pubmed
    b>Vif(IIIB), which has been a standard model for the viral infectivity factor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), binds the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) and induces its degradation, thereby precluding its lethal ..
  32. Malim M. APOBEC proteins and intrinsic resistance to HIV-1 infection. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:675-87 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 infections are largely spared from APOBEC3G/F function through the action of the essential viral protein, Vif. In the absence of Vif, APOBEC3G/F are encapsidated by budding virus particles leading to excessive cytidine (C) to ..
  33. Wang X, Abudu A, Son S, Dang Y, Venta P, Zheng Y. Analysis of human APOBEC3H haplotypes and anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity. J Virol. 2011;85:3142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..domain (CDD) and inhibits the replication of retrotransposons and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a Vif-resistant manner...
  34. Wang X, Wang X, Zhang H, Lv M, Zuo T, Wu H, et al. Interactions between HIV-1 Vif and human ElonginB-ElonginC are important for CBF-? binding to Vif. Retrovirology. 2013;10:94 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 accessory factor Vif is necessary for efficient viral infection in non-permissive cells...
  35. Bergeron J, Huthoff H, Veselkov D, Beavil R, Simpson P, Matthews S, et al. The SOCS-box of HIV-1 Vif interacts with ElonginBC by induced-folding to recruit its Cul5-containing ubiquitin ligase complex. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000925 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein recruits an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, comprising the cellular proteins elongin B and C (EloBC), cullin 5 (Cul5) and RING-box 2 (Rbx2), to the anti-viral proteins APOBEC3G (A3G) and ..
  36. Liu B, Yu X, Luo K, Yu Y, Yu X. Influence of primate lentiviral Vif and proteasome inhibitors on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virion packaging of APOBEC3G. J Virol. 2004;78:2072-81 pubmed
    The Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is essential for viral evasion of the host antiviral protein APOBEC3G, also known as CEM15...
  37. Santa Marta M, da Silva F, Fonseca A, Goncalves J. HIV-1 Vif can directly inhibit apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G-mediated cytidine deamination by using a single amino acid interaction and without protein degradation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:8765-75 pubmed
    ..HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein was shown to protect the virus from APOBEC3G-mediated viral cDNA hypermutation...
  38. Xiao Z, Xiong Y, Zhang W, Tan L, Ehrlich E, Guo D, et al. Characterization of a novel Cullin5 binding domain in HIV-1 Vif. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:541-50 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus tyoe 1 (HIV-1) Vif counteracts host restriction cytidine deaminase (APOBEC3G) A3G by co-opting the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome machinery...
  39. Huthoff H, Towers G. Restriction of retroviral replication by APOBEC3G/F and TRIM5alpha. Trends Microbiol. 2008;16:612-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They are counteracted by the lentiviral Vif protein...
  40. Mulder L, Ooms M, Majdak S, Smedresman J, Linscheid C, Harari A, et al. Moderate influence of human APOBEC3F on HIV-1 replication in primary lymphocytes. J Virol. 2010;84:9613-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This HIV Vif mutant replicated similarly to wild-type virus in PBMCs, suggesting that the effect of A3F on HIV restriction in ..
  41. Stanley B, Ehrlich E, Short L, Yu Y, Xiao Z, Yu X, et al. Structural insight into the human immunodeficiency virus Vif SOCS box and its role in human E3 ubiquitin ligase assembly. J Virol. 2008;82:8656-63 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virion infectivity factor (Vif) causes the proteasome-mediated destruction of human antiviral protein APOBEC3G by tethering it to a cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase composed of ElonginB, ElonginC, Cullin5, ..
  42. He Z, Zhang W, Chen G, Xu R, Yu X. Characterization of conserved motifs in HIV-1 Vif required for APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F interaction. J Mol Biol. 2008;381:1000-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of infectious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 requires suppression of multiple cytidine deaminases by Vif. HIV-1 Vif suppresses various APOBEC3 proteins through a common mechanism by recruiting Cullin5, ElonginB, and ..
  43. Bulliard Y, Turelli P, Röhrig U, Zoete V, Mangeat B, Michielin O, et al. Functional analysis and structural modeling of human APOBEC3G reveal the role of evolutionarily conserved elements in the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and Alu transposition. J Virol. 2009;83:12611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..a large-scale mutagenesis-based analysis of the APOBEC3G N terminus, testing mutants for (i) inhibition of vif-defective HIV-1 infection and Alu retrotransposition, (ii) RNA binding, and (iii) oligomerization...
