TLR3

Summary

Gene Symbol: TLR3
Description: toll like receptor 3
Alias: CD283, IIAE2, toll-like receptor 3
Species: human
Products:     TLR3

Top Publications

  1. Barkhash A, Voevoda M, Romaschenko A. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism rs3775291 in the coding region of the TLR3 gene with predisposition to tick-borne encephalitis in a Russian population. Antiviral Res. 2013;99:136-8 pubmed publisher
    ..gene and the rs3775291 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (G/A, Leu412Phe) in exon 4 of the toll-like receptor TLR3 gene, was investigated...
  2. Ranjith Kumar C, Miller W, Xiong J, Russell W, Lamb R, Santos J, et al. Biochemical and functional analyses of the human Toll-like receptor 3 ectodomain. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:7668-78 pubmed
    The structure of the human Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ectodomain (ECD) was recently solved by x-ray crystallography, leading to a number of models concerning TLR3 function (Choe, J., Kelker, M. S., and Wilson, I. A...
  3. Ueta M, Sotozono C, Inatomi T, Kojima K, Tashiro K, Hamuro J, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:962-5 pubmed
    ..b>TLR3 recognises double-stranded RNA associated with viral infections...
  4. Qi R, Singh D, Kao C. Proteolytic processing regulates Toll-like receptor 3 stability and endosomal localization. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32617-29 pubmed
    ..Whether TLR3 requires similar proteolytic processing to become competent for signaling remains unclear...
  5. Lin Q, Wang L, Lin Y, Liu X, Ren X, Wen S, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid promotes wound healing in human and murine skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:2085-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study showed that wound healing was impaired in TLR3-deficient mice...
  6. Koarai A, Sugiura H, Yanagisawa S, Ichikawa T, Minakata Y, Matsunaga K, et al. Oxidative stress enhances toll-like receptor 3 response to double-stranded RNA in airway epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:651-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) has been demonstrated to react to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and to be involved in the immune responses after ..
  7. Zhang S, Herman M, Ciancanelli M, Pérez de Diego R, Sancho Shimizu V, Abel L, et al. TLR3 immunity to infection in mice and humans. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013;25:19-33 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR3 is a receptor for dsRNA, which is generated during most viral infections. However, other cellular processes may also produce dsRNA and there are other receptors for dsRNA...
  8. Jackson A, Rossiter J, Lafon M. Expression of Toll-like receptor 3 in the human cerebellar cortex in rabies, herpes simplex encephalitis, and other neurological diseases. J Neurovirol. 2006;12:229-34 pubmed
    ..This study has provided evidence that human brain neurons can express TLR-3 in vivo and suggests that neurons may play an important role in initiating an inflammatory reaction in a variety of neurological diseases...
  9. Gonzalez Reyes S, Marín L, Gonzalez L, Gonzalez L, del Casar J, Lamelas M, et al. Study of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 in breast carcinomas and their association with metastasis. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:665 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical relevance of TLR3, 4 and 9 in breast cancer...

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bsibsi M, Persoon Deen C, Verwer R, Meeuwsen S, Ravid R, van Noort J. Toll-like receptor 3 on adult human astrocytes triggers production of neuroprotective mediators. Glia. 2006;53:688-95 pubmed
    ..human astrocytes in culture dominantly express TLR4, they display a strikingly strong and selective induction of TLR3 when activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, TLR3 or TLR4 agonists, or oxidative stress...
  2. Paone A, Starace D, Galli R, Padula F, De Cesaris P, Filippini A, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 triggers apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells through a PKC-alpha-dependent mechanism. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1334-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Since TLR3 has been recently suggested as a possible therapeutic target in some cancer cell lines, we studied TLR3 expression ..
  3. Dai X, Sayama K, Yamasaki K, Tohyama M, Shirakata Y, Hanakawa Y, et al. SOCS1-negative feedback of STAT1 activation is a key pathway in the dsRNA-induced innate immune response of human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1574-81 pubmed
    ..Epidermal keratinocytes express TLR3 and provide an innate immune defense against viral infection...
