Gene Symbol: TLR4
Description: toll like receptor 4
Alias: ARMD10, CD284, TLR-4, TOLL, toll-like receptor 4, hToll, homolog of Drosophila toll
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Crystal structure of the TLR4-MD-2 complex with bound endotoxin antagonist Eritoran
    Ho Min Kim
    Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon, Korea 305 701
    Cell 130:906-17. 2007
  2. doi The structural basis of lipopolysaccharide recognition by the TLR4-MD-2 complex
    Beom Seok Park
    Department of Chemistry, KAIST, Daejeon, 305 701, Korea
    Nature 458:1191-5. 2009
  3. ncbi MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) is phosphorylated by Bruton's tyrosine kinase during TLR2 and TLR4 signal transduction
    Pearl Gray
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Biol Chem 281:10489-95. 2006
  4. ncbi HMGB1 signals through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR2
    Man Yu
    Laboratories of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Shock 26:174-9. 2006
  5. pmc Toll-like receptor 4 promotes tubular inflammation in diabetic nephropathy
    Miao Lin
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, 102 Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
    J Am Soc Nephrol 23:86-102. 2012
  6. ncbi Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and atherogenesis
    Stefan Kiechl
    Department of Neurology, University Clinic, Innsbruck, Austria
    N Engl J Med 347:185-92. 2002
  7. ncbi Sequence variants of Toll-like receptor 4 and susceptibility to prostate cancer
    Yen Ching Chen
    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Cancer Res 65:11771-8. 2005
  8. pmc High expression of Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signals correlates with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer
    E L Wang
    Department of Human Pathology, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3 18 15 Kuramoto cho, Tokushima, Japan
    Br J Cancer 102:908-15. 2010
  9. ncbi Structural basis for signal transduction by the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains
    Y Xu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA
    Nature 408:111-5. 2000
  10. doi Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphism and early onset of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Monika Buraczynska
    Laboratory for DNA Analysis and Molecular Diagnostics, Department of Nephrology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
    Hum Immunol 70:121-4. 2009

Research Grants

  1. Identification of age-related mediators of pro-inflammatory signaling
    AMANDA OPALUCH; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. David M Underhill; Fiscal Year: 2015
  3. Synergy between TLR2 and IL-22R in airway epithelial cells during MRSA challenge
    Jeremy P McAleer; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Mechanisms of abnormal enterochromaffin cell secretion in Crohn's disease
    Mark S Kidd; Fiscal Year: 2012
  5. The Role of Beta-Arrestins 1 and 2 in Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Hongkuan Fan; Fiscal Year: 2010
  6. ROBERT A LAFYATIS; Fiscal Year: 2015
  7. Intracellular Targeting of Proinflammatory Pathways to Ameliorate Type 1 Diabetes
    Daniel J Moore; Fiscal Year: 2010
  8. Beta-Defensins: Mediators of Gastrointestinal Inflammation
    Steven M Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. George Miller; Fiscal Year: 2016
  10. David M Underhill; Fiscal Year: 2016

Detail Information

Publications447 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Crystal structure of the TLR4-MD-2 complex with bound endotoxin antagonist Eritoran
    Ho Min Kim
    Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon, Korea 305 701
    Cell 130:906-17. 2007
    b>TLR4 and MD-2 form a heterodimer that recognizes LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from Gram-negative bacteria. Eritoran is an analog of LPS that antagonizes its activity by binding to the TLR4-MD-2 complex...
  2. doi The structural basis of lipopolysaccharide recognition by the TLR4-MD-2 complex
    Beom Seok Park
    Department of Chemistry, KAIST, Daejeon, 305 701, Korea
    Nature 458:1191-5. 2009
    ..To understand the ligand specificity and receptor activation mechanism of the TLR4-MD-2-LPS complex we determined its crystal structure...
  3. ncbi MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) is phosphorylated by Bruton's tyrosine kinase during TLR2 and TLR4 signal transduction
    Pearl Gray
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Biol Chem 281:10489-95. 2006
    Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are essential players in activating the host innate immune response against infectious microorganisms. All TLRs signal through Toll/interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adapter proteins...
  4. ncbi HMGB1 signals through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR2
    Man Yu
    Laboratories of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Shock 26:174-9. 2006
    ..Here we demonstrate that in human whole blood, neutralizing antibodies against Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, but not TLR2 or receptor for advanced glycation end product) dose-dependently attenuate HMGB1-induced IL-8 release...
  5. pmc Toll-like receptor 4 promotes tubular inflammation in diabetic nephropathy
    Miao Lin
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, 102 Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
    J Am Soc Nephrol 23:86-102. 2012
    ..In this study, we found increased expression of TLR4 but not of TLR2 in the renal tubules of human kidneys with diabetic nephropathy compared with expression of TLR4 ..
  6. ncbi Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and atherogenesis
    Stefan Kiechl
    Department of Neurology, University Clinic, Innsbruck, Austria
    N Engl J Med 347:185-92. 2002
    ..We determined whether recently discovered genetic variants of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that confer differences in the inflammatory response elicited by bacterial ..
  7. ncbi Sequence variants of Toll-like receptor 4 and susceptibility to prostate cancer
    Yen Ching Chen
    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Cancer Res 65:11771-8. 2005
    Chronic inflammation has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for prostate cancer. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) presents the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which interacts with ligand-binding protein and CD14 (LPS receptor) and ..
  8. pmc High expression of Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signals correlates with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer
    E L Wang
    Department of Human Pathology, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3 18 15 Kuramoto cho, Tokushima, Japan
    Br J Cancer 102:908-15. 2010
    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling pathway has been shown to have oncogenic effects in vitro and in vivo...
  9. ncbi Structural basis for signal transduction by the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains
    Y Xu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA
    Nature 408:111-5. 2000
    ..A single-point mutation in the TIR domain of murine TLR4 (Pro712His, the Lps(d) mutation) abolishes the host immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and mutation of ..
  10. doi Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphism and early onset of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Monika Buraczynska
    Laboratory for DNA Analysis and Molecular Diagnostics, Department of Nephrology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
    Hum Immunol 70:121-4. 2009
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of innate immunity. Type 2 diabetes (DM2) might be associated with changed innate immune response...
  11. doi TAK-242 selectively suppresses Toll-like receptor 4-signaling mediated by the intracellular domain
    Tomohiro Kawamoto
    Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka 532 8686, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 584:40-8. 2008
    ..almost completely suppressed production of nitric oxide (NO) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induced by a TLR4-specific ligand, ultra-pure LPS, in mouse RAW264...
  12. ncbi TIRAP: an adapter molecule in the Toll signaling pathway
    T Horng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Nat Immunol 2:835-41. 2001
    ..Although some cellular responses are completely abolished in MyD88-deficient mice, TLR4, but not TLR9, can activate NF-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases and induce dendritic cell maturation ..
  13. ncbi Association between common Toll-like receptor 4 mutations and severe respiratory syncytial virus disease
    Guy Tal
    Pediatric Pulmonary Unit, Edith Wolfson Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Holon, Israel
    J Infect Dis 189:2057-63. 2004
    ..Thus, it is likely that factors such as genetic heterogeneity contribute to disease severity. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 are part of a receptor complex involved in the innate immune response to RSV.
