TLR2

Summary

Gene Symbol: TLR2
Description: toll like receptor 2
Alias: CD282, TIL4, toll-like receptor 2, toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like protein 4
Species: human
Products:     TLR2

Top Publications

  1. Thoma Uszynski S, Stenger S, Takeuchi O, Ochoa M, Engele M, Sieling P, et al. Induction of direct antimicrobial activity through mammalian toll-like receptors. Science. 2001;291:1544-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that TLR2 activation leads to killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both mouse and human macrophages, ..
  2. Maitra R, Clement C, Scharf B, Crisi G, Chitta S, Paget D, et al. Endosomal damage and TLR2 mediated inflammasome activation by alkane particles in the generation of aseptic osteolysis. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These two processes synergistically results in the initiation of a strong inflammatory response with consequent cellular necrosis and extracellular matrix degradation. ..
  3. Balistreri C, Caruso C, Carruba G, Miceli V, Campisi I, Listi F, et al. A pilot study on prostate cancer risk and pro-inflammatory genotypes: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:718-24 pubmed
    ..prevention and treatment of PC, we have investigated the potential role of common SNPs of a gene cluster (TLR4, TLR2, PTGS2 and 5-Lo), involved in innate and inflammatory response, in PC cases, age-matched controls and centenarians ..
  4. Theodoropoulos G, Saridakis V, Karantanos T, Michalopoulos N, Zagouri F, Kontogianni P, et al. Toll-like receptors gene polymorphisms may confer increased susceptibility to breast cancer development. Breast. 2012;21:534-8 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation may be an important event in tumor cell immune evasion. TLR2 and TLR4 gene polymorphisms have been related to increased susceptibility to cancer development in various organs...
  5. Tye H, Kennedy C, Najdovska M, McLeod L, MCCORMACK W, Hughes N, et al. STAT3-driven upregulation of TLR2 promotes gastric tumorigenesis independent of tumor inflammation. Cancer Cell. 2012;22:466-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and therapeutic targeting of TLR2 inhibited gastric tumorigenesis, but not inflammation, characterized by reduced proliferation and increased ..
  6. Arji N, Busson M, Iraqi G, Bourkadi J, Benjouad A, Bouayad A, et al. Genetic diversity of TLR2, TLR4, and VDR loci and pulmonary tuberculosis in Moroccan patients. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2014;8:430-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR2, TLR4, and VDR polymorphisms were previously associated with tuberculosis (TB) and were here investigated as ..
  7. de Oliveira J, Silva A. Polymorphisms of the TLR2 and TLR4 genes are associated with risk of gastric cancer in a Brazilian population. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:1235-42 pubmed publisher
    To investigate toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) -196 to -174 del, and TLR4 (+896A/G rs4986790 and +1196C/T rs4986791) polymorphisms at risk of chronic gastritis and gastric cancer in a Brazilian population and association of gastric lesions ..
  8. Ding J, Chang T. TLR2 activation enhances HIV nuclear import and infection through T cell activation-independent and -dependent pathways. J Immunol. 2012;188:992-1001 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR2 activation plays a crucial role in Neisseria gonorrheae-mediated enhancement of HIV infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. We examined signaling pathways involved in the HIV enhancing effect of TLR2...
  9. Kang S, Abdel Massih R, Brown R, Dierkhising R, Kremers W, Razonable R. Homozygosity for the toll-like receptor 2 R753Q single-nucleotide polymorphism is a risk factor for cytomegalovirus disease after liver transplantation. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:639-46 pubmed publisher
    Immunity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) is initiated after its recognition by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)...

More Information

Publications145 found, 100 shown here

  1. Xiong Y, Song C, Snyder G, Sundberg E, Medvedev A. R753Q polymorphism inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 tyrosine phosphorylation, dimerization with TLR6, and recruitment of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:38327-37 pubmed publisher
    The R753Q polymorphism in the Toll-IL-1 receptor domain of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been linked to increased incidence of tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, but the mechanisms by which it affects TLR2 functions are unclear...
  2. Ranoa D, Kelley S, Tapping R. Human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 independently deliver triacylated lipoproteins to Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR2 and enhance formation of the ternary signaling complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:9729-41 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial lipoproteins are the most potent microbial agonists for the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) subfamily, and this pattern recognition event induces cellular activation, leading to host immune responses...
