TFF1

Summary

Gene Symbol: TFF1
Description: trefoil factor 1
Alias: BCEI, D21S21, HP1.A, HPS2, pNR-2, pS2, trefoil factor 1, breast cancer estrogen-inducible protein, breast cancer estrogen-inducible sequence, gastrointestinal trefoil protein pS2, polypeptide P1.A, protein pS2
Species: human
Products:     TFF1

Top Publications

  1. Polshakov V, Williams M, Gargaro A, Frenkiel T, Westley B, Chadwick M, et al. High-resolution solution structure of human pNR-2/pS2: a single trefoil motif protein. J Mol Biol. 1997;267:418-32 pubmed
    pNR-2/pS2 is a 60 residue extracellular protein, which was originally discovered in human breast cancer cells, and subsequently found in other tumours and normal gastric epithelial cells...
  2. Shi S, Cai J, Yang J. Expression of trefoil factors 1 and 2 in precancerous condition and gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:3119-22 pubmed
    To study the expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) and TFF2 in precancerous condition and gastric cancer and to explore the relationship between TFFs and tumorigenesis, precancerous condition and gastric cancer...
  3. Li L, Davie J. Association of Sp3 and estrogen receptor alpha with the transcriptionally active trefoil factor 1 promoter in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..was used to determine the association of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), Sp1 and Sp3 with the endogenous trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) gene promoter in MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
  4. Tosco A, Monti M, Fontanella B, Rio M, Gomez Paloma L, Leone A, et al. Copper-binding activity of Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1): a new perspective in the study of the multifunctional roles of TFFs. Peptides. 2007;28:1461-9 pubmed
    ..Among the three known TFF peptides, TFF1 is characterized by three disulfide bonds producing a compact globular structure and an extended and disordered ..
  5. Métivier R, Gallais R, Tiffoche C, Le Péron C, Jurkowska R, Carmouche R, et al. Cyclical DNA methylation of a transcriptionally active promoter. Nature. 2008;452:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Periodic, strand-specific methylation/demethylation occurs during transcriptional cycling of the pS2/TFF1 gene promoter on activation by oestrogens...
  6. Vestergaard E, Nexo E, Wendt A, Guthmann F. Trefoil factors in human milk. Early Hum Dev. 2008;84:631-5 pubmed publisher
    ..By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk ..
  7. Vestergaard E, Nexø E, Tørring N, Borre M, Ørntoft T, Sørensen K. Promoter hypomethylation and upregulation of trefoil factors in prostate cancer. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:1857-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that promoter methylation contributes to the regulation of trefoil factors (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) in human prostate cells...
  8. Oduro A, Fritsch M, Murdoch F. Chromatin context dominates estrogen regulation of pS2 gene expression. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:2796-810 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the effects of an altered chromatin environment on the activity of the estrogen-responsive pS2 promoter...
  9. Park W, Oh R, Park J, Lee J, Shin M, Kim H, et al. Somatic mutations of the trefoil factor family 1 gene in gastric cancer. Gastroenterology. 2000;119:691-8 pubmed
    There is increasing evidence that trefoil factor family 1 (TFF1) is a stabilizer of the mucous gel overlying the gastrointestinal mucosa that provides a physical barrier against various noxious agents...