  44. Ooms M, Majdak S, Seibert C, Harari A, Simon V. The localization of APOBEC3H variants in HIV-1 virions determines their antiviral activity. J Virol. 2010;84:7961-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the antiviral activity of A3H haplotypes is determined by its incorporation into the viral core, in proximity to the reverse transcription complex. ..
  45. Watashi K, Khan M, Yedavalli V, Yeung M, Strebel K, Jeang K. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication and regulation of APOBEC3G by peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1. J Virol. 2008;82:9928-36 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 synthesizes a viral infectivity factor (Vif) to counter A3G restriction...
  46. Liu B, Sarkis P, Luo K, Yu Y, Yu X. Regulation of Apobec3F and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif by Vif-Cul5-ElonB/C E3 ubiquitin ligase. J Virol. 2005;79:9579-87 pubmed
    ..has antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that is suppressed by the viral protein Vif. The mechanism of HIV-1 Vif-mediated suppression of h-A3F is not fully understood...
  47. Dang Y, Siew L, Zheng Y. APOBEC3G is degraded by the proteasomal pathway in a Vif-dependent manner without being polyubiquitylated. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:13124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 produces a viral infectivity factor (Vif) to destroy this antiretroviral protein...
  48. Exline C, Feng Z, Stoltzfus C. Negative and positive mRNA splicing elements act competitively to regulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vif gene expression. J Virol. 2008;82:3921-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that splicing at HIV-1 3'ss A1, which produces single-spliced vif mRNA and promotes the inclusion of HIV exon 2 into both completely and incompletely spliced viral mRNAs, is ..
  49. Reingewertz T, Benyamini H, Lebendiker M, Shalev D, Friedler A. The C-terminal domain of the HIV-1 Vif protein is natively unfolded in its unbound state. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2009;22:281-7 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Vif protein neutralizes the cellular defense mechanism against the virus. The C-terminal domain of Vif (CTD, residues 141-192) mediates many of its interactions...
  50. Munk C, Jensen B, Zielonka J, Haussinger D, Kamp C. Running loose or getting lost: how HIV-1 counters and capitalizes on APOBEC3-induced mutagenesis through its Vif protein. Viruses. 2012;4:3132-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between the HIV-1 protein Vif and many cellular restriction factors from the APOBEC3 protein family is a prominent example of this evolutionary ..
  51. Ooms M, Brayton B, Letko M, Maio S, Pilcher C, Hecht F, et al. HIV-1 Vif adaptation to human APOBEC3H haplotypes. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:411-21 pubmed publisher
    Several human APOBEC3 deaminases can inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro. HIV-1 Vif counteracts this restriction by targeting APOBEC3 for proteasomal degradation...
  52. Knoepfel S, Salisch N, Huelsmann P, Rauch P, Walter H, Metzner K. Comparison of G-to-A mutation frequencies induced by APOBEC3 proteins in H9 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the context of impaired processivities of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase variants. J Virol. 2008;82:6536-45 pubmed publisher
    ..However, HIV-1 is able to overcome the antiretroviral activity of some of those enzymes by the viral protein Vif. We investigated the impact of different processivities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptases (RT) on the frequencies of ..
  53. Iwatani Y, Chan D, Liu L, Yoshii H, Shibata J, Yamamoto N, et al. HIV-1 Vif-mediated ubiquitination/degradation of APOBEC3G involves four critical lysine residues in its C-terminal domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19539-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Abrogation of A3G function involves the HIV-1 Vif protein, which binds A3G and serves as an adapter molecule to recruit A3G to a Cullin5-based E3 ubiquitin ligase ..
  54. Sato K, Izumi T, Misawa N, Kobayashi T, Yamashita Y, Ohmichi M, et al. Remarkable lethal G-to-A mutations in vif-proficient HIV-1 provirus by individual APOBEC3 proteins in humanized mice. J Virol. 2010;84:9546-56 pubmed publisher
    ..factor, which edits nascent HIV-1 DNA by inducing G-to-A hypermutations and debilitates the infectivity of vif-deficient HIV-1. On the other hand, HIV-1 Vif protein has the robust potential to degrade APOBEC3G protein...
  55. Iwabu Y, Kinomoto M, Tatsumi M, Fujita H, Shimura M, Tanaka Y, et al. Differential anti-APOBEC3G activity of HIV-1 Vif proteins derived from different subtypes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIV-1 Vif protein overcomes this antiviral effect by enhancing proteasome-mediated APOBEC3G degradation and is key for ..