  3. Zhang W, Wang L, Yu J, Chi Z, Tan L. Increased expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2012;315:67-71 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are involved in the microglia-mediated inflammatory response, A? plaque formation and A? clearance in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  4. Shi B, Huang Q, Tak P, Vervoordeldonk M, Huang C, Dorfleutner A, et al. SNAPIN: an endogenous Toll-like receptor ligand in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:1411-7 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR ligands expressed in RA synovial tissue (ST) based on their ability to bind the extracellular domains of TLR2 or TLR4...
  5. Sen J, Liu X, Roller R, Knipe D. Herpes simplex virus US3 tegument protein inhibits Toll-like receptor 2 signaling at or before TRAF6 ubiquitination. Virology. 2013;439:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the US3 protein is required for inhibition of TLR2 signaling induced by viral infection and that this inhibition occurs at very early times post-infection...
  6. Lin M, Yiu W, Wu H, Chan L, Leung J, Au W, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes tubular inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:86-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found increased expression of TLR4 but not of TLR2 in the renal tubules of human kidneys with diabetic nephropathy compared with expression of TLR4 and TLR2 in normal ..
  7. Philippe L, Alsaleh G, Suffert G, Meyer A, Georgel P, Sibilia J, et al. TLR2 expression is regulated by microRNA miR-19 in rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes. J Immunol. 2012;188:454-61 pubmed publisher
    ..RA FLS express a large number of TLR, and TLR2 was demonstrated to be involved in RA inflammation...
  8. Oliveira J, Hamdani N, Busson M, Etain B, Bennabi M, Amokrane K, et al. Association between toll-like receptor 2 gene diversity and early-onset bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2014;165:135-41 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) molecules play a pivotal role in innate immune responses by their ability to recognize and sense a wide repertoire of infectious and endogenous cellular structural elements...
  9. Sanchez D, Lefebvre C, Rioux J, Garcia L, Barrera L. Evaluation of Toll-like receptor and adaptor molecule polymorphisms for susceptibility to tuberculosis in a Colombian population. Int J Immunogenet. 2012;39:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we did not find an association with TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88 or MAL/TIRAP polymorphic variants...
  10. Zhang F, Gao X, Wu W, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Wang S. Polymorphisms in toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 5 are associated with Legionella pneumophila infection. Infection. 2013;41:941-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifty-four (n = 54) healthy subjects were genotyped for SNPs (TLR2 (C597T) [rs3804099], TLR4 (G2244A), TLR4 (A2299G) [AF177765] and TLR5 (C1174T) [rs5744168])...
  11. Kang W, Park J, Lee S, Kim S, Park H, Kim J. Association between genetic polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and schizophrenia in the Korean population. Gene. 2013;526:182-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an important role in innate immunity by sensing a variety of pathogens and inducing an acquired immunity...
  12. Liu S, Liu Y, Hao W, Wolf L, Kiliaan A, Penke B, et al. TLR2 is a primary receptor for Alzheimer's amyloid ? peptide to trigger neuroinflammatory activation. J Immunol. 2012;188:1098-107 pubmed publisher
    ..resonance spectroscopy and conventional biochemical pull-down assays to demonstrate a direct interaction between TLR2 and the aggregated 42-aa form of human A? (A?42)...
  13. Hussein Y, Awad H, Shalaby S, Ali A, Alzahrani S. Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and susceptibility to asthma and allergic rhinitis: a case-control analysis. Cell Immunol. 2012;274:34-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in genes encoding Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) may modify relative risk for development of asthma or allergic rhinitis...
  14. Mandal R, George G, Mittal R. Association of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 3 and 9 genes polymorphism with prostate cancer risk in North Indian population. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:7263-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed case control study to analyze the genetic variants of TLR2, 3 and 9 gene polymorphisms with PCa risk in a North Indian population...
  15. Leoni V, Gianni T, Salvioli S, Campadelli Fiume G. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gH/gL and gB bind Toll-like receptor 2, and soluble gH/gL is sufficient to activate NF-?B. J Virol. 2012;86:6555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The first line of defense at the cell surface is TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), whose signature signaling activity leads to activation of the key transcription factor NF-?..