  4. Sukkar M, Xie S, Khorasani N, Kon O, Stanbridge R, Issa R, et al. Toll-like receptor 2, 3, and 4 expression and function in human airway smooth muscle. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:641-8 pubmed
    ..ASMCs expressed TLR1 to TLR10 mRNA, and TLR2 and TLR3 protein expression was demonstrated...
  5. Sheyhidin I, Nabi G, Hasim A, Zhang R, Ainiwaer J, Ma H, et al. Overexpression of TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:3745-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 mRNA and protein in samples from 87 esophageal cancer patients consisting of both tumor and ..
  6. Matijevic T, Marjanovic M, Pavelic J. Functionally active toll-like receptor 3 on human primary and metastatic cancer cells. Scand J Immunol. 2009;70:18-24 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a member of Toll-like receptors who recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from pathogens and trigger the immune response...
  7. Hirata T, Osuga Y, Hamasaki K, Hirota Y, Nose E, Morimoto C, et al. Expression of toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, and 9 genes in the human endometrium during the menstrual cycle. J Reprod Immunol. 2007;74:53-60 pubmed
    ..We have examined the gene expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 in endometrial tissues by real-time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization...
  8. Suh H, Zhao M, Rivieccio M, Choi S, Connolly E, Zhao Y, et al. Astrocyte indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is induced by the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C): mechanism of induction and role in antiviral response. J Virol. 2007;81:9838-50 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand poly(I:C) (PIC) induces the expression of IDO in human astrocytes...
  9. Taura M, Fukuda R, Suico M, Eguma A, Koga T, Shuto T, et al. TLR3 induction by anticancer drugs potentiates poly I:C-induced tumor cell apoptosis. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1610-7 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) has gained recognition as a novel molecular target for cancer therapy because TLR3 activation by its synthetic ligand poly I:C directly causes tumor cell death...
  10. Cole J, Navin T, Cross A, Goddard M, Alexopoulou L, Mitra A, et al. Unexpected protective role for Toll-like receptor 3 in the arterial wall. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2372-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using human and murine systems, we have investigated the consequence of TLR3 signaling in vascular disease...
  11. Nasirudeen A, Wong H, Thien P, Xu S, Lam K, Liu D. RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3 synergistically play an important role in restriction of dengue virus infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e926 pubmed publisher
    ..acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation associated gene-5 (MDA-5) and Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3). These intracellular RNA sensors were previously reported to sense DV infection in different cells...
  12. Holfeld J, Tepeköylü C, Kozaryn R, Urbschat A, Zacharowski K, Grimm M, et al. Shockwave therapy differentially stimulates endothelial cells: implications on the control of inflammation via toll-Like receptor 3. Inflammation. 2014;37:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that SWT modulates inflammation via toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) through the release of cytosolic RNA...
  13. Allhorn S, Boing C, Koch A, Kimmig R, Gashaw I. TLR3 and TLR4 expression in healthy and diseased human endometrium. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008;6:40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR3 and TLR4 expression was investigated during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal endometrium considering ..
  14. Sironi M, Biasin M, Cagliani R, Forni D, De Luca M, Saulle I, et al. A common polymorphism in TLR3 confers natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 2012;188:818-23 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR3 recognizes dsRNA and activates antiviral immune responses through the production of inflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs...
  15. Zhan Z, Xie X, Cao H, Zhou X, Zhang X, Fan H, et al. Autophagy facilitates TLR4- and TLR3-triggered migration and invasion of lung cancer cells through the promotion of TRAF6 ubiquitination. Autophagy. 2014;10:257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that autophagy induced by TLR4 or TLR3 activation enhances various cytokine productions through promoting TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6, E3 ..
  16. Morikawa T, Sugiyama A, Kume H, Ota S, Kashima T, Tomita K, et al. Identification of Toll-like receptor 3 as a potential therapeutic target in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:5703-9 pubmed
    ..0 arrays. Among the 34 genes specifically up-regulated in CCRCC, overexpression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mRNA and its protein was validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry...
  17. Guo Y, Audry M, Ciancanelli M, Alsina L, Azevedo J, Herman M, et al. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in a patient with complete TLR3 deficiency: TLR3 is otherwise redundant in protective immunity. J Exp Med. 2011;208:2083-98 pubmed publisher
    Autosomal dominant TLR3 deficiency has been identified as a genetic etiology of childhood herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE)...