  14. pmc Increased toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and TLR ligands in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects
    Mohan R Dasu
    Laboratory for Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Research, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 33:861-8. 2010
    ..b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their ligands play a key role in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis...
  15. pmc Essential roles of hydrophobic residues in both MD-2 and toll-like receptor 4 in activation by endotoxin
    Nusa Resman
    Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, and Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    J Biol Chem 284:15052-60. 2009
    ..e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) is one of the most potent stimulants of the innate immune system, recognized by the TLR4.MD-2 complex...
  16. pmc Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in allergic rhinitis
    Mattias Fransson
    Department of Oto Rhino Laryngology, Malmo University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
    Respir Res 6:100. 2005
    b>Toll-like receptors enable the host to recognize a large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, viral RNA, CpG-containing DNA and flagellin...
  17. ncbi A functional polymorphism of toll-like receptor 4 gene increases risk of gastric carcinoma and its precursors
    Georgina L Hold
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, Scotland
    Gastroenterology 132:905-12. 2007
    b>TLR4 is a cell-surface signaling receptor involved in the recognition and host response to Helicobacter pylori...
  18. pmc Association of inherited variation in Toll-like receptor genes with malignant melanoma susceptibility and survival
    Andreas Gast
    Division of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e24370. 2011
    ..Analysis of 7 SNPs in TLR2, 7 SNPs in TLR3 and 8 SNPs in TLR4 showed statistically significant differences in distribution of inferred haplotypes between cases and controls...
  19. doi Functional polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 alter the risk for colorectal carcinoma in Europeans
    Pedro Pimentel-Nunes
    Department of Physiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cardiovascular Research and Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal
    Dig Liver Dis 45:63-9. 2013
    Colon carcinogenesis is associated with increased expression levels of Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4.
  20. pmc Sequence variants in the TLR4 and TLR6-1-10 genes and prostate cancer risk. Results based on pooled analysis from three independent studies
    Sara Lindstrom
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Building 2, Room 249B, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:873-6. 2010
    Genetic variation in two members of the Toll-like receptor family, TLR4 and the gene cluster TLR6-1-10, has been implicated in prostate cancer in several studies but the associated alleles have not been consistent across reports.
  21. ncbi MD-2 and TLR4 N-linked glycosylations are important for a functional lipopolysaccharide receptor
    Jean da Silva Correia
    Scripps Research Institute, Department of Immunology, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:1845-54. 2002
    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor is a multi-protein complex that consists of at least three proteins, CD14, TLR4, and MD-2...
  22. pmc Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide contains multiple lipid A species that functionally interact with both toll-like receptors 2 and 4
    Richard P Darveau
    Department of Periodontics, University of Washington, Health Sciences Center, Box 357444, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Infect Immun 72:5041-51. 2004
    ..have reported that it can be an agonist for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) as well as an antagonist or agonist for TLR4. In this report it is shown that P...
  23. pmc Association between polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor 4, CD14, and CARD15/NOD2 and inflammatory bowel disease in the Greek population
    Maria Gazouli
    Department of Histology Embryology, 53 Antaiou St Ano Patisia, 11146 Athens, Greece
    World J Gastroenterol 11:681-5. 2005
    ..evidence is accumulating that molecules related to the innate immune response such as CD14 or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), are involved in their pathogenesis...
  24. ncbi Functional variant in the 3'-untranslated region of Toll-like receptor 4 is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk
    Chang Song
    State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China and Department of Experimental Research, Sun Yat Sen University, Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China
    Cancer Biol Ther 5:1285-91. 2006
    Signaling pathways activated by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) involve the induction of anti-cancer immunity...
  25. pmc Expression and significance of TLR4 and HIF-1alpha in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    Jian Jun Zhang
    Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province, China
    World J Gastroenterol 16:2881-8. 2010
    To investigate the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 and hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and their clinical significance.
  26. ncbi Toll-like receptor 4 genetic variation and advanced prostate cancer risk
    Iona Cheng
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Center of Human Genetics, University of California at San Francisco, 94143 0794, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:352-5. 2007
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a key innate immunity receptor that initiates an inflammatory response primarily against Gram-negative bacteria...
  27. ncbi Negative regulation of toll-like receptor-mediated signaling by Tollip
    Guolong Zhang
    Section of Immunobiology, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, 310 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:7059-65. 2002
    ..Here we report that Tollip also associates directly with TLR2 and TLR4 and plays an inhibitory role in TLR-mediated cell activation...
  28. ncbi Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus activates immune cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved
    Nicolas W J Schröder
    Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Charite, Medizinische Fakultat der Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Dorotheenstrasse 96, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:15587-94. 2003
    ..procedure, was investigated regarding its interaction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-2 and -4, and MD-2...
  29. ncbi Increased expression of toll-like receptor-2 and -4 on leukocytes from patients with sepsis
    Luc Härter
    Division of Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Shock 22:403-9. 2004
    ..responsiveness of monocytes or granulocytes toward endotoxin (endotoxin tolerance) during sepsis may depend on Toll-like receptors (TLR)...
  30. pmc Increased toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 expression in monocytes from patients with type 1 diabetes: further evidence of a proinflammatory state
    Sridevi Devaraj
    Laboratory for Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Research, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California 95817, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:578-83. 2008
    ..It is a pro-inflammatory state as evidenced by increased circulating biomarkers and monocyte activity. The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors, expressed abundantly on monocytes...
  31. pmc Reduced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 inhibits human breast cancer cells proliferation and inflammatory cytokines secretion
    Huan Yang
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res 29:92. 2010
    ..Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in tumor cells can mediate tumor cell immune escape and tumor progression, and it is regarded as one of ..
  32. pmc Structural analyses of human Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms D299G and T399I
    Umeharu Ohto
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Biol Chem 287:40611-7. 2012
    b>TLR4 polymorphism replacing Asp-299 with Gly and Thr-399 with Ile (D299G/T399I) causes LPS hyporesponsiveness.
  33. ncbi Functional polymorphisms of CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 in Taiwanese Chinese with Helicobacter pylori-related gastric malignancies
    Ming Shiang Wu
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei
    Hepatogastroenterology 53:807-10. 2006
    ..Whether functional polymorphisms of TLR 4 and CD14 account for H. pylori-related gastric malignancies remains unknown...
  34. pmc Association of IL10 and other immune response- and obesity-related genes with prostate cancer in CLUE II
    Ming Hsi Wang
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Prostate 69:874-85. 2009
    ..Chronic intra-prostatic inflammation and obesity are thought to influence prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, variants in genes in these pathways could be associated with prostate cancer risk...
  35. pmc Increased levels of ligands of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in type 1 diabetes
    S Devaraj
    Laboratory for Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Research, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Diabetologia 52:1665-8. 2009
    ..We have shown increased Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 expression and signalling in monocytes from type 1 diabetic patients...
  36. ncbi Bruton's tyrosine kinase is a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-binding protein that participates in nuclear factor kappaB activation by Toll-like receptor 4
    Caroline A Jefferies
    Cytokine Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Biol Chem 278:26258-64. 2003
    In this study we have identified members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (namely, TLRs 4, 6, 8, and 9) as proteins to which the intracellular protein tyrosine kinase, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), binds...
