TLR4

Summary

Gene Symbol: TLR4
Description: toll like receptor 4
Alias: ARMD10, CD284, TLR-4, TOLL, toll-like receptor 4, hToll, homolog of Drosophila toll
Species: human
Products:     TLR4

Top Publications

  1. Ren M, Gao L, Wu X. TLR4: the receptor bridging Acanthamoeba challenge and intracellular inflammatory responses in human corneal cell lines. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the expressions of TLR4, myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, phospho-IkappaB, phospho-extracellular ..
  2. Szajnik M, Szczepanski M, Czystowska M, Elishaev E, Mandapathil M, Nowak Markwitz E, et al. TLR4 signaling induced by lipopolysaccharide or paclitaxel regulates tumor survival and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. Oncogene. 2009;28:4353-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on immune cells trigger inflammatory responses. TLRs are also expressed on ovarian cancer (OvCa) cells, but the consequences of signaling by the TLR4/MyD88 pathway in these cells are unclear...
  3. Plantinga T, Hamza O, Willment J, Ferwerda B, van de Geer N, Verweij P, et al. Genetic variation of innate immune genes in HIV-infected african patients with or without oropharyngeal candidiasis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether genetic variations in the innate immune genes DECTIN-1, TLR2, TLR4, TIRAP, and CASPASE-12 are associated with the presence of OPC in HIV-infected subjects from East Africa...
  4. Bielinski S, Hall J, Pankow J, Boerwinkle E, Matijevic Aleksic N, He M, et al. Genetic variants in TLR2 and TLR4 are associated with markers of monocyte activation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities MRI Study. Hum Genet. 2011;129:655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we investigated the influence of genetic variants in monocyte differentiation antigen (CD14), toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) on monocyte surface receptor levels...
  5. Balistreri C, Caruso C, Carruba G, Miceli V, Campisi I, Listi F, et al. A pilot study on prostate cancer risk and pro-inflammatory genotypes: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:718-24 pubmed
    ..for both prevention and treatment of PC, we have investigated the potential role of common SNPs of a gene cluster (TLR4, TLR2, PTGS2 and 5-Lo), involved in innate and inflammatory response, in PC cases, age-matched controls and ..
  6. Stewart C, Stuart L, Wilkinson K, van Gils J, Deng J, Halle A, et al. CD36 ligands promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify CD36-TLR4-TLR6 activation as a common molecular mechanism by which atherogenic lipids and amyloid-beta stimulate sterile ..
  7. Minoretti P, Gazzaruso C, Vito C, Emanuele E, Bianchi M, Coen E, et al. Effect of the functional toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly polymorphism on susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2006;391:147-9 pubmed
    Experimental data have shown an upregulated expression of toll-like receptors, particularly toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), in neurodegeneration...
  8. Fitzgerald K, Rowe D, Barnes B, Caffrey D, Visintin A, Latz E, et al. LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1043-55 pubmed
    b>Toll-IL-1-resistance (TIR) domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) is the fourth TIR domain-containing adaptor protein to be described that participates in Toll receptor signaling...
  9. Oblak A, Jerala R. Species-specific activation of TLR4 by hypoacylated endotoxins governed by residues 82 and 122 of MD-2. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e107520 pubmed publisher
    The Toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 receptor complex recognizes endotoxin, a Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope component...

More Information

Publications472 found, 100 shown here

  1. Sussman D, Santaolalla R, Bejarano P, Garcia Buitrago M, Perez M, Abreu M, et al. In silico and Ex vivo approaches identify a role for toll-like receptor 4 in colorectal cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014;33:45 pubmed publisher
    Inflammation increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We and others have described a role for TLR4, the receptor for LPS, in colon cancer...
  2. Mansur A, von Gruben L, Popov A, Steinau M, Bergmann I, Ross D, et al. The regulatory toll-like receptor 4 genetic polymorphism rs11536889 is associated with renal, coagulation and hepatic organ failure in sepsis patients. J Transl Med. 2014;12:177 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor complex signal-transducing molecule, plays a crucial role in sensing LPS from gram-negative bacteria...