  18. Yang K, Puel A, Zhang S, Eidenschenk C, Ku C, Casrouge A, et al. Human TLR-7-, -8-, and -9-mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda Is IRAK-4 dependent and redundant for protective immunity to viruses. Immunity. 2005;23:465-78 pubmed
    ..The TLR-7-, TLR-8-, and TLR-9-dependent induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda is strictly IRAK-4 dependent and paradoxically redundant for protective immunity to most viruses in humans. ..
  19. Dhiman N, Ovsyannikova I, Vierkant R, Ryan J, Pankratz V, Jacobson R, et al. Associations between SNPs in toll-like receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules and immune responses to measles vaccine: preliminary results. Vaccine. 2008;26:1731-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Heterozygous variants for rs3775291 (Phe412Leu) and rs5743305 (-926 bp in promoter region) of the TLR3 gene were associated with low antibody and lymphoproliferative responses (p <or= 0.02) to measles vaccination...
  20. Mäkelä S, Strengell M, Pietila T, Osterlund P, Julkunen I. Multiple signaling pathways contribute to synergistic TLR ligand-dependent cytokine gene expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:664-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulation of moDCs with the TLR8 ligand together with the TLR3 or TLR4 ligand led to synergistic IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-alpha mRNA expression and cytokine production...
  21. Ménager P, Roux P, Mégret F, Bourgeois J, Le Sourd A, Danckaert A, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays a major role in the formation of rabies virus Negri Bodies. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000315 pubmed publisher
    Human neurons express the innate immune response receptor, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). TLR3 levels are increased in pathological conditions such as brain virus infection...
  22. Holm C, Petersen C, Hvid M, Petersen L, Paludan S, Deleuran B, et al. TLR3 ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid induces IL-17A and IL-21 synthesis in human Th cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:4422-31 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR3 and TLR9 recognize the pathogen-associated microbial patterns dsRNA and unmethylated DNA, respectively...
  23. Sasai M, Shingai M, Funami K, Yoneyama M, Fujita T, Matsumoto M, et al. NAK-associated protein 1 participates in both the TLR3 and the cytoplasmic pathways in type I IFN induction. J Immunol. 2006;177:8676-83 pubmed
    b>TLR3 and the cytoplasmic helicase family proteins (retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)) serve as dsRNA pattern-recognition receptors...
  24. Marshall Clarke S, Downes J, Haga I, Bowie A, Borrow P, Pennock J, et al. Polyinosinic acid is a ligand for toll-like receptor 3. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24759-66 pubmed
    ..been implicated in innate responses to RNA viruses by virtue of their ability to sense double-stranded (ds) RNA (TLR3) or single-stranded RNA (murine TLR7 and human TLR8)...
  25. Lundberg A, Drexler S, Monaco C, Williams L, Sacre S, Feldmann M, et al. Key differences in TLR3/poly I:C signaling and cytokine induction by human primary cells: a phenomenon absent from murine cell systems. Blood. 2007;110:3245-52 pubmed
    b>TLR3 recognizes double-stranded RNA, a product associated with viral infections. Many details of TLR3-induced mechanisms have emerged from gene-targeted mice or inhibition studies in transformed cell lines...
  26. Lafaille F, Pessach I, Zhang S, Ciancanelli M, Herman M, Abhyankar A, et al. Impaired intrinsic immunity to HSV-1 in human iPSC-derived TLR3-deficient CNS cells. Nature. 2012;491:769-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of primary infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), children with inborn errors of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) immunity are prone to HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE)...
  27. Hewson C, Jardine A, Edwards M, Laza Stanca V, Johnston S. Toll-like receptor 3 is induced by and mediates antiviral activity against rhinovirus infection of human bronchial epithelial cells. J Virol. 2005;79:12273-9 pubmed
    ..b>TLR3 recognizes double-stranded RNA, an important intermediate of many viral life cycles (including RV)...
  28. Yang Z, Stratton C, Francis P, Kleinman M, Tan P, Gibbs D, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 and geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1456-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Advanced age-related macular degeneration consists of geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularization. The specific genetic variants that predispose patients to geographic atrophy are largely unknown...