  37. ncbi Response of human pulmonary epithelial cells to lipopolysaccharide involves Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signaling pathways: evidence for an intracellular compartmentalization of TLR4
    Loic Guillot
    Unité de Défense Innée et Inflammation, INSERM E336, France
    J Biol Chem 279:2712-8. 2004
    ..In this work, we demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR and/or immunoblot that TLR4 and the accessory molecule MD-2 are constitutively expressed in distinct human alveolar and bronchial epithelial ..
  38. ncbi Analysis of TLR4 polymorphic variants: new insights into TLR4/MD-2/CD14 stoichiometry, structure, and signaling
    Prasad Rallabhandi
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, 660 West Redwood Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Immunol 177:322-32. 2006
    b>TLR4 is the signal-transducing receptor for structurally diverse microbial molecules such as bacterial LPS, respiratory syncytial virus fusion (F) protein, and chlamydial heat shock protein 60...
  39. ncbi TLR4 signaling promotes immune escape of human lung cancer cells by inducing immunosuppressive cytokines and apoptosis resistance
    Weigang He
    Institute of Immunology and National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Road, Shanghai 200433, PR China
    Mol Immunol 44:2850-9. 2007
    ..In the present study, we demonstrate that TLR4 is expressed on human lung cancer cell lines...
  40. pmc Interaction between Ebola virus glycoprotein and host toll-like receptor 4 leads to induction of proinflammatory cytokines and SOCS1
    Atsushi Okumura
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Virol 84:27-33. 2010
    ..Here we report that host Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a sensor for Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) on virus-like particles (VLPs) and that resultant TLR4 signaling ..
  41. ncbi Toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of dendritic cells by beta-defensin 2
    Arya Biragyn
    Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 298:1025-9. 2002
    ..that murine beta-defensin 2 (mDF2beta) acts directly on immature dendritic cells as an endogenous ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), inducing up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and dendritic cell maturation...
  42. ncbi Expression, subcellular localization and cytokinic modulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in normal human keratinocytes: TLR2 up-regulation in psoriatic skin
    Edouard Begon
    INSERM U532, Institut de Recherche sur la Peau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Saint Louis, 1 avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010, Paris, France
    Eur J Dermatol 17:497-506. 2007
    The aim of the research described here was to investigate the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in normal human keratinocytes, to study its modulation by proinflammatory cytokines, and to characterize the function of the latter ..
  43. pmc Epithelial expression of TLR4 is modulated in COPD and by steroids, salmeterol and cigarette smoke
    Ruth E MacRedmond
    Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
    Respir Res 8:84. 2007
    ..We found reduced TLR4 gene expression in the nasal epithelium of smokers compared with non-smoking controls, while TLR2 expression was ..
  44. doi Clinical relevance of TLR2, TLR4, CD14 and FcgammaRIIA gene polymorphisms in Streptococcus pneumoniae infection
    Fang Fang Yuan
    Research and Development, Australian Red Cross Blood Service Endeavour, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Immunol Cell Biol 86:268-70. 2008
    ..In the present study, polymorphisms in several candidate genes, including TLR2-Arg/Gln753, TLR4-Asp/Gly299, TLR4-Thr/Ile399, CD14-159C/T and FcgammaRIIA-R/H131, were examined in 85 children with pneumococcal ..
  45. doi Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 are associated with factors of the metabolic syndrome and modify the association between dietary saturated fat and fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
    Cristina Cuda
    Department of Nutritional Sciences Faculty of Medicine University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada M5S 3E2
    Metabolism 60:1131-5. 2011
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a protein of the innate immune system hypothesized to mediate some of the effects of a high-fat diet on inflammation and insulin resistance...
  46. pmc Metal allergens nickel and cobalt facilitate TLR4 homodimerization independently of MD2
    Badrinarayanan Raghavan
    Department of Dermatology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Straße 2, 97080 Wurzburg
    EMBO Rep 13:1109-15. 2012
    ..Ni(2+) stimulates innate immunity via TLR4/MD2, the bacterial LPS receptor...
  47. pmc The role of TLR4 896 A>G and 1196 C>T in susceptibility to infections: a review and meta-analysis of genetic association studies
    Panayiotis D Ziakas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e81047. 2013
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 plays a role in pathogen recognition, and common polymorphisms may alter host susceptibility to infectious diseases.
  48. ncbi Toll-like receptor-4 Asp299Gly polymorphism does not influence progression of atherosclerosis in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia
    M G Netea
    University Medical Center, St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Invest 34:94-9. 2004
    b>Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is a major receptor for inflammatory stimuli potentially involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and heat-shock proteins...
  49. pmc A cellular micro-RNA, let-7i, regulates Toll-like receptor 4 expression and contributes to cholangiocyte immune responses against Cryptosporidium parvum infection
    Xian Ming Chen
    Miles and Shirley Fiterman Center for Digestive Diseases, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:28929-38. 2007
    ..human biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) express let-7 family members, micro-RNAs with complementarity to TLR4 mRNA...
  50. pmc MD-2-mediated ionic interactions between lipid A and TLR4 are essential for receptor activation
    Jianmin Meng
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:8695-702. 2010
    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates innate immune responses through TLR4.MD-2. LPS binds to the MD-2 hydrophobic pocket and bridges the dimerization of two TLR4.MD-2 complexes to activate intracellular signaling...
  51. doi TLR4: the receptor bridging Acanthamoeba challenge and intracellular inflammatory responses in human corneal cell lines
    Meiyu Ren
    Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China
    Immunol Cell Biol 88:529-36. 2010
    ..We show that the expressions of TLR4, myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, phospho-IkappaB, phospho-extracellular ..
  52. pmc Expression of functional D299G.T399I polymorphic variant of TLR4 depends more on coexpression of MD-2 than does wild-type TLR4
    Polonca Prohinar
    Department of Internal Medicine, Roy A and Lucille J Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52240, USA
    J Immunol 184:4362-7. 2010
    Two missense variants (D299G and T399I) of TLR4 are cosegregated in individuals of European descent and, in a number of test systems, result in reduced responsiveness to endotoxin...
  53. doi Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms predispose to cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Soheila Ajdary
    Immunology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Pasteur Ave, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran
    Microbes Infect 13:226-31. 2011
    ..Studies in experimental leishmaniasis have revealed a role for TLR4 in control of infection...
  54. doi Variant Toll-like receptor4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles) and Toll-like receptor2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp alleles) in colorectal cancer
    Homa Davoodi
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 10:91-9. 2011
    ..recognizes the presence of bacterial products through the expression of a family of membrane receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
  55. doi Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in cancer: a meta-analysis
    Jing Jing Jing
    Tumor Etiology and Screening Department of Cancer Institute and General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Key Laboratory of Cancer Control in Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110001, PR China
    Gene 499:237-42. 2012
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is critical in the recognition of Gram-negative bacteria serving as a key immune system effector...