  3. Medvedev A, Lentschat A, Wahl L, Golenbock D, Vogel S. Dysregulation of LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4-MyD88 complex formation and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 activation in endotoxin-tolerant cells. J Immunol. 2002;169:5209-16 pubmed
    ..reported to correlate with decreased cell surface expression of the LPS receptor complex, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MD-2...
  4. Abreu M, Vora P, Faure E, Thomas L, Arnold E, Arditi M. Decreased expression of Toll-like receptor-4 and MD-2 correlates with intestinal epithelial cell protection against dysregulated proinflammatory gene expression in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 2001;167:1609-16 pubmed
    ..To determine the reason for LPS hyporesponsiveness in IEC, we examined the expression of TLR4 and MD-2, a critical coreceptor for TLR4 signaling...
  5. Rohde G, Klein W, Arinir U, Hagedorn M, Duerig N, T Bauer T, et al. Association of the ASP299GLY TLR4 polymorphism with COPD. Respir Med. 2006;100:892-6 pubmed
    ..The inflammatory response to these bacteria is mediated by Toll-like receptors...
  6. Devaraj S, Dasu M, Park S, Jialal I. Increased levels of ligands of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1665-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown increased Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 expression and signalling in monocytes from type 1 diabetic patients...
  7. Yang H, Xie K, Deng J, Qin S. Expression of soluble Toll-like receptors in pleural effusions. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:2225-30 pubmed
    The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a group of single-pass transmembrane receptors expressed on sentinel cells that are central to innate immune responses...
  8. Kopp E, Medzhitov R, Carothers J, Xiao C, Douglas I, Janeway C, et al. ECSIT is an evolutionarily conserved intermediate in the Toll/IL-1 signal transduction pathway. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2059-71 pubmed
    Activation of NF-kappaB as a consequence of signaling through the Toll and IL-1 receptors is a major element of innate immune responses...
  9. Arbour N, Lorenz E, Schutte B, Zabner J, Kline J, Jones M, et al. TLR4 mutations are associated with endotoxin hyporesponsiveness in humans. Nat Genet. 2000;25:187-91 pubmed
    ..To address this, we investigated whether TLR4 (encoding the toll-like receptor-4), which has been shown to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness in mice,..
  10. Bernatoniene J, Zhang Q, Dogan S, Mitchell T, Paton J, Finn A. Induction of CC and CXC chemokines in human antigen-presenting dendritic cells by the pneumococcal proteins pneumolysin and CbpA, and the role played by toll-like receptor 4, NF-kappaB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1823-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The role played by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) was assessed using anti-TLR antibodies...
  11. Guo Q, Zhu J, Xia B. Polymorphism of CD14 gene but not the mutation of TLR4 gene is associated with colorectal cancer in Chinese patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:92-7 pubmed
    ..Our study aimed to investigate an association between TLR4 Asp299Gly and CD14-260 polymorphisms in Chinese patients with colorectal cancer...
  12. Ferwerda B, McCall M, Alonso S, Giamarellos Bourboulis E, Mouktaroudi M, Izagirre N, et al. TLR4 polymorphisms, infectious diseases, and evolutionary pressure during migration of modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16645-50 pubmed
    ..Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been related to susceptibility to Gram-negative infections and septic shock...
  13. Tian T, Jin S, Dong J, Li G. Lack of association between Toll-like receptor 4 gene Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and tuberculosis susceptibility: a meta-analysis. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;14:156-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a vital role in immunity to tubercle bacillus and its gene polymorphisms are supposed to affect tuberculosis susceptibility in some rather than all studies...
  14. Yu L, Wang L, Li M, Zhong J, Wang Z, Chen S. Expression of toll-like receptor 4 is down-regulated during progression of cervical neoplasia. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010;59:1021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important families of pattern recognition receptors, which recognize conserved components ..
  15. De Jager P, Franchimont D, Waliszewska A, Bitton A, Cohen A, Langelier D, et al. The role of the Toll receptor pathway in susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases. Genes Immun. 2007;8:387-97 pubmed
    ..Host defenses, such as those mediated by the Toll-like receptors (TLR), are critical to the host/pathogen interaction and have been implicated in IBD pathophysiology...