  29. Perrot I, Deauvieau F, Massacrier C, Hughes N, Garrone P, Durand I, et al. TLR3 and Rig-like receptor on myeloid dendritic cells and Rig-like receptor on human NK cells are both mandatory for production of IFN-gamma in response to double-stranded RNA. J Immunol. 2010;185:2080-8 pubmed publisher
    ..two dsRNAs, polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], similarly engaged human TLR3, whereas only poly(I:C) triggered human RIG-I and MDA5...
  30. Tomchuck S, Henkle S, Coffelt S, Betancourt A. Toll-like receptor 3 and suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins regulate CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in bone marrow-derived human multipotent stromal cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39592 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known regarding downstream signaling mediated by TLRs in hMSC. We demonstrate that TLR3 stimulation activates a Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 pathway, and ..
  31. Borysiewicz E, Doppalapudi S, Kirschman L, Konat G. TLR3 ligation protects human astrocytes against oxidative stress. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;255:54-9 pubmed publisher
    Astrocytic Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays an important role not only in antiviral response but also in regeneration/healing of the CNS...
  32. Esposito S, Molteni C, Giliani S, Mazza C, Scala A, Tagliaferri L, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms and severity of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in otherwise healthy children. Virol J. 2012;9:270 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate whether selected polymorphisms of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 influence the incidence and clinical picture of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza...
  33. Lafon M, Mégret F, Lafage M, Prehaud C. The innate immune facet of brain: human neurons express TLR-3 and sense viral dsRNA. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;29:185-94 pubmed
    ..This work firmly establishes that human neurons, in absence of glia, have the intrinsic machinery to trigger robust inflammatory, chemoattractive, and antiviral responses. ..
  34. Wang N, Liang Y, Devaraj S, Wang J, Lemon S, Li K. Toll-like receptor 3 mediates establishment of an antiviral state against hepatitis C virus in hepatoma cells. J Virol. 2009;83:9824-34 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) senses double-stranded RNA, initiating signaling that activates NF-kappaB and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), thereby inducing the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, type I interferons, and ..
  35. Leonard J, Ghirlando R, Askins J, Bell J, Margulies D, Davies D, et al. The TLR3 signaling complex forms by cooperative receptor dimerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the mechanism by which TLR3 recognizes its ligand, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and forms an active signaling complex...
  36. Wilson J, de Sessions P, Leon M, Scholle F. West Nile virus nonstructural protein 1 inhibits TLR3 signal transduction. J Virol. 2008;82:8262-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that West Nile virus (WNV) is able to inhibit Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated activation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) (F. Scholle and P. W...
  37. Ishizaki Y, Takemoto M, Kira R, Kusuhara K, Torisu H, Sakai Y, et al. Association of toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphism with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Neurovirol. 2008;14:486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..MV-derived double-stranded RNA is recognized by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)...
  38. Teng F, Slavik V, Duffy K, San Mateo L, Goldschmidt R. Toll-like receptor 3 is involved in airway epithelial cell response to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Cell Immunol. 2010;260:98-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of both cytokines was inhibited by an anti-TLR3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a dose-dependent manner, but not by control human IgG4 antibodies, thus suggesting a ..
  39. Qi R, Hoose S, Schreiter J, Sawant K, Lamb R, Ranjith Kumar C, et al. Secretion of the human Toll-like receptor 3 ectodomain is affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms and regulated by Unc93b1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:36635-44 pubmed publisher
    The innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) can be present on the surface of the plasma membranes of cells and in endolysosomes...
  40. Matsumoto M, Seya T. TLR3: interferon induction by double-stranded RNA including poly(I:C). Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008;60:805-12 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes viral double-stranded RNA and its synthetic analog polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) and induces type I interferon (IFN), inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production and dendritic ..
  41. Zhou Y, Wang X, Liu M, Hu Q, Song L, Ye L, et al. A critical function of toll-like receptor-3 in the induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities in macrophages. Immunology. 2010;131:40-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that TLR-3-mediated induction of multiple anti-HIV factors should be beneficial for the treatment of HIV disease where innate immune responses are compromised by the virus. ..