  16. de Oliveira L, Peresi E, Golim M, Gatto M, Araújo Júnior J, da Costa E, et al. Analysis of Toll-like receptors, iNOS and cytokine profiles in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis during anti-tuberculosis treatment. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88572 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the mRNA and cell surface expression of TLR2 and TLR4; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression; and cytokine Th1, Th2 and Th17 profiles in pulmonary ..
  17. Kim C, Ho D, Suk J, You S, Michael S, Kang J, et al. Neuron-released oligomeric ?-synuclein is an endogenous agonist of TLR2 for paracrine activation of microglia. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1562 pubmed publisher
    ..show that extracellular ?-synuclein released from neuronal cells is an endogenous agonist for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which activates inflammatory responses in microglia...
  18. Pimentel Nunes P, Teixeira A, Pereira C, Gomes M, Brandão C, Rodrigues C, et al. Functional polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 alter the risk for colorectal carcinoma in Europeans. Dig Liver Dis. 2013;45:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA samples were extracted from blood cells and genotyping of TLR2+597T>C, TLR2-4760T>C, TLR4-3745A>G, TLR2Arg753Gln, TLR4Asp299Gly was performed...
  19. Fang J, Hu R, Hou S, Ye Z, Xiang Q, Qi J, et al. Association of TLR2 gene polymorphisms with ocular Behcet's disease in a Chinese Han population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:8384-92 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, and TLR9 have been reported to be associated with several autoimmune diseases...
  20. Džumhur A, Zibar L, Wagner J, Simundić T, Dembic Z, Barbic J. Association studies of gene polymorphisms in toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in Croatian patients with acute myocardial infarction. Scand J Immunol. 2012;75:517-23 pubmed publisher
    ..of the study was to assess the frequency of SNP896A/G in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 gene and SNP1350T/C in the TLR2 gene in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to analyse the association of these SNPs with risk ..
  21. Castano Rodriguez N, Kaakoush N, Goh K, Fock K, Mitchell H. The role of TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 genetic polymorphisms in gastric carcinogenesis: a case-control study and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60327 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the overall aim of this study was to estimate for the first time the pooled effect size of polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 on GC development through a meta-analysis...
  22. Kang T, Chae G. Detection of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mutation in the lepromatous leprosy patients. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2001;31:53-8 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is critical in the immune response to mycobacterial infections and the mutations in the TLR2 have been shown to confer the susceptibility to severe infection with mycobacteria...
  23. Marcenaro E, Ferranti B, Falco M, Moretta L, Moretta A. Human NK cells directly recognize Mycobacterium bovis via TLR2 and acquire the ability to kill monocyte-derived DC. Int Immunol. 2008;20:1155-67 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (TLR)2 mAb inhibited NK cell responses to BCG, suggesting that NK cells may express a functional TLR2, which plays a role in their mechanism of direct BCG recognition...
  24. Lorenz E, Mira J, Cornish K, Arbour N, Schwartz D. A novel polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 gene and its potential association with staphylococcal infection. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6398-401 pubmed
    The toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has gained importance as a major mammalian receptor for lipoproteins derived from the cell wall of a variety of bacteria, such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma fermentans...
  25. Bulut Y, Faure E, Thomas L, Equils O, Arditi M. Cooperation of Toll-like receptor 2 and 6 for cellular activation by soluble tuberculosis factor and Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A lipoprotein: role of Toll-interacting protein and IL-1 receptor signaling molecules in Toll-like recepto. J Immunol. 2001;167:987-94 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 play important roles in innate immune responses to various microbial agents...
  26. Bustamante J, Tamayo E, Florez S, Telleria J, Bustamante E, Lopez J, et al. [Toll-like receptor 2 R753Q polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of infective endocarditis]. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2011;64:1056-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of the polymorphisms TLR2 (R753Q, R677W), TLR4 (D299G, T399I) and CD14 (C-159T) was consecutively studied in 65 patients with infective ..
  27. Yu J, Mou S, Wang L, Mao C, Tan L. Toll-like receptor 2 -196 to -174 del polymorphism influences the susceptibility of Han Chinese people to Alzheimer's disease. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:136 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) represents a reasonable functional and positional candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it is located under the linkage region of AD on chromosome 4q, and functionally is involved in the microglia-..
  28. Ma Y, Krikun G, Abrahams V, Mor G, Guller S. Cell type-specific expression and function of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in human placenta: implications in fetal infection. Placenta. 2007;28:1024-31 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that there exist cell type-specific patterns of TLR function in placenta which likely regulate innate immune response at the maternal-fetal interface. ..