  16. Hong J, Leung E, Fraser A, Merriman T, Vishnu P, Krissansen G. TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 polymorphisms and Crohn's disease in a New Zealand Caucasian cohort. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:1760-6 pubmed
    b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified as susceptibility genes for Crohn's disease (CD) in some, but not all, studies...
  17. Radstake T, Franke B, Hanssen S, Netea M, Welsing P, Barrera P, et al. The Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly functional variant is associated with decreased rheumatoid arthritis disease susceptibility but does not influence disease severity and/or outcome. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:999-1001 pubmed
  18. Hang J, Zhou W, Zhang H, Sun B, Dai H, Su L, et al. TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms are very rare in the Chinese population. J Endotoxin Res. 2004;10:238-40 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates the host response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms ..
  19. Kang E, Lee J. Genotypic analysis of Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphism of Toll-like receptor 4 in systemic autoimmune diseases of Korean population. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27:887-9 pubmed
  20. Hausmann M, Kiessling S, Mestermann S, Webb G, Spottl T, Andus T, et al. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are up-regulated during intestinal inflammation. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:1987-2000 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR2 and TLR4 have been identified as signaling receptors activated by bacterial wall components...
  21. Moura S, Almeida L, Guerra J, Rocha G, Camargos Rocha A, Melo F, et al. Toll-like receptor (TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5) gene polymorphisms and Helicobacter pylori infection in children with and without duodenal ulcer. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:1477-83 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori or the disease outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether TLR4, TLR2, and TLR5 polymorphisms were associated with H. pylori susceptibility and risk for duodenal ulcer in children...
  22. Eid A, Brown R, Paya C, Razonable R. Association between toll-like receptor polymorphisms and the outcome of liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C virus. Transplantation. 2007;84:511-6 pubmed
    ..models suggest that immune cells recognize hepatitis C virus (HCV) through toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR4. We assessed the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism in genes that encode for these receptors ..
  23. Castano Rodriguez N, Kaakoush N, Goh K, Fock K, Mitchell H. The role of TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 genetic polymorphisms in gastric carcinogenesis: a case-control study and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60327 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognition of H. pylori is known to involve Toll-like receptors (TLR), which subsequently leads to activation of NF-?B...
  24. Pioli P, Amiel E, Schaefer T, Connolly J, Wira C, Guyre P. Differential expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in tissues of the human female reproductive tract. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5799-806 pubmed
    ..In contrast to TLR2, TLR4 expression declined progressively along the tract, with highest expression in the upper tissues (fallopian tubes ..
  25. Kumpf O, Hamann L, Schlag P, Schumann R. Pre- and postoperative cytokine release after in vitro whole blood lipopolysaccharide stimulation and frequent toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms. Shock. 2006;25:123-8 pubmed
    In a prospective cohort study, we examined 62 patients undergoing major surgical cancer therapy for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene polymorphisms (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) and their influence on cytokine levels pre- and postoperatively, ..
  26. Allhorn S, Boing C, Koch A, Kimmig R, Gashaw I. TLR3 and TLR4 expression in healthy and diseased human endometrium. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008;6:40 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR3 and TLR4 expression was investigated during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal endometrium considering peritoneal ..
  27. Davoodi H, Seow H. Variant Toll-like receptor4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles) and Toll-like receptor2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp alleles) in colorectal cancer. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;10:91-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between polymorphisms of TLR4 (Asp299Gly; Thr399Ile) and TLR2 (Arg677Trp; Arg753Gln) genes and risk of colorectal cancer...
  28. Sato K, Yoshimura A, Kaneko T, Ukai T, Ozaki Y, Nakamura H, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism in 3'-untranslated region contributes to the regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 translation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25163-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expression were investigated...
  29. Ding H, Yang J, Chen P, Yang J, Bo S, Ding J, et al. The HMGB1-TLR4 axis contributes to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Gene. 2013;527:389-93 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its ligand high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are known for playing central roles in ischemia-reperfusion injury in myocardium. However, the detailed mechanisms of TLR4 and HMGB1 are not fully understood...