More Information

Publications86

  1. Carroll J, Liu X, Brodsky A, Li W, Meyer C, Szary A, et al. Chromosome-wide mapping of estrogen receptor binding reveals long-range regulation requiring the forkhead protein FoxA1. Cell. 2005;122:33-43 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, knockdown of FoxA1 expression blocks the association of ER with chromatin and estrogen-induced gene expression demonstrating the necessity of FoxA1 in mediating an estrogen response in breast cancer cells. ..
  2. Amiry N, Kong X, Muniraj N, Kannan N, Grandison P, Lin J, et al. Trefoil factor-1 (TFF1) enhances oncogenicity of mammary carcinoma cells. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4473-83 pubmed publisher
    The functional role of autocrine trefoil factor-1 (TFF1) in mammary carcinoma has not been previously elucidated...
  3. Kosriwong K, Menheniott T, Giraud A, Jearanaikoon P, Sripa B, Limpaiboon T. Trefoil factors: tumor progression markers and mitogens via EGFR/MAPK activation in cholangiocarcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:1631-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate trefoil factor (TFF) gene copy number, mRNA and protein expression as potential biomarkers in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA)...
  4. Chu G, Qi S, Yang G, Dou K, Du J, Lu Z. Gastrointestinal tract specific gene GDDR inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in a TFF1 dependent manner. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;359:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Forced expression of GDDR suppressed the tumor growth as shown by MTT and xenograft assay. siRNA mediated TFF1 inhibition nearly blocked the growth inhibitory role of GDDR...
  5. Ge Y, Zhang J, Cao J, Wu Q, Sun L, Guo L, et al. TFF1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2012;12:74-81 pubmed
    ..Factor Family (TFF) plays an essential role in the intestinal epithelial restitution, but the relationship between TFF1 and gastric cancer (GC) is still unclear...
  6. Im S, Yoo C, Jung J, Choi H, Yoo J, Kang C. Reduced expression of TFF1 and increased expression of TFF3 in gastric cancer: correlation with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Int J Med Sci. 2013;10:133-40 pubmed publisher
    The trefoil factor family (TFF) is composed of three thermostable, and protease-resistant proteins, named TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3, and plays a role in gastrointestinal mucosal defence and repair...
  7. Tjensvoll K, Gilje B, Oltedal S, Shammas V, Kvaløy J, Heikkilä R, et al. A small subgroup of operable breast cancer patients with poor prognosis identified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR detection of mammaglobin A and trefoil factor 1 mRNA expression in bone marrow. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;116:329-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammaglobin A (hMAM), trefoil factor 1 (TFF-1) and prostate derived Ets factor (PDEF) mRNA were quantitated by real-time RT-PCR in BM samples from ..
  8. Tosco A, Monti M, Fontanella B, Montefusco S, D Andrea L, Ziaco B, et al. Copper binds the carboxy-terminus of trefoil protein 1 (TFF1), favoring its homodimerization and motogenic activity. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:1943-55 pubmed publisher
    Trefoil protein 1 (TFF1) is a small secreted protein belonging to the trefoil factor family of proteins, that are present mainly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and play pivotal roles as motogenic factors in epithelial restitution, ..
  9. Tanaka T, Nakamura J, Kitajima Y, Kai K, Miyake S, Hiraki M, et al. Loss of trefoil factor 1 is regulated by DNA methylation and is an independent predictive factor for poor survival in advanced gastric cancer. Int J Oncol. 2013;42:894-902 pubmed publisher
    b>Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is considered to be a tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer. However, the role of TFF1 expression and its regulation in gastric cancer patients remain unclear...
  10. Baron S, Escande A, Albérola G, Bystricky K, Balaguer P, Richard Foy H. Estrogen receptor alpha and the activating protein-1 complex cooperate during insulin-like growth factor-I-induced transcriptional activation of the pS2/TFF1 gene. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11732-41 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that on a complex promoter such as the pS2/TFF1 promoter, which contains binding sites for ERalpha and for the activating protein-1 (AP1) complex, transcriptional ..
  11. Rio M, Bellocq J, Daniel J, Tomasetto C, Lathe R, Chenard M, et al. Breast cancer-associated pS2 protein: synthesis and secretion by normal stomach mucosa. Science. 1988;241:705-8 pubmed
    The human pS2 gene is specifically expressed under estrogen transcriptional control in a subclass of estrogen receptor-containing human breast cancer cells...
  12. Westley B, Griffin S, May F. Interaction between TFF1, a gastric tumor suppressor trefoil protein, and TFIZ1, a brichos domain-containing protein with homology to SP-C. Biochemistry. 2005;44:7967-75 pubmed
    b>TFF1 is a gastric tumor suppressor that protects gastric epithelial cells from damage but can promote invasive properties of tumor cells. Antibodies were raised against correctly folded TFF1 protein. These showed that the 6...
  13. Bougen N, Amiry N, Yuan Y, Kong X, Pandey V, Vidal L, et al. Trefoil factor 1 suppression of E-CADHERIN enhances prostate carcinoma cell invasiveness and metastasis. Cancer Lett. 2013;332:19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of factors involved in the metastasis of PCA is imperative. We demonstrate herein that trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) promotes PCA cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo...