  42. Moore C, Hennig B, Perrett K, Hoe J, Lee S, Fletcher H, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor 3 and CD44 genes are associated with persistence of vaccine-induced immunity to the serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Three SNPs each within the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) (rs3775291, rs3775292, and rs5743312) and CD44 (rs11033013, rs353644, and rs996076) genes were associated with IgG ..
  43. Watanabe A, Tatematsu M, Saeki K, Shibata S, Shime H, Yoshimura A, et al. Raftlin is involved in the nucleocapture complex to induce poly(I:C)-mediated TLR3 activation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10702-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism by which extracellular poly(I:C) is delivered to TLR3-positive organelles and the cytoplasm remains to be elucidated...
  44. Al Qahtani A, Al Ahdal M, Abdo A, Sanai F, Al Anazi M, Khalaf N, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 polymorphism and its association with hepatitis B virus infection in Saudi Arabian patients. J Med Virol. 2012;84:1353-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR3 is part of the innate immune system that recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and provides early immune response ..
  45. Zhang S, Jouanguy E, Ugolini S, Smahi A, Elain G, Romero P, et al. TLR3 deficiency in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. Science. 2007;317:1522-7 pubmed
    ..We report a dominant-negative TLR3 allele in otherwise healthy children with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis...
  46. Kong K, Delroux K, Wang X, Qian F, Arjona A, Malawista S, et al. Dysregulation of TLR3 impairs the innate immune response to West Nile virus in the elderly. J Virol. 2008;82:7613-23 pubmed publisher
    ..molecule 3 (ICAM3) grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) leads to a reduction in the expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in macrophages from young donors via the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-mediated ..
  47. Nahum A, Dadi H, Bates A, Roifman C. The L412F variant of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is associated with cutaneous candidiasis, increased susceptibility to cytomegalovirus, and autoimmunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:528-31 pubmed publisher
  48. Pirie F, Pegoraro R, Motala A, Rauff S, Rom L, Govender T, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms in South African Blacks with type 1 diabetes. Tissue Antigens. 2005;66:125-30 pubmed
    ..Parts of exon 4 and exon 3/intron 3 of the TLR3 gene were studied by polymerase chain reaction, direct sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion with Bts 1...
  49. West J, Damania B. Upregulation of the TLR3 pathway by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus during primary infection. J Virol. 2008;82:5440-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, TLR3 has been implicated in RNA virus recognition...
  50. Pohar J, Pirher N, Bencina M, Mancek Keber M, Jerala R. The role of UNC93B1 protein in surface localization of TLR3 receptor and in cell priming to nucleic acid agonists. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:442-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that poly(I:C) up-regulates transcription of UNC93B1 and promotes trafficking of TLR3 to the plasma membrane in human epithelial cell line...
  51. Sun J, Duffy K, Ranjith Kumar C, Xiong J, Lamb R, Santos J, et al. Structural and functional analyses of the human Toll-like receptor 3. Role of glycosylation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11144-51 pubmed
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses. The human TLR3 recognizes foreign-derived double-stranded RNA and endogenous necrotic cell RNA as ligands...
  52. Koarai A, Yanagisawa S, Sugiura H, Ichikawa T, Akamatsu K, Hirano T, et al. Cigarette smoke augments the expression and responses of toll-like receptor 3 in human macrophages. Respirology. 2012;17:1018-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) was shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, especially viral-derived double-stranded RNA, and ..
  53. Audry M, Ciancanelli M, Yang K, Cobat A, Chang H, Sancho Shimizu V, et al. NEMO is a key component of NF-?B- and IRF-3-dependent TLR3-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:610-7.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    Children with germline mutations in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), UNC93B1, TNF receptor-associated factor 3, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 are prone to herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis, owing to impaired TLR3-..
  54. Groskreutz D, Monick M, Powers L, Yarovinsky T, Look D, Hunninghake G. Respiratory syncytial virus induces TLR3 protein and protein kinase R, leading to increased double-stranded RNA responsiveness in airway epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2006;176:1733-40 pubmed
    ..A replication intermediate of RSV is dsRNA. This is an important ligand for both the innate immune receptor, TLR3, and protein kinase R (PKR)...