  56. Hu C, Saenz D, Fadel H, Walker W, Peretz M, Poeschla E. The HIV-1 central polypurine tract functions as a second line of defense against APOBEC3G/F. J Virol. 2010;84:11981-93 pubmed publisher
    ..However, spreading infection of flap mutant HIV-1 was impaired in non-vif-permissive cells (HuT78, H9, and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]), suggesting APOBEC3G (..
  57. Smith H. APOBEC3G: a double agent in defense. Trends Biochem Sci. 2011;36:239-44 pubmed publisher
    ..cellular host defense factor under experimental conditions in which a functional form of the HIV-encoded protein Vif cannot be expressed...
  58. Hultquist J, McDougle R, Anderson B, Harris R. HIV type 1 viral infectivity factor and the RUNX transcription factors interact with core binding factor ? on genetically distinct surfaces. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28:1543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..the cellular transcription factor core binding factor subunit ? (CBF?) to stabilize its viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein and neutralize the APOBEC3 restriction factors...
  59. Feng F, Davis A, Lake J, Carr J, Xia W, Burrell C, et al. Ring finger protein ZIN interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif. J Virol. 2004;78:10574-81 pubmed
    Virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is essential for the productive infection of primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages...
  60. Ao Z, Yu Z, Wang L, Zheng Y, Yao X. Vpr14-88-Apobec3G fusion protein is efficiently incorporated into Vif-positive HIV-1 particles and inhibits viral infection. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1995 pubmed publisher
    ..During Vif-negative HIV-1 replication, A3G is incorporated into HIV-1 particles, induces mutations in reverse transcribed ..
  61. Albin J, Haché G, Hultquist J, Brown W, Harris R. Long-term restriction by APOBEC3F selects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with restored Vif function. J Virol. 2010;84:10209-19 pubmed publisher
    Tandem stop mutations K26X and H27X in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vif compromise virus replication in human T-cell lines that stably express APOBEC3F (A3F) or APOBEC3G (A3G)...
  62. Albin J, LaRue R, Weaver J, Brown W, Shindo K, Harjes E, et al. A single amino acid in human APOBEC3F alters susceptibility to HIV-1 Vif. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40785-92 pubmed publisher
    ..restricts the infectivity of HIV-1 in the absence of the viral accessory protein virion infectivity factor (Vif)...
  63. Goila Gaur R, Khan M, Miyagi E, Kao S, Opi S, Takeuchi H, et al. HIV-1 Vif promotes the formation of high molecular mass APOBEC3G complexes. Virology. 2008;372:136-46 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vif inhibits the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G (APO3G) by inducing proteasomal degradation. Here, we studied the effects of Vif on APO3G in vitro. In this system, Vif did not cause APO3G degradation...
  64. Yamashita T, Kamada K, Hatcho K, Adachi A, Nomaguchi M. Identification of amino acid residues in HIV-1 Vif critical for binding and exclusion of APOBEC3G/F. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:1142-9 pubmed publisher
    To define a region(s) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif that involves binding to its target APOBEC3G (A3G), we have generated a series of site-specific proviral vif mutants...
  65. Wolfe L, Stanley B, Liu C, Eliason W, Xiong Y. Dissection of the HIV Vif interaction with human E3 ubiquitin ligase. J Virol. 2010;84:7135-9 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vif recruits the host E3 ubiquitin ligase, composed of cullin 5 (Cul5), Rbx2, Elongin B, and Elongin C (EloBC), to polyubiquitinate the antiviral protein APOBEC3G...
  66. Okeoma C, Huegel A, LINGAPPA J, Feldman M, Ross S. APOBEC3 proteins expressed in mammary epithelial cells are packaged into retroviruses and can restrict transmission of milk-borne virions. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:534-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These data point to a role for APOBEC3 proteins in limiting infectivity of milk-transmitted viruses. ..
  67. Mehle A, Thomas E, Rajendran K, Gabuzda D. A zinc-binding region in Vif binds Cul5 and determines cullin selection. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:17259-65 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Vif overcomes the anti-viral activity of APOBEC3G by targeting it for ubiquitination via a Cullin 5-ElonginB-ElonginC (Cul5-EloBC) E3 ligase...