  14. Chadwick M, Westley B, May F. Homodimerization and hetero-oligomerization of the single-domain trefoil protein pNR-2/pS2 through cysteine 58. Biochem J. 1997;327 ( Pt 1):117-23 pubmed
    The single-domain human trefoil proteins [pNR-2/pS2 and human intestinal trefoil factor (hITF)] have seven cysteine residues, of which six are involved in maintaining the structure of the trefoil domain...
  15. Siu L, Romanska H, Abel P, Kayademir T, Blin N, Stamp G, et al. TFF1 is membrane-associated in breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Peptides. 2004;25:745-53 pubmed
    ..Using immunocytochemistry and FACS analysis we demonstrated the association of TFF1 with the cell membrane in MCF-7 (a breast adenocarcinoma cell line), and tested the hypothesis that ..
  16. Carvalho R, Kayademir T, Soares P, Canedo P, Sousa S, Oliveira C, et al. Loss of heterozygosity and promoter methylation, but not mutation, may underlie loss of TFF1 in gastric carcinoma. Lab Invest. 2002;82:1319-26 pubmed
    ..We aimed to clarify the putative role of TFF1 in gastric carcinogenesis...
  17. Buron N, Guery L, Creuzot Garcher C, Lafontaine P, Bron A, Rio M, et al. Trefoil factor TFF1-induced protection of conjunctival cells from apoptosis at premitochondrial and postmitochondrial levels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:3790-8 pubmed publisher
    Goblet cells of the conjunctival epithelium synthesize and secrete TFF1 (Trefoil factor 1), a small protease-resistant peptide that, together with mucins, is responsible for the rheologic properties of the tear film...
  18. Piggott N, Henry J, May F, Westley B. Antipeptide antibodies against the pNR-2 oestrogen-regulated protein of human breast cancer cells and detection of pNR-2 expression in normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. J Pathol. 1991;163:95-104 pubmed
    ..pNR-2 expression was assessed immunohistochemically in a panel of normal tissues. Expression was detected in normal breast, small intestine, and stomach (body and antrum). ..
  19. Arumugam T, Brandt W, Ramachandran V, Moore T, Wang H, May F, et al. Trefoil factor 1 stimulates both pancreatic cancer and stellate cells and increases metastasis. Pancreas. 2011;40:815-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is a stable secretory protein expressed widely in the gastrointestinal mucosa that is also expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)...
  20. Newton J, Allen A, Westley B, May F. The human trefoil peptide, TFF1, is present in different molecular forms that are intimately associated with mucus in normal stomach. Gut. 2000;46:312-20 pubmed
    b>TFF1 is a 6.5 kDa secreted protein that is expressed predominantly in normal gastric mucosa. It is coexpressed with mucins and it can form dimers via a free carboxy terminal cysteine residue...
  21. Clyne M, Dillon P, Daly S, O Kennedy R, May F, Westley B, et al. Helicobacter pylori interacts with the human single-domain trefoil protein TFF1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7409-14 pubmed
    ..This localization mirrors the expression of trefoil factor 1, TFF1. We hypothesized that H...
  22. Rodrigues S, Rodrigue C, Attoub S, Flejou J, Bruyneel E, Bracke M, et al. Induction of the adenoma-carcinoma progression and Cdc25A-B phosphatases by the trefoil factor TFF1 in human colon epithelial cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:6628-36 pubmed
    b>TFF1 is overexpressed in inflammatory diseases and human cancers of the digestive and urogenital systems...
  23. Weise A, Dünker N. High trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) expression in human retinoblastoma cells correlates with low growth kinetics, increased cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor levels and a selective down-regulation of CDK6. Histochem Cell Biol. 2013;139:323-38 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TFF1 was the only TFF peptide expressed at detectable levels in immunoblots of retinoblastoma cells...
  24. Bossenmeyer Pourié C, Kannan R, Ribieras S, Wendling C, Stoll I, Thim L, et al. The trefoil factor 1 participates in gastrointestinal cell differentiation by delaying G1-S phase transition and reducing apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:761-70 pubmed
    ..The link between mouse TFF1 inactivation and the fully penetrant antropyloric tumor phenotype prompted the classification of TFF1 as a gastric ..
  25. Soutto M, Belkhiri A, Piazuelo M, Schneider B, Peng D, Jiang A, et al. Loss of TFF1 is associated with activation of NF-?B-mediated inflammation and gastric neoplasia in mice and humans. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1753-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a peptide belonging to the trefoil factor family of protease-resistant peptides...
  26. Buache E, Etique N, Alpy F, Stoll I, Muckensturm M, Reina San Martin B, et al. Deficiency in trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) increases tumorigenicity of human breast cancer cells and mammary tumor development in TFF1-knockout mice. Oncogene. 2011;30:3261-73 pubmed publisher
    Although trefoil factor 1 (TFF1; previously named pS2) is abnormally expressed in about 50% of human breast tumors, its physiopathological role in this disease has been poorly studied. Moreover, controversial data have been reported...
  27. Sun J, Spencer V, Li L, Yu Chen H, Yu J, Davie J. Estrogen regulation of trefoil factor 1 expression by estrogen receptor alpha and Sp proteins. Exp Cell Res. 2005;302:96-107 pubmed