  55. Yamashita M, Chattopadhyay S, Fensterl V, Zhang Y, Sen G. A TRIF-independent branch of TLR3 signaling. J Immunol. 2012;188:2825-33 pubmed publisher
    dsRNA is a common pathogen-associated molecular pattern that is recognized by cellular TLR3 and used by virus-infected cells to activate specific transcription factors and trigger induction of antiviral genes...
  56. Ebihara N, Chen L, Tokura T, Ushio H, Iwatsu M, Murakami A. Distinct functions between toll-like receptors 3 and 9 in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Ophthalmic Res. 2007;39:155-63 pubmed
    ..However, CpG-DNA motif enhanced phagocytosis in RPE cells. These results may indicate that TLR 3 and 9 play a distinct role in the inflammatory response that clears viruses from the retina. ..
  57. Shojaei H, Oberg H, Juricke M, Marischen L, Kunz M, Mundhenke C, et al. Toll-like receptors 3 and 7 agonists enhance tumor cell lysis by human gammadelta T cells. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..gammadelta T-cell cytotoxicity and granzyme A/B production were enhanced after pretreatment of tumor cells with TLR3 [poly(I:C)] or TLR7 ligand (imiquimod)...
  58. Johnsen I, Nguyen T, Ringdal M, Tryggestad A, Bakke O, Lien E, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 associates with c-Src tyrosine kinase on endosomes to initiate antiviral signaling. EMBO J. 2006;25:3335-46 pubmed
    ..during the replication cycle of most viruses and triggers antiviral immune responses through Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)...
  59. de Bouteiller O, Merck E, Hasan U, Hubac S, Benguigui B, Trinchieri G, et al. Recognition of double-stranded RNA by human toll-like receptor 3 and downstream receptor signaling requires multimerization and an acidic pH. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38133-45 pubmed
    Studies involving Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-deficient mice suggest that this receptor binds double-stranded RNA. In the present study, we analyzed ligand/receptor interactions and receptor-proximal events leading to TLR3 activation...
  60. Cheng P, Eng H, Chou M, You H, Lin T. Genetic polymorphisms of viral infection-associated Toll-like receptors in Chinese population. Transl Res. 2007;150:311-8 pubmed
    ..screening for the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs associated with viral infection, including TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9...
  61. Salaun B, Coste I, Rissoan M, Lebecque S, Renno T. TLR3 can directly trigger apoptosis in human cancer cells. J Immunol. 2006;176:4894-901 pubmed
    ..In this study we show that synthetic dsRNA induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cells in a TLR3-dependent manner, which involves the molecular adaptor Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta and ..
  62. Sun R, Zhang Y, Lv Q, Liu B, Jin M, Zhang W, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) induces apoptosis via death receptors and mitochondria by up-regulating the transactivating p63 isoform alpha (TAP63alpha). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15918-28 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a member of the pathogen recognition receptors, is widely expressed in various cells and has been shown to activate immune signaling pathways by recognizing viral double-stranded RNA...
  63. Li K, Li N, Wei D, Pfeffer S, Fan M, Pfeffer L. Activation of chemokine and inflammatory cytokine response in hepatitis C virus-infected hepatocytes depends on Toll-like receptor 3 sensing of hepatitis C virus double-stranded RNA intermediates. Hepatology. 2012;55:666-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) senses HCV infection in cultured hepatoma cells, leading to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation and the ..
  64. Sugiura H, Ichikawa T, Koarai A, Yanagisawa S, Minakata Y, Matsunaga K, et al. Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 augments myofibroblast differentiation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;40:654-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) can affect the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein ..
  65. Lee K, Cho K, Kim J, Kim J, Baek J, Woo S, et al. Filaggrin knockdown and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) stimulation enhanced the production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) from epidermal layers. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:149-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, TSLP expression is increased in filaggrin knockdown as well as TLR3 stimulation in reconstituted human epidermal layers...
  66. Yew K, Carsten B, Harrison C. Scavenger receptor A1 is required for sensing HCMV by endosomal TLR-3/-9 in monocytic THP-1 cells. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:883-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a novel mechanistic insight into an interrelationship between SR-A1 and TLR-3/-9 signaling in HCMV-exposed monocytes. ..