  56. pmc A single nucleotide polymorphism in 3'-untranslated region contributes to the regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 translation
    Kayo Sato
    Department of Periodontology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852 8588, Japan
    J Biol Chem 287:25163-72. 2012
    ..In this study the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expression were investigated...
  57. pmc Toll-like receptor 4 has an essential role in early skin wound healing
    Lin Chen
    College of Dentistry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 133:258-67. 2013
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has a key role in the initiation of innate immunity and in the regulation of adaptive immune responses...
  58. doi The TLR4 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Kui Zhang
    Department of Forensic Biology, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, PR China
    Eur J Cancer 49:946-54. 2013
    Growing studies revealed the association between polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and susceptibility to cancer, however, the results remained inconsistent...
  59. pmc TLR4 activates the β-catenin pathway to cause intestinal neoplasia
    Rebeca Santaolalla
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Miami, Leonard Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA
    PLoS ONE 8:e63298. 2013
    Colonic bacteria have been implicated in the development of colon cancer. We have previously demonstrated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is over-expressed in humans with colitis-..
  60. pmc Toll-like receptor signaling in small intestinal epithelium promotes B-cell recruitment and IgA production in lamina propria
    Limin Shang
    Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Gastroenterology 135:529-38. 2008
    Several lines of evidence support a role for Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling to protect the intestine from pathogenic infection...
  61. doi Upregulated expression of toll-like receptor 4 in monocytes correlates with severity of acute cerebral infarction
    Qing wu Yang
    Department of Neurology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, China
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 28:1588-96. 2008
    In the present study, we observed the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its downstream signal pathway in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) from patients with acute cerebral infarct (ACI)...
  62. pmc Toll-like receptor 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas
    Christoph Bergmann
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Duisburg Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45127 Essen, Germany
    J Transl Med 9:139. 2011
    ..This study addresses the impact of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile of the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 gene on the clinical outcome while accounting for the influence of adjuvant systemic therapy ..
  63. ncbi Mal interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-6 to mediate NF-kappaB activation by toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR4
    Ashley Mansell
    Centre for Functional Genomics and Human Disease, Monash Institute of Reproduction and Development, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3168, Australia
    J Biol Chem 279:37227-30. 2004
    The Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter Mal (MyD88 adapter-like protein) is involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR4 signal transduction...
  64. ncbi Monocyte toll-like receptor 4 expression and LPS-induced cytokine production increase during gestational aging
    Elisabeth Forster-Waldl
    Department of Pediatrics and Juvenile Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Pediatr Res 58:121-4. 2005
    ..Therefore, we investigated age-related monocyte TLR4 expression and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine secretion from very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) and from ..
  65. pmc A cyanobacterial LPS antagonist prevents endotoxin shock and blocks sustained TLR4 stimulation required for cytokine expression
    Annalisa Macagno
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine, CH 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 203:1481-92. 2006
    ..CyP binds to MD-2 and efficiently competes with LPS for binding to the TLR4-MD-2 receptor complex...
  66. pmc Tyrosine phosphorylation of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) is critical for signal transduction and blocked in endotoxin tolerance
    Wenji Piao
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:3109-19. 2008
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognition of lipopolysaccharide triggers signalosome assembly among TLR4, sorting (e.g. MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)) and signaling (e.g...
  67. pmc Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in gastric cancer of intestinal and diffuse histotypes
    D Santini
    Medical Oncology, University Campus Bio Medico, Rome, Italy
    Clin Exp Immunol 154:360-4. 2008
    In the present study we investigated the potential role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms as risk factors in the development of gastric cancer...
  68. pmc Functional linkage of cirrhosis-predictive single nucleotide polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 4 to hepatic stellate cell responses
    Jinsheng Guo
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Liver Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    Hepatology 49:960-8. 2009
    In a recent study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene (c.1196C>T [rs4986791, p...
  69. ncbi Induction of human monocyte interleukin (IL)-8 by fibrinogen through the toll-like receptor pathway
    Douglas B Kuhns
    Clinical Services Program, SAIC Frederick, Inc, NCI Frederick, Frederick, MD, 21702, USA
    Inflammation 30:178-88. 2007
    ..The data indicate that fibrinogen alone and fibrinogen plus C5a are potent inducers of cytokine production in monocytes, and that signaling by fibrinogen is mediated through the TLR-4 pathway...
  70. doi Combined effect of miR-146a rs2910164 G/C polymorphism and Toll-like receptor 4 +3725 G/C polymorphism on the risk of severe gastric atrophy in Japanese
    Asahi Hishida
    Department of Preventive Medicine Biostatistics and Medical Decision Making, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai Cho, Showa Ku, Nagoya, 466 8550, Japan
    Dig Dis Sci 56:1131-7. 2011
    ..A G/C polymorphism in miRNA-146a (rs2910164) was shown to be associated with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma...
  71. doi Impact of Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms on risk of cancer
    Anton G Kutikhin
    Department of Epidemiology, Kemerovo State Medical Academy, Kemerovo, Russian Federation
    Hum Immunol 72:193-206. 2011
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the key immune system effectors playing the main role in recognition of viruses and bacteria...
  72. pmc Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by heat shock protein 90 via Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to the migration of glioblastoma cells
    Dominique Thuringer
    INSERM U866, Faculty of Medicine, 7 Boulevard Jeanne d Arc, 21000 Dijon, France
    J Biol Chem 286:3418-28. 2011
    ..Specific inhibition of TLR4 expression by blocking antibodies suppressed extracellular HSP90α-induced Ca(2+) signaling and the associated cell ..
  73. pmc The D299G/T399I Toll-like receptor 4 variant associates with body and liver fat: results from the TULIP and METSIM Studies
    Peter Weyrich
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Vascular Disease, Nephrology, Clinical Chemistry, Department of Internal Medicine, Paul Langerhans Institute Tübingen, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e13980. 2010
    ..studies with replications in non-diabetic individuals in regard to their fat distribution or insulin resistance according to their carrier status of a common toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variant (TLR4(D299G/T399I)) are still lacking.
  74. ncbi Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile polymorphisms are a risk factor for Candida bloodstream infection
    Chantal A A Van der Graaf
    Department of Internal Medicine 463, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur Cytokine Netw 17:29-34. 2006
    b>Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 is an important pattern recognition receptor for Candida albicans, playing a role in innate host defense...
  75. doi Impact of Toll-like receptors [TLR] 2 (-196 to -174 del) and TLR 4 (Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile) in cervical cancer susceptibility in North Indian women
    Saumya Pandey
    Department of Genetics, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Gynecol Oncol 114:501-5. 2009
    ..The aim of our study was to identify the role of TLR 2(-196 to -174 del) and TLR 4(Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) gene polymorphisms in cervical cancer susceptibility in North Indian women.
  76. ncbi TLR4 and IL-18 gene variants in chronic periodontitis: impact on disease susceptibility and severity
    Barbara Noack
    Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany
    Immunol Invest 38:297-310. 2009
    ..108 chronic periodontitis patients and 76 controls were genotyped for c.896A>G/1196C>T (TLR4 gene) and for c.-368G>C/ c.-838C>A (IL-18 promoter)...