  30. Qian Y, Deng J, Xie H, Geng L, Zhou L, Wang Y, et al. Regulation of TLR4-induced IL-6 response in bladder cancer cells by opposing actions of MAPK and PI3K signaling. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009;135:379-86 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was found to be aberrantly expressed in bladder cancer, inducing some genes expression and facilitating tumor progression...
  31. Mori Y, Yoshimura A, Ukai T, Lien E, Espevik T, Hara Y. Immunohistochemical localization of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in gingival tissue from patients with periodontitis. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2003;18:54-8 pubmed
    The present study investigated the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 and CD1a in human periodontitis gingiva using immunohistochemical methods...
  32. Smirnova I, Mann N, Dols A, Derkx H, Hibberd M, Levin M, et al. Assay of locus-specific genetic load implicates rare Toll-like receptor 4 mutations in meningococcal susceptibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:6075-80 pubmed
    As the central component of the human endotoxin sensor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) functions in the early detection and response to Gram-negative infection...
  33. Hsu R, Chan C, Spicer J, Rousseau M, Giannias B, Rousseau S, et al. LPS-induced TLR4 signaling in human colorectal cancer cells increases beta1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion and liver metastasis. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1989-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The complex formed between Toll receptor TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor MD2 defines a major cell surface receptor for lipopolysaccharide (..
  34. Zhu L, Li X, Miao C. Lack of association between TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and sepsis susceptibility: a meta-analysis. Gene. 2012;501:213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Some, but not all, epidemiological studies have suggested that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphisms, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, may influence the risk of at-risk patients for ..
  35. Gazouli M, Mantzaris G, Kotsinas A, Zacharatos P, Papalambros E, Archimandritis A, et al. Association between polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor 4, CD14, and CARD15/NOD2 and inflammatory bowel disease in the Greek population. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:681-5 pubmed
    ..evidence is accumulating that molecules related to the innate immune response such as CD14 or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), are involved in their pathogenesis...
  36. van der Graaf C, Kullberg B, Joosten L, Verver Jansen T, Jacobs L, Van der Meer J, et al. Functional consequences of the Asp299Gly Toll-like receptor-4 polymorphism. Cytokine. 2005;30:264-8 pubmed
    b>Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is a pattern-recognition receptor not only for exogenous ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, but also for endogenous ligands such as fibronectin, heat shock proteins and ..
  37. Sackesen C, Karaaslan C, Keskin O, Tokol N, Tahan F, Civelek E, et al. The effect of polymorphisms at the CD14 promoter and the TLR4 gene on asthma phenotypes in Turkish children with asthma. Allergy. 2005;60:1485-92 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of the genetic variants of CD14 and TLR4 genes on asthma phenotypes in a large number of asthmatic children...
  38. Henckaerts L, Nielsen K, Steffensen R, Van Steen K, Mathieu C, Giulietti A, et al. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes predispose to bacteremia and death in the medical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:192-201, e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..03) and a higher risk of bacteremia than wild-type patients (p = 0.02). The NOD2/TLR4 combination was associated with bacteremia using survival analyses (time to bacteremia development, log-rank p < ..
  39. Pimentel Nunes P, Afonso L, Lopes P, Roncon Albuquerque R, Gonçalves N, Henrique R, et al. Increased expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 4 and 5 in gastric dysplasia. Pathol Oncol Res. 2011;17:677-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry for TLR2, 4 and 5 was performed with anti-TLR2-TLR4-TLR5 antibodies in 117 histological samples of normal gastric mucosa (n?=?22), HP+ gastritis (n?=?20), intestinal ..
  40. Palomino Morales R, Torres O, Vazquez Rodriguez T, Morado I, Castañeda S, Callejas Rubio J, et al. Association between toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphism and biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess the potential implication of the TLR4-(+896 A/G) gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to GCA...
  41. Figueroa L, Xiong Y, Song C, Piao W, Vogel S, Medvedev A. The Asp299Gly polymorphism alters TLR4 signaling by interfering with recruitment of MyD88 and TRIF. J Immunol. 2012;188:4506-15 pubmed publisher
    Asp(299)Gly (D299G) and, to a lesser extent, Thr(399)Ile (T399I) TLR4 polymorphisms have been associated with gram-negative sepsis and other infectious diseases, but the mechanisms by which they affect TLR4 signaling are unclear...