  29. Lee J, Zhao L, Youn H, Weatherill A, Tapping R, Feng L, et al. Saturated fatty acid activates but polyunsaturated fatty acid inhibits Toll-like receptor 2 dimerized with Toll-like receptor 6 or 1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16971-9 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 agonists from bacterial origin require acylated saturated fatty acids in their molecules...
  30. Smit L, Siroux V, Bouzigon E, Oryszczyn M, Lathrop M, Demenais F, et al. CD14 and toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms, country living, and asthma in adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-five SNPs in CD14, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 genes were genotyped in adult subjects from the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and ..
  31. Armstrong L, Medford A, Uppington K, Robertson J, Witherden I, Tetley T, et al. Expression of functional toll-like receptor-2 and -4 on alveolar epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;31:241-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we have demonstrated that these receptors are functional. This suggests that ATII have the potential to contribute significantly to the host defense of the human alveolus against bacteria. ..
  32. Pierik M, Joossens S, Van Steen K, Van Schuerbeek N, Vlietinck R, Rutgeerts P, et al. Toll-like receptor-1, -2, and -6 polymorphisms influence disease extension in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006;12:1-8 pubmed
    ..045, OR [95% CI] 2.844 [1.026-7.844]) was found. The TLR2 R753G SNP was also associated with pancolitis (P = .027, OR [95% CI] 4.741 [1.197-18.773])...
  33. Blumenthal A, Ehlers S, Lauber J, Buer J, Lange C, Goldmann T, et al. The Wingless homolog WNT5A and its receptor Frizzled-5 regulate inflammatory responses of human mononuclear cells induced by microbial stimulation. Blood. 2006;108:965-73 pubmed
    ..Our findings implicate the evolutionarily conserved WNT/Frizzled signaling system in bridging innate and adaptive immunity to infections. ..
  34. Seibl R, Birchler T, Loeliger S, Hossle J, Gay R, Saurenmann T, et al. Expression and regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:1221-7 pubmed
    ..Gene expression was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. TLR2-mediated cell activation was investigated by electromobility shift assay for nuclear factor-kappa B...
  35. Rock F, Hardiman G, Timans J, Kastelein R, Bazan J. A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:588-93 pubmed
  36. Devaraj S, Jialal I, Yun J, Bremer A. Demonstration of increased toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4 expression in monocytes of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with microvascular complications. Metabolism. 2011;60:256-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown increased TLR2 and TLR4 expression on monocytes of T1DM compared with controls...
  37. Guan Y, Ranoa D, Jiang S, Mutha S, Li X, Baudry J, et al. Human TLRs 10 and 1 share common mechanisms of innate immune sensing but not signaling. J Immunol. 2010;184:5094-103 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR6, both of which mediate immune responses to a variety of microbial and fungal components in cooperation with TLR2. The generation and analysis of chimeric receptors containing the extracellular recognition domain of TLR10 and the ..
  38. Kobayashi K, Inohara N, Hernandez L, Galan J, Nunez G, Janeway C, et al. RICK/Rip2/CARDIAK mediates signalling for receptors of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Nature. 2002;416:194-9 pubmed
    ..Rip2 was recruited to TLR2 signalling complexes after ligand stimulation...
  39. Schierloh P, Yokobori N, Aleman M, Landoni V, Geffner L, Musella R, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced gamma interferon production by natural killer cells requires cross talk with antigen-presenting cells involving Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 and the mannose receptor in tuberculous pleurisy. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5325-37 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis reaches its maximum value. Thus, interplay between M. tuberculosis and NK cells/APC triggering IFN-gamma would be expected to play a beneficial role in tuberculous pleurisy by helping to maintain a type 1 profile. ..
  40. Tao X, Xu Y, Zheng Y, Beg A, Tong L. An extensively associated dimer in the structure of the C713S mutant of the TIR domain of human TLR2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:216-21 pubmed
    ..Here we report the crystal structure of the C713S mutant of the TIR domain of human TLR2. An extensively associated dimer is observed in the crystal structure and mutations of several residues in this ..
  41. Liang M, Bagchi A, Warren H, Tehan M, Trigilio J, Beasley Topliffe L, et al. Bacterial peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein: a naturally occurring toll-like receptor 2 agonist that is shed into serum and has synergy with lipopolysaccharide. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:939-48 pubmed
    ..PAL activates inflammation through TLR2. PAL and LPS synergistically activate macrophages...