  77. pmc Genetic variation of the human urinary tract innate immune response and asymptomatic bacteriuria in women
    Thomas R Hawn
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e8300. 2009
    ..We examined whether candidate gene polymorphisms were associated with altered urine inflammatory profiles in asymptomatic women with or without bacteriuria...
  78. ncbi Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are up-regulated during intestinal inflammation
    M Hausmann
    Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
    Gastroenterology 122:1987-2000. 2002
    ..b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR2 and TLR4 have been identified as signaling receptors activated by bacterial wall ..
  79. ncbi Toll-like receptor 4 functions intracellularly in human coronary artery endothelial cells: roles of LBP and sCD14 in mediating LPS responses
    Stefan Dunzendorfer
    Scripps Research Institute, Department of Immunology, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    FASEB J 18:1117-9. 2004
    Endothelial cells are activated by microbial agonists through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to express inflammatory mediators; this is of significance in acute as well as chronic inflammatory states such as septic shock and atherosclerosis, ..
  80. pmc Oxidized phospholipid inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is restricted to TLR2 and TLR4: roles for CD14, LPS-binding protein, and MD2 as targets for specificity of inhibition
    Clett Erridge
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Univesity of Strathclyde, 204 George St, Glasgow G1 1XW, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 283:24748-59. 2008
    ..p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and NF-kappaB-dependent reporter activation induced by stimulants of TLR2 and TLR4 (Pam3CSK4 and LPS) but not by stimulants of other TLRs (poly(I...
  81. doi LPS-mediated production of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids in whole blood samples: biological effects of +896A/G TLR4 polymorphism in a Sicilian population of healthy subjects
    Carmela Rita Balistreri
    Department of Pathobiology and Medical and Forensic Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
    Mech Ageing Dev 132:86-92. 2011
    b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the principal mediators of rapid microbial recognition: the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor TLR4 seems to have a paradigmatic role...
  82. ncbi Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) is required for Toll-like receptor-4 signal transduction
    K A Fitzgerald
    Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Nature 413:78-83. 2001
    The recognition of microbial pathogens by the innate immune system involves Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns...
  83. ncbi Decreased expression of Toll-like receptor-4 and MD-2 correlates with intestinal epithelial cell protection against dysregulated proinflammatory gene expression in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide
    M T Abreu
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8631 West 3rd Street, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    J Immunol 167:1609-16. 2001
    ..Recognition of LPS by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 results in proinflammatory gene expression in diverse cell types...
  84. doi Toll-like receptors and CD14 genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to asthma in Tunisian children
    J Lachheb
    Homeostasis and Cell Dysfunction Unit Research 99 UR 08 40, Medicine University of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia
    Tissue Antigens 71:417-25. 2008
    Many studies have shown the implication of CD14 and toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 4 and 9 in the pathogenesis of asthma or atopy...
  85. pmc The ectodomain of the Toll-like receptor 4 prevents constitutive receptor activation
    Gabriela Panter
    Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    J Biol Chem 286:23334-44. 2011
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in activation of the innate immune response in a large number of different diseases...
  86. doi Human TLR4 polymorphism D299G/T399I alters TLR4/MD-2 conformation and response to a weak ligand monophosphoryl lipid A
    Natsuko Yamakawa
    Division of Innate Immunity, The Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4 6 1 Shirokanedai, Tokyo 108 8639, Japan
    Int Immunol 25:45-52. 2013
    A cell surface heterodimer Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MD-2 senses lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a principal membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS binds to MD-2 and induces dimerization of TLR4/MD-2...
  87. ncbi Toll-like receptor 4: a potential link between "danger signals," the innate immune system, and preeclampsia?
    Yeon Mee Kim
    Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD NIH DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 193:921-7. 2005
    b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial ligands and host products that are released during tissue damage, the so-called "danger signals...
  88. ncbi Association of polymorphisms of NOD2, TLR4 and CD14 genes with susceptibility to gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma
    Filiz Türe-Ozdemir
    Institute of Gastroenterology, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
    Anticancer Res 28:3697-700. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NOD2, TLR4 and CD14 genetic polymorphisms and the development of gastric MALT-lymphoma.
  89. doi Crucial role for human Toll-like receptor 4 in the development of contact allergy to nickel
    Marc Schmidt
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
    Nat Immunol 11:814-9. 2010
    ..Here we show that Ni(2+) triggered an inflammatory response by directly activating human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Ni(2+)-induced TLR4 activation was species-specific, as mouse TLR4 could not generate this response...
  90. ncbi TLR4 gene variants modify endotoxin effects on asthma
    Monika Werner
    Institute of Epidemiology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:323-30. 2003
    ..Environmental exposure to endotoxin might have a crucial role in immune maturation and development of asthma...
  91. pmc Deficient host-bacteria interactions in inflammatory bowel disease? The toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 Asp299gly polymorphism is associated with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
    D Franchimont
    Department of Gastroenterology, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium
    Gut 53:987-92. 2004
    ..innate immune response to bacterial products is mediated through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the NODs...
  92. ncbi Lipopolysaccharides from Helicobacter pylori can act as antagonists for Toll-like receptor 4
    Philipp M Lepper
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Ulm, 89075 Ulm, Germany
    Cell Microbiol 7:519-28. 2005
    ..pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) remain unclear. Contradictory reports exist that suggest that Toll-like receptors are involved...
  93. doi Association of Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms with normal tension glaucoma
    Etsuko Shibuya
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:4453-7. 2008
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates immune responses to exogenous and endogenous ligands and interacts with heat shock proteins, which are reportedly involved in normal tension glaucoma (NTG)...
  94. pmc Clinical significance of NOD2/CARD15 and Toll-like receptor 4 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease
    Luciana Rigoli
    Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche Mediche e Chirurgiche, Policlinico Universitario, Messina 98125, Italy
    World J Gastroenterol 14:4454-61. 2008
    ..the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NOD2/CARD15 (R702W, G908R and L1007finsC), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) genes (D299G and T399I) in a selected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) population coming from Southern Italy.
  95. doi A functional nonsynonymous toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome, surrogates of insulin resistance, and syndromes of lipid accumulation
    Alberto Penas Steinhardt
    Humoral Immunity Institute Prof Ricardo A Margni IDEHU, National Research Council CONICET and School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Metabolism 59:711-7. 2010
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a key role in the activation of innate immune responses. Loss-of-function mutations in TLR4 prevent diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance (IR)...
  96. pmc Lack of association between toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms and sarcoidosis-related uveitis in Japan
    Yuri Asukata
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    Mol Vis 15:2673-82. 2009
    b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses to microbial pathogens. Among TLRs, TLR4 recognizes lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria...
  97. pmc Influence of genetic variations in TLR4 and TIRAP/Mal on the course of sepsis and pneumonia and cytokine release: an observational study in three cohorts
    Oliver Kumpf
    Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Management, HANSE Klinikum Stralsund, Grosse Parower Strasse 47 53, Stralsund 18435, Germany
    Crit Care 14:R103. 2010
    ..This study aims to examine the response associated with genetic variations of TLR4, the receptor for bacterial LPS, and a central intracellular signal transducer (TIRAP/Mal) on cytokine release and ..