  42. Zee R, Hegener H, Gould J, Ridker P. Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly gene polymorphism and risk of atherothrombosis. Stroke. 2005;36:154-7 pubmed
    Recent findings of an association between a functional toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) D299G gene variant and reduced risk of atherothrombotic disorders have generated great interest...
  43. Emonts M, Veenhoven R, Wiertsema S, Houwing Duistermaat J, Walraven V, De Groot R, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in immunoresponse genes TNFA, IL6, IL10, and TLR4 are associated with recurrent acute otitis media. Pediatrics. 2007;120:814-23 pubmed
    ..Polymorphisms in TNFA, IL1B, IL4, IL6, IL10, IL8, NOS2A, C1INH, PARP, TLR2, and TLR4 were genotyped...
  44. Kundu S, Lee C, Billips B, Habermacher G, Zhang Q, Liu V, et al. The toll-like receptor pathway: a novel mechanism of infection-induced carcinogenesis of prostate epithelial cells. Prostate. 2008;68:223-9 pubmed
    ..g., HPV and HSV), which are common in the genitourinary system. Our experiments show that RWPE cells express both TLR 4 (LPS-specific) and TLR 9 (CpG-specific)...
  45. Trejo de la O A, Torres J, Perez Rodríguez M, Camorlinga Ponce M, Luna L, Abdo Francis J, et al. TLR4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms alter mucosal cytokine and chemokine patterns in Mexican patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases. Clin Immunol. 2008;129:333-40 pubmed publisher
    Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) participate in H...
  46. Boekholdt S, Agema W, Peters R, Zwinderman A, van der Wall E, Reitsma P, et al. Variants of toll-like receptor 4 modify the efficacy of statin therapy and the risk of cardiovascular events. Circulation. 2003;107:2416-21 pubmed
    ..We examined whether genetic variants of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which are correlated with impaired innate immunity and with progression of carotid atherosclerosis, are also ..
  47. van Well G, Sanders M, Ouburg S, van Furth A, Morre S. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 are highly associated with hearing loss in survivors of bacterial meningitis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35837 pubmed publisher
    ..Eleven SNPs in seven genes (TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, CASP1, and TRAIL) were genotyped in 393 survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis (BM) (327 MM ..
  48. Kim S, Baik K, Baek K, Chah K, Kim K, Moon G, et al. S6K1 negatively regulates TAK1 activity in the toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:510-21 pubmed publisher
    ..S6K1 overexpression causes a marked reduction in NF-?B and AP-1 activity induced by stimulation of TLR2 or TLR4. In contrast, S6K1(-/-) and S6K1 knockdown cells display enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines...
  49. Hawn T, Verbon A, Janer M, Zhao L, Beutler B, Aderem A. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms are associated with resistance to Legionnaires' disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2487-9 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest an association of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphisms with increased susceptibility to some infections...
  50. Gray P, Dunne A, Brikos C, Jefferies C, Doyle S, O Neill L. MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) is phosphorylated by Bruton's tyrosine kinase during TLR2 and TLR4 signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10489-95 pubmed
    Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are essential players in activating the host innate immune response against infectious microorganisms. All TLRs signal through Toll/interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adapter proteins...
  51. Begon E, Michel L, Flageul B, Beaudoin I, Jean Louis F, Bachelez H, et al. Expression, subcellular localization and cytokinic modulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in normal human keratinocytes: TLR2 up-regulation in psoriatic skin. Eur J Dermatol. 2007;17:497-506 pubmed
    The aim of the research described here was to investigate the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in normal human keratinocytes, to study its modulation by proinflammatory cytokines, and to characterize the function of the latter ..
  52. Michel O, LeVan T, Stern D, Dentener M, Thorn J, Gnat D, et al. Systemic responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor 4 gene in human beings. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:923-9 pubmed
    ..The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is the principal receptor for lipopolysacharide...
  53. Frolova L, Drastich P, Rossmann P, Klimesova K, Tlaskalova Hogenova H. Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CD14 in biopsy samples of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: upregulated expression of TLR2 in terminal ileum of patients with ulcerative colitis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:267-74 pubmed
    ..We investigated expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and their transmembrane coreceptor CD14 in biopsy samples from patients with IBD and in non-inflamed gut mucosa ..