  42. Kijpittayarit S, Eid A, Brown R, Paya C, Razonable R. Relationship between Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphism and cytomegalovirus disease after liver transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:1315-20 pubmed
    ..data suggest that cytomegalovirus (CMV) initiates innate immunity through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)...
  43. Krejsek J, Kunes P, Kolackova M, Kudlova M, Lonsky V, Mandak J, et al. Expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 on innate immunity cells modulated by cardiac surgical operation. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2008;68:749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR2 and TLR4 expression on blood cells was determined by flow cytometry in 40 patients undergoing cardiac surgery ..
  44. Olson J, Miller S. Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs. J Immunol. 2004;173:3916-24 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, stimulation of quiescent microglia with various TLR agonists, including LPS (TLR4), peptidoglycan (TLR2), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (TLR3), CpG DNA (TLR9), and infection with viable Theiler's murine ..
  45. Zahringer U, Lindner B, Inamura S, Heine H, Alexander C. TLR2 - promiscuous or specific? A critical re-evaluation of a receptor expressing apparent broad specificity. Immunobiology. 2008;213:205-24 pubmed publisher
    Of all pattern recognition receptors (PRR) in innate immunity, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes the structurally broadest range of different bacterial compounds known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)...
  46. Kerkhof M, Postma D, Brunekreef B, Reijmerink N, Wijga A, de Jongste J, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 genes influence susceptibility to adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma. Thorax. 2010;65:690-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A study was undertaken to determine whether the Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 genes (TLR2 and TLR4) influence the susceptibility to adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution with respect to the ..
  47. Tabel Y, Berdeli A, Mir S. Association of TLR2 gene Arg753Gln polymorphism with urinary tract infection in children. Int J Immunogenet. 2007;34:399-405 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to investigate Arg753Gln allele polymorphisms of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) gene distribution, allele frequency in urinary tract infection (UTI) and genotype-phenotype association of TLR2 gene in children with ..
  48. Xue Y, Zhao Z, Wang H, Jin L, Liu C, Wang Y, et al. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 gene polymorphisms in a southeastern Chinese population with tuberculosis. Int J Immunogenet. 2010;37:135-8 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms of the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene (Arg677Trp, Arg753Gln) and the TLR4 gene (Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile) were investigated in 205 tuberculosis (TB) patients and 203 controls. Genetic variations were analysed by DNA sequencing...
  49. Triantafilou M, Manukyan M, Mackie A, Morath S, Hartung T, Heine H, et al. Lipoteichoic acid and toll-like receptor 2 internalization and targeting to the Golgi are lipid raft-dependent. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40882-9 pubmed
    ..Similarly to lipopolysaccharide, LTA activation occurs at the cell surface, and the observed trafficking is independent of signaling. ..
  50. Veltkamp M, Wijnen P, van Moorsel C, Rijkers G, Ruven H, Heron M, et al. Linkage between Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 promotor and intron polymorphisms: functional effects and relevance to sarcoidosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;149:453-62 pubmed
  51. Park J, Gamboni Robertson F, He Q, Svetkauskaite D, Kim J, Strassheim D, et al. High mobility group box 1 protein interacts with multiple Toll-like receptors. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C917-24 pubmed
    ..energy transfer (FRET) and immunoprecipitation to directly investigate cell surface interactions of HMGB1 with TLR2, TLR4, and RAGE. FRET images in RAW264...
  52. Iwahashi M, Yamamura M, Aita T, Okamoto A, Ueno A, Ogawa N, et al. Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 on CD16+ blood monocytes and synovial tissue macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1457-67 pubmed
  53. Torok A, Bouton A, Goldberg J. Helicobacter pylori induces interleukin-8 secretion by Toll-like receptor 2- and Toll-like receptor 5-dependent and -independent pathways. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1523-31 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR5 have been shown to recognize H...
  54. Boraska Jelavic T, Barisic M, Drmic Hofman I, Boraska V, Vrdoljak E, Peruzovic M, et al. Microsatelite GT polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 is associated with colorectal cancer. Clin Genet. 2006;70:156-60 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4) are critical in initiating innate immune response and inflammation toward various bacteria commonly ..