  68. Wichroski M, Robb G, Rana T. Human retroviral host restriction factors APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F localize to mRNA processing bodies. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e41 pubmed
    ..In addition, we present evidence suggesting that an important role for HIV-1 Vif, which subverts both APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F antiviral function by inducing their degradation, could be to ..
  69. Holmes R, Koning F, Bishop K, Malim M. APOBEC3F can inhibit the accumulation of HIV-1 reverse transcription products in the absence of hypermutation. Comparisons with APOBEC3G. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2587-95 pubmed
    ..1-like protein 3F) is a cytidine deaminase that, like APOBEC3G, is able to restrict the replication of HIV-1/delta vif. Initial studies revealed high numbers of mutations in the cDNA of viruses produced in the presence of these ..
  70. Phalora P, Sherer N, Wolinsky S, Swanson C, Malim M. HIV-1 replication and APOBEC3 antiviral activity are not regulated by P bodies. J Virol. 2012;86:11712-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Localization to P bodies may therefore provide a means of sequestering APOBEC3 enzymatic activity away from cellular DNA or may be linked to as yet unidentified cellular functions. ..
  71. Mangeat B, Turelli P, Liao S, Trono D. A single amino acid determinant governs the species-specific sensitivity of APOBEC3G to Vif action. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14481-3 pubmed
    APOBEC3G (also known as CEM15) is an innate intracellular antiretroviral factor that is counteracted by the Vif protein of lentiviruses...
  72. Shirakawa K, Takaori Kondo A, Kobayashi M, Tomonaga M, Izumi T, Fukunaga K, et al. Ubiquitination of APOBEC3 proteins by the Vif-Cullin5-ElonginB-ElonginC complex. Virology. 2006;344:263-6 pubmed
    APOBEC3 proteins are antiviral host factors for a wide variety of retroviruses. HIV-1 Vif overcomes the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by ubiquitinating the protein...
  73. Han Y, Wang X, Dang Y, Zheng Y. APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F require an endogenous cofactor to block HIV-1 replication. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000095 pubmed publisher
    ..Although they potently inhibit the replication of vif-deficient HIV-1, this mechanism is still poorly understood...
  74. Shirakawa K, Takaori Kondo A, Yokoyama M, Izumi T, Matsui M, Io K, et al. Phosphorylation of APOBEC3G by protein kinase A regulates its interaction with HIV-1 Vif. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:1184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) counteracts A3G by promoting its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway...
  75. J ger S, Kim D, Hultquist J, Shindo K, LaRue R, Kwon E, et al. Vif hijacks CBF-? to degrade APOBEC3G and promote HIV-1 infection. Nature. 2011;481:371-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The AIDS virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), produces the accessory factor Vif, which counteracts the host's antiviral defence by hijacking a ubiquitin ligase complex, containing CUL5, ELOC, ..
  76. Santa Marta M, Aires da Silva F, Fonseca A, Rato S, Goncalves J. HIV-1 Vif protein blocks the cytidine deaminase activity of B-cell specific AID in E. coli by a similar mechanism of action. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:583-90 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vif protein protects viral replication in non-permissive cells by inducing degradation of APOBEC3G via ubiquitination and proteasomal pathway, although new studies indicate a putative role in Vif's direct inhibition of APOBEC3G...
  77. Holmes R, Malim M, Bishop K. APOBEC-mediated viral restriction: not simply editing?. Trends Biochem Sci. 2007;32:118-28 pubmed
  78. Henriet S, Mercenne G, Bernacchi S, Paillart J, Marquet R. Tumultuous relationship between the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) and the human APOBEC-3G and APOBEC-3F restriction factors. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2009;73:211-32 pubmed publisher
    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is dispensable for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in so-called permissive cells but is required for replication in nonpermissive cell lines and for pathogenesis...
  79. Karczewski M, Strebel K. Cytoskeleton association and virion incorporation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif protein. J Virol. 1996;70:494-507 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif protein has an important role in the regulation of virus infectivity...
  80. Russell R, Pathak V. Identification of two distinct human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif determinants critical for interactions with human APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. J Virol. 2007;81:8201-10 pubmed
    Human cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) inhibit replication of Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  81. Sadler H, Stenglein M, Harris R, Mansky L. APOBEC3G contributes to HIV-1 variation through sublethal mutagenesis. J Virol. 2010;84:7396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed proviruses with single APOBEC3G-mediated mutations (in the presence or absence of Vif), occurring at distinct hot spots and which could be rescued and shown to have infectivity...