  67. Pérez de Diego R, Sancho Shimizu V, Lorenzo L, Puel A, Plancoulaine S, Picard C, et al. Human TRAF3 adaptor molecule deficiency leads to impaired Toll-like receptor 3 response and susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis. Immunity. 2010;33:400-11 pubmed publisher
    ..and receptors that induce interferon-? (IFN-?), IFN-?, and IFN-? production, including Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is deficient in some patients with herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis (HSE)...
  68. Ospelt C, Brentano F, Rengel Y, Stanczyk J, Kolling C, Tak P, et al. Overexpression of toll-like receptors 3 and 4 in synovial tissue from patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: toll-like receptor expression in early and longstanding arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3684-92 pubmed publisher
  69. Bell J, Askins J, Hall P, Davies D, Segal D. The dsRNA binding site of human Toll-like receptor 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8792-7 pubmed
    ..Recently we reported the x-ray structure for unliganded TLR3-ECD; however, it has proven difficult to obtain a crystal structure of TLR3 with its ligand, dsRNA...
  70. Lai Y, Di Nardo A, Nakatsuji T, Leichtle A, Yang Y, Cogen A, et al. Commensal bacteria regulate Toll-like receptor 3-dependent inflammation after skin injury. Nat Med. 2009;15:1377-82 pubmed publisher
    ..staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and acts selectively on keratinocytes triggered through Toll-like receptor 3(TLR3)...
  71. Bsibsi M, Bajramovic J, Vogt M, Van Duijvenvoorden E, Baghat A, Persoon Deen C, et al. The microtubule regulator stathmin is an endogenous protein agonist for TLR3. J Immunol. 2010;184:6929-37 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR3 recognizes dsRNAs and is considered of key importance to antiviral host-defense responses...
  72. Askar E, Bregadze R, Mertens J, Schweyer S, Rosenberger A, Ramadori G, et al. TLR3 gene polymorphisms and liver disease manifestations in chronic hepatitis C. J Med Virol. 2009;81:1204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Sensing of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is likely involved in early pathogen detection and the host response to viral infection...
  73. Matijevic T, Pavelic J. The dual role of TLR3 in metastatic cell line. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2011;28:701-12 pubmed publisher
    ..As the role of TLRs in tumors cells is still not clear, our aim was to investigate the role of TLR3 in primary tumor and metastatic cells (SW480, SW620, FaDu and Detroit 562)...
  74. Kindberg E, Vene S, Mickiene A, Lundkvist A, Lindquist L, Svensson L. A functional Toll-like receptor 3 gene (TLR3) may be a risk factor for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:523-8 pubmed publisher
    ..with aseptic meningoencephalitis (AME) and 135 healthy controls, for 3 mutations: 2 in the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene and 1 in the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1) gene...
  75. Lee S, Brown R, Razonable R. Association between a functional polymorphism in Toll-like receptor 3 and chronic hepatitis C in liver transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2013;15:111-9 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is implicated in the pathogenesis of viral diseases owing to its ability to recognize viral double-stranded RNA...
  76. Pirher N, Ivicak K, Pohar J, Bencina M, Jerala R. A second binding site for double-stranded RNA in TLR3 and consequences for interferon activation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:761-3 pubmed publisher
    We show that substrate specificity of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is due to the presence of two binding sites in the ectodomain, separated by 50 A...
  77. O Dwyer D, Armstrong M, Trujillo G, Cooke G, Keane M, Fallon P, et al. The Toll-like receptor 3 L412F polymorphism and disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;188:1442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is an innate immune system receptor...
  78. Funami K, Sasai M, Ohba Y, Oshiumi H, Seya T, Matsumoto M. Spatiotemporal mobilization of Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor molecule-1 in response to dsRNA. J Immunol. 2007;179:6867-72 pubmed
    b>TLR3 recognizes viral dsRNA and induces antiviral immune responses...
  79. Stark J, Wiklund F, Gronberg H, Schumacher F, Sinnott J, Stampfer M, et al. Toll-like receptor signaling pathway variants and prostate cancer mortality. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1859-63 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant associations were observed for common haplotypes and PCa mortality. This study highlights the importance of studies of PCa mortality because risk factors for incidence and mortality may differ. ..