  98. ncbi An association study of asthma and total serum immunoglobin E levels for Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in a Japanese population
    E Noguchi
    Department of Medical Genetics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki Ken, Japan
    Clin Exp Allergy 34:177-83. 2004
    ..b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in the signalling of many pathogen-related molecules and endogenous ..
  99. pmc A Mal functional variant is associated with protection against invasive pneumococcal disease, bacteremia, malaria and tuberculosis
    Chiea C Khor
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, UK
    Nat Genet 39:523-8. 2007
    b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and members of their signaling pathway are important in the initiation of the innate immune response to a wide variety of pathogens...
  100. pmc Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis in stem-cell transplantation
    Pierre Yves Bochud
    Institute for Systems Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:1766-77. 2008
    b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the immune response to fungal pathogens...
  101. doi Association between the TLR4 +896A>G (Asp299Gly) polymorphism and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Suzan Chen
    University of Medicine and Health Sciences, New York, NY 10001, USA
    J Asthma 49:999-1003. 2012
    To determine whether there is an association between the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) +896A>G single nucleotide polymorphism and asthma by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Research Grants120 found, 100 shown here

  1. Identification of age-related mediators of pro-inflammatory signaling
    AMANDA OPALUCH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One of these receptors, TLR4, recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present on cell walls of gram-negative bacteria...
  2. David M Underhill; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..For example, the "pattern recognition receptor" TLR4 recognizes lipopolysaccharides produced as part of the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria...
  3. Synergy between TLR2 and IL-22R in airway epithelial cells during MRSA challenge
    Jeremy P McAleer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..aureus (MRSA) is increasing. This suggests a need to develop vaccination and/or treatment strategies. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes peptidoglycan and initiates natural immunity to S. aureus...
  4. Mechanisms of abnormal enterochromaffin cell secretion in Crohn's disease
    Mark S Kidd; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using real-time PCR, we identified 5-fold increased transcripts for TLR4, 10-fold for IL1R[unreadable], 2-fold for somatostatin receptors (1-3, 5) and 2-fold for the stimulatory mechano-..
  5. The Role of Beta-Arrestins 1 and 2 in Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Hongkuan Fan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..An important role of various TLRs in the animal model of arthritis has been demonstrated. TLR4 and endogenous TLR4 ligands such as hyaluronan and heat shock protein (HSP)22 are highly expressed in synovial ..
  6. ROBERT A LAFYATIS; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..of skin disease, indicating a close link between TGF2 activation and inflammation, and suggesting innate immune/toll-like receptor (TLR) activation in SSc skin...
  7. Intracellular Targeting of Proinflammatory Pathways to Ameliorate Type 1 Diabetes
    Daniel J Moore; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A second key step in inflammation is the activation of the mainstays of innate immunity, toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
  8. Beta-Defensins: Mediators of Gastrointestinal Inflammation
    Steven M Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..system detects foreign pathogens, such as bacteria, by recognizing components of the pathogen via receptors, termed toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
  9. George Miller; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..In this proposal we will determine whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation is a primary driver of stromal inflammation and epithelial mutagenesis in pancreatic ..
  10. David M Underhill; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of innate immune recognition receptors is currently the most completely described family ..
  11. HLA-B27 Misfolding an the UPR in Spondyloarthritis
    Thomas A Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that the B27-induced UPR causes macrophages to strongly overexpress a group of cytokines when stimulated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. We refer to this a UPR-TLR synergy...
  12. Padmini Salgame; Fiscal Year: 2015
    In this application we will explore the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is the master regulator controlling both protective and pathologic features of the tubercle granuloma...
  13. TLR2 and the Tubercle Granuloma
    Padmini Salgame; Fiscal Year: 2010
    In this application we will explore the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is the master regulator controlling both protective and pathologic features of the tubercle granuloma...
  14. Role of Polymorphonuclear Phagocytes in Malaria Sepsis
    Ricardo Gazzinelli; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..88 (MyD88), an adaptor-signaling molecule for the IL-1 receptor (and the related IL-18r and IL-33r) as well as Toll- like receptors (TLRs), is critical for initiation of this early inflammatory response and pathogenesis of rodent ..
  15. Angiogenesis in the Lung
    Elizabeth Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..have been shown to cause lung matrix degradation, the products of which are known to activate macrophages through Toll-like receptors (TLR)...
  16. Haichao Wang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..1 will test the hypothesis that SAA functions as a positive regulator of endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release through TLR4/RAGE receptors...
  17. Counter-Regulation of TLR-Driven Mucosal Inflammation
    Erik P Lillehoj; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For example, TLRs with specificity for bacterial peptidoglycan (TLR2), LPS (TLR4), and flagellin (TLR5) activate signaling pathways leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and ..
  18. Lipoprotein Receptors and Inflammation in the Vessel Wall
    Dudley K Strickland; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..associated with the up-regulation of a number of macrophage receptors, including pattern-recognition scavenger and toll-like receptors that are involved in innate immunity, as well as endocytotic and signaling receptors such as the low ..
  19. miR-155 regulation of cellular susceptibility to HIV-1 infection
    JULIO MARTIN-GARCIA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..LPS and poly(I:C) (TLR4 and TLR3 ligands, respectively), have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication in and infection of macrophages, ..
  20. Hepatic drug metabolism in inflammation
    Romi Ghose; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Specific Aim 1: Determine whether the cell surface receptors, TLR2 and TLR4 and the critical adaptor proteins (TIRAP, TRIP), are involved in regulation of DMEs and NRs in vivo...
  21. The Renal Pathogenicity of Anti-DNA Antibodies
    Chaim Putterman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathogenesis of LN, mediated by binding to cell surface receptors and engagement of an additional receptor from the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, and that serum and/or urinary levels of NGAL may reflect the degree of renal injury ..
  22. The role of fas signaling in rheumatoid arthritis
    Carla M Cuda; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Of particular interest is that B cell-specific deletion of FADD and caspase-8 impairs toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced proliferation with potential consequences on downstream activation of NFKB and MAPK ..
  23. Xiaoyu Hu; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..regulate human monocyte/macrophage activation in response to the prototypic macrophage-activating receptors TLR4 and TLR2...
  24. Paul L Fox; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Xiaoxia Li investigates the macrophage signaling pathways initiated by the interleukin-1R (IL-1 receptor)/TLR (Toll-like receptor) superfamily which can lead to either a pro-inflammatory, transcriptional program of gene expression, ..
  25. Innate Immunity in Acne Vulgaris
    Jenny J Kim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..acnes induces inflammatory cytokines and MMP9 via toll-like receptor 2-dependent mechanism, iv) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) enhances the differentiation of monocytes ..
  26. Mechanisms of Chronic Nod2-mediated Effects in Human Macrophages
    Clara Abraham; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cytokines), and that some of these mechanisms are different than those mediated by chronic stimulation of Toll like receptors (TLR)...
  27. Activation of Macrophages by Lipoteichoic Acid
    David L Hasty; Fiscal Year: 2010 a 10-fold potentiation of macrophage cytokine secretion and will specifically focus on understanding the role of TLR4 in this process...