  82. Xu H, Svarovskaia E, Barr R, Zhang Y, Khan M, Strebel K, et al. A single amino acid substitution in human APOBEC3G antiretroviral enzyme confers resistance to HIV-1 virion infectivity factor-induced depletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:5652-7 pubmed
    ..This innate mechanism of resistance to retroviral infection is counteracted by the HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif), which protects the virus by preventing the incorporation of APOBEC3G into virions by rapidly inducing its ..
  83. Goncalves J, Santa Marta M. HIV-1 Vif and APOBEC3G: multiple roads to one goal. Retrovirology. 2004;1:28 pubmed
    The viral infectivity factor, Vif, of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1, has long been shown to promote viral replication in vivo and to serve a critical function for productive infection of non-permissive cells, like peripheral ..
  84. Hatziioannou T, Princiotta M, Piatak M, Yuan F, Zhang F, Lifson J, et al. Generation of simian-tropic HIV-1 by restriction factor evasion. Science. 2006;314:95 pubmed
  85. Dang Y, Siew L, Wang X, Han Y, Lampen R, Zheng Y. Human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3H restricts HIV-1 replication. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11606-14 pubmed publisher
    ..A3F, A3B, and A3DE were shown later to have similar activities. HIV-1 produces a protein called Vif that is able to neutralize the antiretroviral activities of A3DE, A3F, and A3G, but not A3B...
  86. Chiu Y, Greene W. The APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases: an innate defensive network opposing exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. Annu Rev Immunol. 2008;26:317-53 pubmed publisher
    ..of APOBEC3G and related cytidine deaminases as one class of host restriction factors and of the action of HIV-1 Vif as a specific APOBEC3G antagonist have stimulated intense scientific interest...
  87. Niewiadomska A, Yu X. Host restriction of HIV-1 by APOBEC3 and viral evasion through Vif. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;339:1-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Most primate lentiviruses encode a protein called the viral infectivity factor (Vif). Vif induces targeted destruction of APOBEC3 proteins by hijacking the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome pathway...
  88. Cagliani R, Riva S, Fumagalli M, Biasin M, Caputo S, Mazzotta F, et al. A positively selected APOBEC3H haplotype is associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. Evolution. 2011;65:3311-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Hap I carries a protein-destabilizing variant and a residue conferring resistance to Vif-mediated degradation...
  89. Kitamura S, Ode H, Iwatani Y. Structural Features of Antiviral APOBEC3 Proteins are Linked to Their Functional Activities. Front Microbiol. 2011;2:258 pubmed publisher
    ..A3F and A3G are the most potent inhibitors of HIV-1, but only in the absence of the virus-encoded protein, Vif. HIV-1 utilizes Vif to abrogate A3 functions in the producer cells...
  90. Gooch B, Cullen B. Functional domain organization of human APOBEC3G. Virology. 2008;379:118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, the proteins that are capable of effectively inhibiting the infectivity of Vif-deficient HIV-1 (HIV-1DeltaVif), such as APOBEC3G (A3G), contain two CDAs...
  91. Marcsisin S, Engen J. Molecular insight into the conformational dynamics of the Elongin BC complex and its interaction with HIV-1 Vif. J Mol Biol. 2010;402:892-904 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) inhibits the innate viral immunity afforded by the APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases...
  92. Hosseini I, Mac Gabhann F. Multi-scale modeling of HIV infection in vitro and APOBEC3G-based anti-retroviral therapy. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002371 pubmed publisher
    The human APOBEC3G is an innate restriction factor that, in the absence of Vif, restricts HIV-1 replication by inducing excessive deamination of cytidine residues in nascent reverse transcripts and inhibiting reverse transcription and ..
  93. Techtmann S, Ghirlando R, Kao S, Strebel K, Maynard E. Hydrodynamic and functional analysis of HIV-1 Vif oligomerization. Biochemistry. 2012;51:2078-86 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 Vif is an accessory protein that induces the proteasomal degradation of the host restriction factor, apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G)...
  94. Chaipan C, Smith J, HU W, Pathak V. APOBEC3G restricts HIV-1 to a greater extent than APOBEC3F and APOBEC3DE in human primary CD4+ T cells and macrophages. J Virol. 2013;87:444-53 pubmed publisher
    ..relative contributions of several APOBEC3 proteins to restriction of HIV-1 replication in the absence of the viral Vif protein in human primary CD4(+) T cells and macrophages are unknown...