  55. Delaloye J, Roger T, Steiner Tardivel Q, Le Roy D, Knaup Reymond M, Akira S, et al. Innate immune sensing of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is mediated by TLR2-TLR6, MDA-5 and the NALP3 inflammasome. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000480 pubmed publisher
    ..deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or in the adapter molecules MyD88 and TRIF revealed a critical role for TLR2, TLR6 and MyD88 in the production of IFNbeta-independent chemokines...
  56. Hasan U, Chaffois C, Gaillard C, Saulnier V, Merck E, Tancredi S, et al. Human TLR10 is a functional receptor, expressed by B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which activates gene transcription through MyD88. J Immunol. 2005;174:2942-50 pubmed
    ..that TLR10 is in a locus that also contains TLR1 and TLR6, two receptors known to function as coreceptors for TLR2. We have shown that TLR10 was not only able to homodimerize but also heterodimerized with TLRs 1 and 2...
  57. Takeuchi O, Sato S, Horiuchi T, Hoshino K, Takeda K, Dong Z, et al. Cutting edge: role of Toll-like receptor 1 in mediating immune response to microbial lipoproteins. J Immunol. 2002;169:10-4 pubmed
    ..b>TLR2 is essential for the signaling of a variety of PAMPs, including bacterial lipoprotein/lipopeptides, peptidoglycan, ..
  58. Etokebe G, Knezevic J, Petricevic B, Pavelic J, Vrbanec D, Dembic Z. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding toll-like receptor -2, -3, -4, and -9 in case-control study with breast cancer. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2009;13:729-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNPs comprised TLR2 (c.597T>C), TLR2 (c.1350T>C), TLR3 (c.1377C>T), TLR4 (c.896A>G), and TLR9 (c.1635A>G)...
  59. Re F, Strominger J. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 differentially activate human dendritic cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37692-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that activation of dendritic cells by TLR2 or TLR4 agonists, although it led to comparable activation of NF-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)..
  60. Verstak B, Nagpal K, Bottomley S, Golenbock D, Hertzog P, Mansell A. MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP interaction with TRAF6 is critical for TLR2- and TLR4-mediated NF-kappaB proinflammatory responses. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Mal and TRAF6 directly interact in response to TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation, although membrane localization is not necessary to facilitate interaction...
  61. Droemann D, Goldmann T, Tiedje T, Zabel P, Dalhoff K, Schaaf B. Toll-like receptor 2 expression is decreased on alveolar macrophages in cigarette smokers and COPD patients. Respir Res. 2005;6:68 pubmed
    ..The expression of TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 surface molecules on human AM compared to autologous monocytes was assessed ex vivo using FACS ..
  62. Lopez M, Sly L, Luu Y, Young D, Cooper H, Reiner N. The 19-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein induces macrophage apoptosis through Toll-like receptor-2. J Immunol. 2003;170:2409-16 pubmed
  63. Soong G, Reddy B, Sokol S, Adamo R, Prince A. TLR2 is mobilized into an apical lipid raft receptor complex to signal infection in airway epithelial cells. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:1482-9 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that TLR2 is enriched in caveolin-1-associated lipid raft microdomains presented on the apical surface of airway epithelial ..
  64. Eid A, Brown R, Paya C, Razonable R. Association between toll-like receptor polymorphisms and the outcome of liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C virus. Transplantation. 2007;84:511-6 pubmed
    ..A historical cohort of 92 liver transplant patients with chronic HCV were screened for TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms...
  65. Huang L, Aliberti J, Leifer C, Segal D, Sher A, Golenbock D, et al. Heat-killed Brucella abortus induces TNF and IL-12p40 by distinct MyD88-dependent pathways: TNF, unlike IL-12p40 secretion, is Toll-like receptor 2 dependent. J Immunol. 2003;171:1441-6 pubmed
    ..To identify the TLR involved in HKBA recognition, we examined HKBA responses in TLR2- and TLR4-deficient animals...
  66. Ogus A, Yoldas B, Ozdemir T, Uguz A, Olcen S, Keser I, et al. The Arg753GLn polymorphism of the human toll-like receptor 2 gene in tuberculosis disease. Eur Respir J. 2004;23:219-23 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a member of the Toll-like receptor family, plays an important role in recognition of, and subsequent immune response activation against, mycobacteria...