  54. Kawamoto T, Ii M, Kitazaki T, Iizawa Y, Kimura H. TAK-242 selectively suppresses Toll-like receptor 4-signaling mediated by the intracellular domain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;584:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..almost completely suppressed production of nitric oxide (NO) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induced by a TLR4-specific ligand, ultra-pure LPS, in mouse RAW264...
  55. Uronen Hansson H, Allen J, Osman M, Squires G, Klein N, Callard R. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are present inside human dendritic cells, associated with microtubules and the Golgi apparatus but are not detectable on the cell surface: integrity of microtubules is required for interleukin-12 production in res. Immunology. 2004;111:173-8 pubmed
    The activation of dendritic cells (DCs) by microbes is mediated by pattern recognition receptors including the Toll-like receptors (TLR)...
  56. Omrane I, Baroudi O, Kourda N, Bignon Y, Uhrhammer N, Desrichard A, et al. Positive link between variant Toll-like receptor 4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) and colorectal cancer patients with advanced stage and lymph node metastasis. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:545-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are considered as major endotoxin-signaling receptor and as crucial sensors of innate immunity...
  57. Rupp J, Goepel W, Kramme E, Jahn J, Solbach W, Maass M. CD14 promoter polymorphism -159C>T is associated with susceptibility to chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in peripheral blood monocytes. Genes Immun. 2004;5:435-8 pubmed
    ..0224) than among C. pneumoniae-negative subjects matched for age and gender. The Arg753Gln TLR2 and Asp299Gly TLR4 polymorphisms were not related to chlamydial infection...
  58. Hsieh Y, Wan L, Chang C, Tsai C, Tsai F. STAT2*C related genotypes and allele but not TLR4 and CD40 gene polymorphisms are associated with higher susceptibility for asthma. Int J Biol Sci. 2009;5:74-81 pubmed
    ..Herein we aimed to investigate whether signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT2), toll-like receptors 4 (TLRs4) and CD40-related polymorphisms are associated with asthma susceptibility...
  59. Lundberg A, Wikberg L, Ilonen J, Vaarala O, Böttcher M. Lipopolysaccharide-induced immune responses in relation to the TLR4(Asp299Gly) gene polymorphism. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1878-83 pubmed publisher
    ..However, genetic factors influence microbially induced immune responses. We have investigated the TLR4(Asp299Gly) gene polymorphism and its possible association with receptor expression of circulating peripheral blood ..
  60. Lorenz E, Schwartz D, Martin P, Gooley T, Lin M, Chien J, et al. Association of TLR4 mutations and the risk for acute GVHD after HLA-matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2001;7:384-7 pubmed
    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 has been recently identified as a major receptor for LPS...
  61. Piao W, Song C, Chen H, Wahl L, Fitzgerald K, O Neill L, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) is critical for signal transduction and blocked in endotoxin tolerance. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3109-19 pubmed
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognition of lipopolysaccharide triggers signalosome assembly among TLR4, sorting (e.g. MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)) and signaling (e.g...
  62. Park B, Song D, Kim H, Choi B, Lee H, Lee J. The structural basis of lipopolysaccharide recognition by the TLR4-MD-2 complex. Nature. 2009;458:1191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand the ligand specificity and receptor activation mechanism of the TLR4-MD-2-LPS complex we determined its crystal structure...
  63. Norata G, Garlaschelli K, Ongari M, Raselli S, Grigore L, Benvenuto F, et al. Effect of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) variants on intima-media thickness and monocyte-derived macrophage response to LPS. J Intern Med. 2005;258:21-7 pubmed
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is believed to contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis...
  64. Bali P, Pradhan S, Sharma D, Adak T. Toll like receptor 2 and 4 polymorphisms in malaria endemic populations of India. Hum Immunol. 2013;74:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..study 264 malaria patients from seven different eco epidemiological regions of India were genotyped for TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms using DNA sequencing methods...
  65. Shinohara M, Hirata K, Yamashita T, Takaya T, Sasaki N, Shiraki R, et al. Local overexpression of toll-like receptors at the vessel wall induces atherosclerotic lesion formation: synergism of TLR2 and TLR4. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2384-91 pubmed
    ..Recently, toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified as key components of innate-immunity...