  80. Botos I, Segal D, Davies D. The structural biology of Toll-like receptors. Structure. 2011;19:447-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the ligand-induced dimerization of these receptors has many common features, the nature of the interactions of the TLR extracellular domains with their ligands varies markedly between TLR paralogs. ..
  81. Xu W, Santini P, Matthews A, Chiu A, Plebani A, He B, et al. Viral double-stranded RNA triggers Ig class switching by activating upper respiratory mucosa B cells through an innate TLR3 pathway involving BAFF. J Immunol. 2008;181:276-87 pubmed
    ..We found that a subset of upper respiratory mucosa B cells expressed TLR3 and responded to viral dsRNA, a cognate TLR3 ligand...
  82. Tsai Y, Chang S, Lee C, Kao C. Human TLR3 recognizes dengue virus and modulates viral replication in vitro. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:604-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiment reveals that stably expression of TLR3, 7, 8 on HEK293 enables IL-8 secretion after DENV recognition...
  83. Itoh K, Watanabe A, Funami K, Seya T, Matsumoto M. The clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway participates in dsRNA-induced IFN-beta production. J Immunol. 2008;181:5522-9 pubmed
    b>TLR3 and cytoplasmic RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) recognize virus-derived dsRNA and induce type I IFN production in a distinct manner...
  84. Pine S, McElrath M, Bochud P. Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 4 and toll-like receptor 9 influence viral load in a seroincident cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals. AIDS. 2009;23:2387-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Haplotype tagging SNPs from TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 were detected by mass array genotyping, and CD4(+) T-cell counts and viral load measurements were ..
  85. Harashima N, Inao T, Imamura R, Okano S, Suda T, Harada M. Roles of the PI3K/Akt pathway and autophagy in TLR3 signaling-induced apoptosis and growth arrest of human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012;61:667-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we analyzed the effects of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a TLR3 ligand, on three TLR3-expressing human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, and DU145)...
  86. Sasai M, Tatematsu M, Oshiumi H, Funami K, Matsumoto M, Hatakeyama S, et al. Direct binding of TRAF2 and TRAF6 to TICAM-1/TRIF adaptor participates in activation of the Toll-like receptor 3/4 pathway. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1283-91 pubmed publisher
    Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we found three TRAF proteins TRAF1, 2 and 6, bound the N-terminal region of the TLR3/4 adaptor TICAM-1 (TRIF)...
  87. Vontell R, Supramaniam V, Thornton C, Wyatt Ashmead J, Mallard C, Gressens P, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 expression in glia and neurons alters in response to white matter injury in preterm infants. Dev Neurosci. 2013;35:130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated cellular expression of TLR3 using immunohistochemistry on human brain tissue...
  88. Herman M, Ciancanelli M, Ou Y, Lorenzo L, Klaudel Dreszler M, Pauwels E, et al. Heterozygous TBK1 mutations impair TLR3 immunity and underlie herpes simplex encephalitis of childhood. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1567-82 pubmed publisher
    Childhood herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) may result from single-gene inborn errors of TLR3 immunity...
  89. Galli R, Paone A, Fabbri M, Zanesi N, Calore F, Cascione L, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) activation induces microRNA-dependent reexpression of functional RAR? and tumor regression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9812-7 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a key effector of the innate immune system against viruses. Activation of TLR3 exerts an antitumoral effect through a mechanism of action still poorly understood...
  90. Murray L, Knight D, McAlonan L, Argentieri R, Joshi A, Shaheen F, et al. Deleterious role of TLR3 during hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;178:1227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the role of TLR3 in ARDS. TLR3 expression and signaling was determined in airway epithelial cells after in vitro hyperoxia challenge...
  91. Paone A, Galli R, Gabellini C, Lukashev D, Starace D, Gorlach A, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 regulates angiogenesis and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines through hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha. Neoplasia. 2010;12:539-49 pubmed
    ..We previously demonstrated that TLR3 activation mediated by its agonist poly(I:C) induces antitumor signaling, leading to apoptosis of prostate cancer ..
  92. Enevold C, Radstake T, Coenen M, Fransen J, Toonen E, Bendtzen K, et al. Multiplex screening of 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 Toll-like receptors: an association study in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:905-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests the functional TLR variants do not play a major role in RA phenotype and disease severity. ..