  67. Mogensen T, Paludan S, Kilian M, Ostergaard L. Live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis activate the inflammatory response through Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in species-specific patterns. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80:267-77 pubmed
    ..of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB and expression of interleukin-8, only in cells expressing TLR2 or -9. The same response was evoked by H. influenzae in cells expressing TLR2 or -4 and by N...
  68. Vabulas R, Braedel S, Hilf N, Singh Jasuja H, Herter S, Ahmad Nejad P, et al. The endoplasmic reticulum-resident heat shock protein Gp96 activates dendritic cells via the Toll-like receptor 2/4 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20847-53 pubmed
    ..different Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from mice lacking functional TLR2 and/or TLR4 molecules...
  69. Uno K, Kato K, Atsumi T, Suzuki T, Yoshitake J, Morita H, et al. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 induced through TLR4 signaling initiated by Helicobacter pylori cooperatively amplifies iNOS induction in gastric epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293:G1004-12 pubmed
    ..b>TLR2 and TLR4 play important roles in gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori (H...
  70. Devaraj S, Dasu M, Rockwood J, Winter W, Griffen S, Jialal I. Increased toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 expression in monocytes from patients with type 1 diabetes: further evidence of a proinflammatory state. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:578-83 pubmed
    ..The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors, expressed abundantly on monocytes. TLR2 and TLR4 are important in atherosclerosis...
  71. Sallustio F, De Benedictis L, Castellano G, Zaza G, Loverre A, Costantino V, et al. TLR2 plays a role in the activation of human resident renal stem/progenitor cells. FASEB J. 2010;24:514-25 pubmed publisher
    ..profile contained growth factor receptors and immune system-related genes, including toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)...
  72. Wang L, Tian Y, Yu J, Chen W, Wu Z, Zhang Q, et al. Association between late-onset Alzheimer's disease and microsatellite polymorphisms in intron II of the human toll-like receptor 2 gene. Neurosci Lett. 2011;489:164-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is thought to contribute to A? clearance...
  73. Ahmad Nejad P, Mrabet Dahbi S, Breuer K, Klotz M, Werfel T, Herz U, et al. The toll-like receptor 2 R753Q polymorphism defines a subgroup of patients with atopic dermatitis having severe phenotype. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:565-7 pubmed
  74. Brown V, Brown R, Ozinsky A, Hesselberth J, Fields S. Binding specificity of Toll-like receptor cytoplasmic domains. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:742-53 pubmed
    ..experiments reveal that the TIR domains of human TLR differ in their ability to associate with MyD88: The TIR of TLR2 binds to MyD88 but the TIR of the closely related TLR1, 6, or 10 do not...
  75. Johnson C, Tapping R. Microbial products stimulate human Toll-like receptor 2 expression through histone modification surrounding a proximal NF-kappaB-binding site. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31197-205 pubmed
    Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the ability of microbial products to activate TLR2 gene expression in human monocytes...
  76. Raby A, Le Bouder E, Colmont C, Davies J, Richards P, Coles B, et al. Soluble TLR2 reduces inflammation without compromising bacterial clearance by disrupting TLR2 triggering. J Immunol. 2009;183:506-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We show in this study the ability of the soluble form of TLR2 (sTLR2) to regulate proinflammatory responses, and demonstrate the mechanisms underlying sTLR2 regulatory capacity...
  77. Velez D, Wejse C, Stryjewski M, Abbate E, Hulme W, Myers J, et al. Variants in toll-like receptors 2 and 9 influence susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Caucasians, African-Americans, and West Africans. Hum Genet. 2010;127:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, 71 polymorphisms in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9 were examined from 474 (295 cases and 179 controls) African-Americans, 381 (237 cases and 144 ..
  78. West X, Malinin N, Merkulova A, Tischenko M, Kerr B, Borden E, et al. Oxidative stress induces angiogenesis by activating TLR2 with novel endogenous ligands. Nature. 2010;467:972-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular patterns of carboxyalkylpyrroles are recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), but not TLR4 or scavenger receptors on endothelial cells, leading to an angiogenic response that is independent ..
  79. Moore C, Segal S, Berendt A, Hill A, Day N. Lack of association between Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to severe disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:1194-7 pubmed
    To investigate a putative link between genetically determined variations in Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and the occurrence of severe Staphylococcus aureus infection, the functional Arg753Gln single-nucleotide polymorphism and the GT ..