  66. Yang Q, Mou L, Lv F, Zhu P, Wang Z, Jiang J, et al. Novel TLR4-antagonizing peptides inhibit LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators by monocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:846-54 pubmed
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has become a new target for combating Gram-negative bacterium-induced sepsis...
  67. Mockenhaupt F, Cramer J, Hamann L, Stegemann M, Eckert J, Oh N, et al. Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms in African children: Common TLR-4 variants predispose to severe malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:177-82 pubmed
    ..5- and 2.6-fold increased risks of severe malaria, respectively. These findings suggest TLR4-mediated responses to malaria in vivo and TLR-4 polymorphisms to be associated with disease manifestation.
  68. Panter G, Jerala R. The ectodomain of the Toll-like receptor 4 prevents constitutive receptor activation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:23334-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in activation of the innate immune response in a large number of different diseases...
  69. Emingil G, Berdeli A, Baylas H, Saygan B, Gürkan A, Kose T, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 gene polymorphisms in generalized aggressive periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2007;78:1968-77 pubmed
    b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize exogenous ligands such as lipopolysaccharide and bacterial lipoprotein during the immune responses to pathogens...
  70. Horng T, Barton G, Medzhitov R. TIRAP: an adapter molecule in the Toll signaling pathway. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:835-41 pubmed
    Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved products of microbial metabolism and activate NF-kappa B and other signaling pathways through the adapter protein MyD88...
  71. Mita Y, Dobashi K, Endou K, Kawata T, Shimizu Y, Nakazawa T, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 surface expression on human monocytes and B cells is modulated by IL-2 and IL-4. Immunol Lett. 2002;81:71-5 pubmed
    Human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has recently been identified, and it has been shown to be the main protein involved in recognizing gram-negative bacteria...
  72. Sarrazy V, Vedrenne N, Billet F, Bordeau N, Lepreux S, Vital A, et al. TLR4 signal transduction pathways neutralize the effect of Fas signals on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration. Cancer Lett. 2011;311:195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pathway depending on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) could limit the glioblastoma spreading...
  73. Speletas M, Merentiti V, Kostikas K, Liadaki K, Minas M, Gourgoulianis K, et al. Association of TLR4-T399I polymorphism with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers. Clin Dev Immunol. 2009;2009:260286 pubmed publisher
    ..this purpose we investigated the prevalence and any possible associations of common TLR polymorphisms (TLR2-R753Q, TLR4-D299G, and TLR4-T399I) in a group of 240 heavy smokers (>20 pack years), without overt atherosclerosis disease, ..
  74. Shimazu R, Akashi S, Ogata H, Nagai Y, Fukudome K, Miyake K, et al. MD-2, a molecule that confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness on Toll-like receptor 4. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1777-82 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Toll, a leucine-rich repeat molecule that can trigger innate responses against pathogens...
  75. Chuang T, Ulevitch R. Triad3A, an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase regulating Toll-like receptors. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:495-502 pubmed
    ..Triad3A overexpression promoted substantial degradation of TLR4 and TLR9 with a concomitant decrease in signaling, but did not affect TLR2 expression or signaling...
  76. Laine M, Morre S, Murillo L, van Winkelhoff A, Pena A. CD14 and TLR4 gene polymorphisms in adult periodontitis. J Dent Res. 2005;84:1042-6 pubmed
    ..Bacterial components are recognized by CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), resulting in a NF-kappaB-based inflammatory response...
  77. Qureshi S, Zhang X, Aberg E, Bousette N, Giaid A, Shan P, et al. Inducible activation of TLR4 confers resistance to hyperoxia-induced pulmonary apoptosis. J Immunol. 2006;176:4950-8 pubmed
    ..Recent observations indicate that TLR4, the principal receptor for bacterial LPS, may also be activated by noninfectious stimuli including host-derived ..