  28. JOHN PAUL SUNDBERG; Fiscal Year: 2016 important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer through the NFKB, integrin, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling networks...
    Yongwon Choi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the third goal is a logical extension of this work because TRAF6 is a key signal transducer for CD40 and IL-1/Toll-like receptors...
  30. Pathways regulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells in Peyers Patches
    Stephanie S Watowich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Upon activation through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), pDCs secrete IFN and mature to an antigen-presenting state in which they are able to elicit ..
  31. Investigating gene x environment interaction using human exposures to O3 & LPS
    David B Peden; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..peroxdiase (GPX1), Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and Superoxidase dismutase 2 (SOD2), theCD14 gene promoter, TLR2, TLR4;IL-1 , IL-1R, and the TNF gene promoter...
  32. Edward J Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..DCs stand at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. They express receptors (such as Toll-like receptors, TLRs) that allow them to sense and respond to infection...
  33. Frederick R Maxfield; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Examine the role of TLR4, Syndecan 4 and other potential surface receptors C...
  34. Effects of Allergic Inflammation on TLR2 Signaling and Mycoplasma Infection
    HONG W CHU; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..studies in mouse models and human primary airway epithelial cell cultures have demonstrated that: 1) Mp activates Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling pathway in mouse lungs including airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs),..
  35. Der p 2-driven TLR4 signaling in allergic asthma
    Jaclyn W McAlees; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..because it has intrinsic adjuvant activity due to its molecular mimicry of MD-2, the LPS-binding subunit of the TLR4 complex. Der p 2 can reconstitute and augment TLR4 signaling in the absence and presence of MD-2, respectively...
  36. Gyongyi Szabo; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..HCV represents danger signals for the host through Toll like receptor 7 and 8 that recognize ssRNA, TLR3 that senses dsRNA or TLR2 that is activated by HCV core and NSS ..
  37. Immunobiology of Acute Environmental Asthma
    David B Peden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of either pathogen associated molecular pattern receptors (including CD14 facilitated binding of endotoxin by TLR4) or the P2X7 receptor by ATP (which is increasingly recognized as an endogenous danger signal released by host ..
  38. Anthony R Means; Fiscal Year: 2015 markedly attenuated response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that binds to and activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and causes systemic inflammation...
  39. JILL PAMELA BUYON; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..The macrophage engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLR) via binding to the RNA moiety of the target autoantigen was suggested by recent experiments...
  40. Fatty Acids, Eicosanoids and Inflammation
    Eric K Long; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In adipose tissue, adipocyte derived fatty acids bind to TLR4 and other free fatty acid receptors on the macrophage cell surface eventually leading to NF-kB-dependent pro-..
  41. Kevin J Tracey; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..questions in this field, including: how do post-translational modifications alter HMGB1 interactions with TLR4 and RAGE, its two best understood and pre-eminent receptors? What is the effect of the HMGB1-TLR4 complex on ..
  42. INDER MOHAN VERMA; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Inflammation and diabetes: Role of Tlr4 in macrophages...
  43. Samithamby Jeyaseelan; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..pneumoniae strains worldwide. Although K. pneumoniae signals via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and 9, a few studies have also indicated the involvement of NOD-like receptors (NLRs) as ..
  44. Orthopaedic Wear Debris, Vitamin D, and Innate Immunity
    John S Adams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As such, it is hypothesized that PE wear particles shed locally by the implant activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a subset of pattern recognition receptors embedded in the plasma membrane of macrophages, to ..
  45. Ekihiro Seki; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..On the other hand, we have recently shown that TLR4 directly activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in hepatic fibrosis...
  46. Effects of fish oil on inflammation and metabolic syndrome
    Philip A Kern; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..we will determine whether ω-3 fatty acids induce changes in recruitment of inflammatory receptors, such as toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TNFαReceptor 1 (TNFR1) to membrane rafts. Hypothesis 3...
  47. HMGB1 and neutrophil efferocytosis.
    ..importance of HMGB1 in modulating phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils in the lungs during hemorrhage, TLR2, or TLR4 induced acute lung injury...
  48. Ping Wang; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..In addition, anti-rmCIRP antibodies improve survival in sepsis animals. We have determined that TLR4 serves as the CIRP receptor...
  49. Geert Jan Boons; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Guided by a recent X-ray crystal structure of MD2-TLR4 with LPS, a range of synthetic lipid As will be prepared which will be examined for binding, dimerization of the ..
    Emad S Alnemri; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..proposed to characterize novel upstream activators of the ASC pyroptosome and further investigate the role TLR2, TLR4, cryopyrin and caspase-1-mediated proteolysis in macrophage pyroptosis...
  51. HARRIS R PERLMAN; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and display increased markers of activation following ligation by toll like receptor (TLR) agonists...
  52. Chandrashekhar Pasare; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize a diverse set of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) from different classes of microbes ..
  53. Adenosine, Toll-Like Receptors and Angiogenesis
    Samuel Joseph Leibovich; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. Role of Fetal Lung Macrophages in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Lawrence S Prince; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..this hypothesis: 1) to determine whether fetal lung macrophages are required for inhibition of lung development by Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) agonists, 2) to identify the role of the NF-kB pathway in inhibition of lung development ..
  55. TLR7 mediates immune cell infiltration and homing to combat West Nile virus infec
    Fengwei Bai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The mammalian Toll-like receptors (Tlrs) that consist of more than ten members are curial for the recognition of a variety of PAMPs...
  56. STAT3 and its Acetylation in Acute Lung Injury
    Hongwei Gao; Fiscal Year: 2012 vivo during ALI by activating multiple target genes, which then differentially regulate Fc3R-mediated and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in the lung...
  57. Sabita Roy; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..LPS activates Toll like receptor 4 to induce transcription of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (32-34)...
  58. Jeremy B Sokolove; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Autoantibodies that target citrullinated proteins are specific to RA, and innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in the induction of both inflammation and adaptive immunity (e.g...
  59. John F Sheridan; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..mice showed a primed phenotype with increased surface expression of several inflammatory markers, including CD86, TLR4, and CD14 (J. Neuroscience 2011, in press)...
  60. Negative Regulation of Osteoclastogenesis by Inflammatory Signals
    Kyung Hyun Park-Min; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This application will focus on mechanisms of inhibition of the generation of osteoclasts. TLRs (Toll-like Receptors) are potent activators of inflammation and have been implicated in driving inflammatory bone ..
  61. Shukti Chakravarti; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Lumican itself binds LPS that can be removed competitively by CD14, the cell surface protein that transfers LPS to toll-like receptor 4, the trans-membrane IPS receptor...
  62. Tri-Society Meeting of International Cytokine Society (ICS), International Societ
    Luis Montaner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the role of IL-1 and Mast Cells, IFN-stimulated genes, Innate Recognition of Pathogens, Pathogen interactions with Toll-like receptors: TB and Malaria, Pathogen Manipulation of Cytokine Responses Cytokines and viral pathogenesis, ..