  80. Kumar A, Zhang J, Yu F. Toll-like receptor 2-mediated expression of beta-defensin-2 in human corneal epithelial cells. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:380-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these stimuli induced the expression of TLR2 at both mRNA and protein levels...
  81. Yoon H, Choi J, Kim C, Park Y, Kim M, Kim Y, et al. Lack of Toll-like receptor 4 and 2 polymorphisms in Korean patients with bacteremia. J Korean Med Sci. 2006;21:979-82 pubmed
    ..The Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile allele of the TLR4 gene and Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp allele of the TLR2 gene were tested by PCR-RFLP. The DNA sequences were determined to confirm the PCR-RFLP results...
  82. Acorci Valério M, Bordon Graciani A, Dias Melicio L, de Assis Golim M, Nakaira Takahagi E, de Campos Soares A. Role of TLR2 and TLR4 in human neutrophil functions against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Scand J Immunol. 2010;71:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed at evaluating TLR2 and TLR4 expression on human neutrophils activated with GM-CSF, IL-15, TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma and challenged with a ..
  83. Hishida A, Matsuo K, Goto Y, Naito M, Wakai K, Tajima K, et al. No associations of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) -196 to -174del polymorphism with the risk of Helicobacter pylori seropositivity, gastric atrophy, and gastric cancer in Japanese. Gastric Cancer. 2010;13:251-7 pubmed publisher
    Recently, the association between gastric cancer risk and a functional polymorphism of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), -196 to -174del, was reported for a Japanese population...
  84. Lepper P, Triantafilou M, Schumann C, Schneider E, Triantafilou K. Lipopolysaccharides from Helicobacter pylori can act as antagonists for Toll-like receptor 4. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:519-28 pubmed
    ..pylori. Using reporter cell lines, as well as HEK293 cells transfected with either CD14 and TLR4, or CD14 and TLR2, we show that H. pylori LPS-induced cell activation is mediated through TLR2...
  85. Hamann L, Gomma A, Schröder N, Stamme C, Glaeser C, Schulz S, et al. A frequent toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 polymorphism is a risk factor for coronary restenosis. J Mol Med (Berl). 2005;83:478-85 pubmed
    ..Screening for the TLR-2 Arg753Gln SNP may be of importance for stratifying a patient's risk and for preventive and therapeutic measures. ..
  86. Yim J, Lee H, Lee H, Kim Y, Han S, Shim Y, et al. The association between microsatellite polymorphisms in intron II of the human Toll-like receptor 2 gene and tuberculosis among Koreans. Genes Immun. 2006;7:150-5 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-deficient mice are highly susceptible to mycobacteria suggests that mutations altering TLR2 expression may impair host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  87. Mikami F, Lim J, Ishinaga H, Ha U, Gu H, Koga T, et al. The transforming growth factor-beta-Smad3/4 signaling pathway acts as a positive regulator for TLR2 induction by bacteria via a dual mechanism involving functional cooperation with NF-kappaB and MAPK phosphatase 1-dependent negative cross-talk with p. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22397-408 pubmed
    ..Here, we show for the first time that TGF-betaR-Smad3/4 signaling pathway acts as a positive regulator for TLR2 induction by bacterium nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in vitro and in vivo...
  88. van Duin D, Mohanty S, Thomas V, Ginter S, Montgomery R, Fikrig E, et al. Age-associated defect in human TLR-1/2 function. J Immunol. 2007;178:970-5 pubmed
    ..In contrast to findings in aged mice, other TLR (including TLR2/6)-induced cytokine production appeared largely intact...
  89. Frolova L, Drastich P, Rossmann P, Klimesova K, Tlaskalova Hogenova H. Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CD14 in biopsy samples of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: upregulated expression of TLR2 in terminal ileum of patients with ulcerative colitis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:267-74 pubmed
    ..We investigated expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and their transmembrane coreceptor CD14 in biopsy samples from patients with IBD and in non-inflamed gut ..
  90. Kormann M, Ferstl R, Depner M, Klopp N, Spiller S, Illig T, et al. Rare TLR2 mutations reduce TLR2 receptor function and can increase atopy risk. Allergy. 2009;64:636-42 pubmed publisher
    Common genetic variations in toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), an innate pathogen recognition receptor, may influence the development of atopic diseases. So far, very little is known about the role of rare TLR2 mutations in these diseases...