  78. Bhuvanendran S, Hussin H, Meran L, Anthony A, Zhang L, Burch L, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and typhoid susceptibility in Asian Malay population in Malaysia. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:844-51 pubmed publisher
    Typhoid fever is a major health problem with frequent outbreaks in Kelantan, Malaysia. Prevalence of TLR4 gene polymorphisms varies with ethnic groups (0-20%) and predisposean individual to gram-negative infections...
  79. Dasu M, Devaraj S, Park S, Jialal I. Increased toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and TLR ligands in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:861-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the present study, we examined TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expression, their ligands, and signaling in monocytes of recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic ..
  80. Suh W, Kim S, Ki C, Kee C. Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms do not associate with normal tension glaucoma in a Korean population. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2343-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the association of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene polymorphisms with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) in the South Korean population...
  81. Lorenz E, Hallman M, Marttila R, Haataja R, Schwartz D. Association between the Asp299Gly polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor 4 and premature births in the Finnish population. Pediatr Res. 2002;52:373-6 pubmed
    ..Urogenital infection, often caused by Gram-negative bacteria, is a known risk factor. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is the major endotoxin-signaling receptor and as such is crucial for the initiation of the innate immune response ..
  82. Noguchi E, Nishimura F, Fukai H, Kim J, Ichikawa K, Shibasaki M, et al. An association study of asthma and total serum immunoglobin E levels for Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in a Japanese population. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34:177-83 pubmed
    ..b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in the signalling of many pathogen-related molecules and endogenous ..
  83. Yuan F, Marks K, Wong M, Watson S, de Leon E, McIntyre P, et al. Clinical relevance of TLR2, TLR4, CD14 and FcgammaRIIA gene polymorphisms in Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Immunol Cell Biol. 2008;86:268-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, polymorphisms in several candidate genes, including TLR2-Arg/Gln753, TLR4-Asp/Gly299, TLR4-Thr/Ile399, CD14-159C/T and FcgammaRIIA-R/H131, were examined in 85 children with pneumococcal ..
  84. Karoly E, Fekete A, Banki N, Szebeni B, Vannay A, Szabo A, et al. Heat shock protein 72 (HSPA1B) gene polymorphism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mutation are associated with increased risk of urinary tract infection in children. Pediatr Res. 2007;61:371-4 pubmed
    ..This study assesses the role of HSPA1B A(1267)G and TLR4 A(896)G polymorphisms using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in 103 patients treated with recurrent UTI...
  85. Tulic M, Hurrelbrink R, Prele C, Laing I, Upham J, Le Souef P, et al. TLR4 polymorphisms mediate impaired responses to respiratory syncytial virus and lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 2007;179:132-40 pubmed
    ..Innate immune responses to RSV are mediated by TLR-4, and the (299)Gly and (399)Ile alleles of the TLR4 gene have been linked epidemiologically with increased severity of RSV disease in children...
  86. Stark J, Wiklund F, Gronberg H, Schumacher F, Sinnott J, Stampfer M, et al. Toll-like receptor signaling pathway variants and prostate cancer mortality. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1859-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that genetic variation in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is associated with PCa incidence, but any role in progression and mortality ..
  87. Re F, Strominger J. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 differentially activate human dendritic cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37692-9 pubmed
    b>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate cell activation by various microbial products...
  88. Boraska Jelavic T, Barisic M, Drmic Hofman I, Boraska V, Vrdoljak E, Peruzovic M, et al. Microsatelite GT polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 is associated with colorectal cancer. Clin Genet. 2006;70:156-60 pubmed
    ..b>Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4) are critical in initiating innate immune response and inflammation toward ..
  89. Eder W, Klimecki W, Yu L, von Mutius E, Riedler J, Braun Fahrlander C, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 as a major gene for asthma in children of European farmers. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:482-8 pubmed
    ..were enrolled in the cross-sectional ALEX study were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TLR2 and TLR4 genes...
  90. Laisk T, Peters M, Saare M, Haller Kikkatalo K, Karro H, Salumets A. Association of CCR5, TLR2, TLR4 and MBL genetic variations with genital tract infections and tubal factor infertility. J Reprod Immunol. 2010;87:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We selected nine genetic variations in four genes involved in immune response modulation (CCR5, TLR2, TLR4 and MBL2) and assessed their association with tubal factor infertility by comparing genotype frequencies among 163 ..