  63. Innate Immune Bacterial Recognition and Osteoclastogenesis
    Caroline A Genco; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We also reported that TLR2 but not TLR4, was crucial for P. gingivalis induced oral inflammatory bone loss in a mouse model (45)...
  64. IL-23 / Il-17 and Lung Host Defense
    Jay Kolls; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This data allows us to propose an experimental hypothesis that both TLR4 and IL-23 are required for the production of IL-17A and IL-17F in the lung and that IL-17R signaling by lung ..
  65. Peter Cresswell; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..types are activated by the interaction of a variety of pathogen components with innate immune receptors such as Toll-like Receptors (TLRs)...
  66. Martin E Dorf; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..The final Specific Aim will identify TBK1 associated molecules which regulate the RLR, TLR3, TLR4, or dsDNA signaling pathways...
  67. Emilio B Gonzalez; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..There is strong evidence that annexin A2, a receptor for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), a receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2'(..
  68. Genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer in Latin America
    Eduardo M Tarazona-Santos; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This response is mediated by the Toll-like-receptors, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-8 (IL8), 1L-1? and TNF-?, and the pro-inflammatory ..
    MUYIWA EMMANUEL AWONIYI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>TLR4/MD-2 LPS receptor complex in defense against NTS is evident from the increased susceptibility of TLR4-deficient ..
  70. Innate Immunity and Herpes Simplex Infection
    ROBERT WILLIAM FINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The discovery of the Toll-Like Receptor Proteins (TLRs) and their importance in the regulation of host response to infection has led to a series of investigations related to the role of host proteins and cytokines in microbial ..
  71. Richard P Phipps; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Specific Aim 2: To determine whether yeast or yeast products activate fibroblasts via Toll-like receptors (TLR) and whether specific MC1R SNPs modify that response...
  72. Keiko Watanabe; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..LPS) from periodontal lesions and free fatty acids (FFAs) from HF diet promote inflammation through Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), and inflammation in general promotes insulin resistance, we have recently explored the role ..
  73. TLR4 Mutations: Molecular Mechanisms of Impaired LPS Sensitivity
    Andrei E Medvedev; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):TLR4, the predominant signaling receptor for LPS, is critical for host defense against Gram negative bacterial infections...
  74. Shawn J Skerrett; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Host defense against Lp involves microbial detection by membrane-bound Toll- like receptors (TLRs), which induce pro-inflammatory cytokines, and by cytosolic nucleotide-binding leucine rich ..
  75. Gary A Jarvis; Fiscal Year: 2016 and that of others has shown that the lipid A (LA) portion of Neisserial LOS engages innate immune receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to initiate a signaling cascade leading to cytokine expression by various cell types such as ..
  76. Ofer Levy; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..objective is to characterize the impact of neonatal purine metabolism on immune responses to adjuvants, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, and vaccines, by pursuing the following Specific Aims: In Aim 1, we will assess the ..
  77. TNF and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in ALD
    Craig J McClain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of cAMP and phosphodiesterase inhibitors on LPS-stimulated TNFproduction in ALD;2: Evaluate monocyte/Kupffer cell Toll-like receptor signaling in ALD;3: Evaluate the effects of hepatocyte lipid rafts on TNF-inducedapoptosis and NFicB ..
  78. Regulation of Tumor Associated Macrophages by TGF-beta
    Venkateshwar G Keshamouni; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..TGF-[unreadable] signaling intermediates and the components of both cytokine and antigen receptors including Toll-like receptors...
  79. Thomas Y Ma; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..that the LPS induced increase in intestinal epithelial TJ permeability was mediated in part by: 1) increase in Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expression;2) activation of p38 kinase pathway;and 3) increase in myosin light chain kinase ..
  80. Phagosomal Signals Shape Inflammatory Responses to Borrelia Burgdorferi
    Juan C Salazar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a result of the interactions of the spirochete's abundant outer membrane-associated lipoproteins with CD14 and Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1/2 on the surface of these cells...
  81. HIV-1 regulation by MTb: pathogen and host factor
    Anne Goldfeld; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..through several receptors found in mononuclear phagocytes, including the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9, and the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor...
  82. TLR-mediated Signaling Complex Formation and Regulation of Effector Functions
    Hans Haecker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..major goal of this project is to define and characterize unknown components of the signaling pathways triggered by Toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
  83. John W Sleasman; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..activation, and capacity of neonatal monocytes/macrophages to produce BAFF and APRIL following activation via Toll-like receptors...
  84. Sinem Esra Sahingur; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Bacterial nucleic acids represent a group of PAMPs that are mainly recognized through intracellular PRRs, including Toll like receptor 9, AIM2 (absent in melanoma-2) for inflammasome and DAI...
  85. Andrei E Medvedev; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..This is highly reminiscent of endotoxin tolerance, a state of re-programming of TLR4 responses after a prior exposure to LPS...
  86. Beibei Chen; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..g. via Toll receptors) to cytokine release via NF-kB dependent signaling...
  87. CD180 and the Macrophage Response to Legionella pneumophila
    Thomas R Hawn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The role of CD180 (RP105), a non-signaling member of the TLR family that regulates TLR2 and TLR4 function, in Legionella pathogenesis is unknown...
  88. Stefanie N Vogel; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Our work in this funding cycle has focused primarily on the mechanisms by which Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling induced by conserved microbial structures, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ..
  89. TLR Ectodomains for Microbial Detection and Therapeutics
    Neal Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are critical components of the innate immune system, where they serve as sentinel receptors for the detection of microbes and endogenous danger signals...
  90. Regulation of TLR4 Signaling in Enterocytes in Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    Amin Afrazi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have shown that NEC develops when an immune receptor - called toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) - becomes activated within the intestine...
  91. Scott J Hultgren; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Murine models and human clinical studies show roles for the same specific cytokines and TLR4 signaling in UTI...
  92. Blood-based detection of BRAF and NRAS DNA as biomarkers in patients with stage I
    David Polsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Abstract Melanoma remains a highly morbid disease in the United States. With a relatively young age of onset, the toll of melanoma in terms of "life-years lost" is second only to breast cancer among the major solid tumor malignancies...
  93. JAVEED ALI SHAH; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..TOLLIP is a recently discovered regulator of the Toll-like receptor pathway that is critical for an effective immune response to tuberculosis...
  94. Derek W Abbott; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..We have recently extended this finding to show that the major extracellular innate immune signaling receptors, the Toll-like Receptors (TLRs), also require K285 NEMO ubiquitination to properly signal through NF[unreadable]B...
  95. Tobias M Hohl; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..cell activation and effector mechanisms to fungal uptake and that integrates signals from C-type lectin (CTL) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) via the adaptor proteins CARD9 and MyD88 and from the intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) ..
  96. Synthetic Gypsogenin Saponins as Synergistic Vaccine Adjuvants
    ASHISH KUMAR PATHAK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. toll-like receptors (TLRs) and lectins, and ii) lipophilic chais, that may be designed to serve as ligands for innate ..
  97. Kun Ping Lu; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..For example, it has been shown that house dust mites (HDM) allergens activate TLR4 signaling in epithelial cells to produce cytokines, including IL-33, which activates interleukin-1 receptor 1 (ST2) ..