    ..the binding of estrogen receptor alpha (ER), Sp1, and Sp3 to the episomal and native estrogen-responsive trefoil factor 1 (TFF1; formerly pS2) promoter in MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
  28. Pelden S, Insawang T, Thuwajit C, Thuwajit P. The trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) protein involved in doxorubicin?induced apoptosis resistance is upregulated by estrogen in breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:1518-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is a small secretory protein expressed in various types of carcinomas including breast cancer. The TFF1 gene contains an estrogen response element and its expression can be regulated by estrogen...
  29. Zinner R, Visseren Grul C, Spigel D, Obasaju C. Pemetrexed clinical studies in performance status 2 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (Review). Int J Oncol. 2016;48:13-27 pubmed publisher
    ..gov and the European Clinical Trials Register; search terms included 'pemetrexed,' 'NSCLC' and 'PS2'. Only studies reporting ≥1 subset analysis of PS2 patients receiving pemetrexed were chosen...
  30. Abdou A, Aiad H, Asaad N, Abd El Wahed M, Serag El Dien M. Immunohistochemical expression of ER?, ER?, and TFF1 in type I and II ovarian tumors. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014;22:421-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The current information about the possible role of TFF1 in ovarian tumors,, together with its relationship to the estrogen receptor (ER) status, is insufficient...
  31. Wells J, Ginter P, Liu Y, Chen Z, Narula N, Shin S. Evaluating the utility of trefoil factor 1 as a mammary-specific immunostain compared and in conjunction with GATA-3 and mammaglobin in the distinction between carcinoma of breast and lung. Am J Clin Pathol. 2015;144:444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study tested the utility of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) for this purpose and compared it with mammaglobin and GATA protein binding 3 (GATA-3)...
  32. Thiem S, Eissmann M, Elzer J, Jonas A, Putoczki T, Poh A, et al. Stomach-Specific Activation of Oncogenic KRAS and STAT3-Dependent Inflammation Cooperatively Promote Gastric Tumorigenesis in a Preclinical Model. Cancer Res. 2016;76:2277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..a bacterial artificial chromosome containing transgene (Tg), comprising the regulatory elements of the trefoil factor 1 (Tff1) gene and the tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase (CreERT2)-coding sequence...
  33. Simigdala N, Gao Q, Pancholi S, Roberg Larsen H, Zvelebil M, Ribas R, et al. Cholesterol biosynthesis pathway as a novel mechanism of resistance to estrogen deprivation in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2016;18:58 pubmed publisher
    ..25-HC or 27-HC increased ER-mediated transcription and expression of the endogenous estrogen-regulated gene TFF1 in ER+ LTED cells but not in the ER- LTED cells...
  34. Lillo M, Nichols C, Seagroves T, Miranda Carboni G, Krum S. Bisphenol A Induces Sox2 in ER+ Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells. Horm Cancer. 2017;8:90-99 pubmed publisher
    ..concentrations of BPA failed to increase cell proliferation or to induce canonical estrogen-responsive genes (pS2 and progesterone receptor (PR)), in contrast to 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment...
  35. Vinogradov E, Aubry A, Logan S. Structural characterization of wall and lipidated polysaccharides from Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124. Carbohydr Res. 2017;448:88-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The minor polysaccharide PS2 had a linear regular structure with a -4-α-Rha-3-β-Gal-4-β-GalNAc3PCho- repeating unit, where PCho ..
  36. Schulten H, Bangash M, Karim S, Dallol A, Hussein D, Merdad A, et al. Comprehensive molecular biomarker identification in breast cancer brain metastases. J Transl Med. 2017;15:269 pubmed publisher
    ..g. BC cell line invasion markers JUN, MMP3, TFF1, and HAS2. Important cancer genes affected by CNVs included TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2, ERBB2, IDH1, and IDH2...
  37. Abe Y, Inoue H, Ashida H, Maeda Y, Kinoshita T, Kitada S. Glycan region of GPI anchored-protein is required for cytocidal oligomerization of an anticancer parasporin-2, Cry46Aa1 protein, from Bacillus thuringiensis strain A1547. J Invertebr Pathol. 2017;142:71-81 pubmed publisher
    Parasporin-2 (PS2), alternatively named Cry46Aa1, an anticancer protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis strain A1547, causes specific cell damage via PS2 oligomerization in the cell membrane...
  38. Philippeit C, Busch M, Dünker N. Epigenetic control of trefoil factor family (TFF) peptide expression in human retinoblastoma cell lines. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014;34:1001-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In human tissues with endogenous TFF1, TFF2 or TFF3 gene expression, the corresponding promoter is unmethylated and in organs without TFF expression, the ..
  39. Liu X, Sheng H, Ma R, Yang J, Luo W, Yang X, et al. Notch signaling is active in normal mouse middle ear epithelial cells. Exp Ther Med. 2016;11:1661-1667 pubmed
    ..by evaluating the mRNA expression levels of the mucous cell-associated genes Arg2, Muc2, Spdef, Spink4 and Tff1 using quantitative PCR...
  40. Ren J, Luo J, Lu Y, Wang L, Shi H. Relationship between trefoil factor 1 expression and gastric mucosa injuries and gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:2674-7 pubmed
    To determine whether trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is associated with mucosa healing and carcinoma suppression, we assess the expression of trefoil factor 1 in normal and pathologic gastric mucosa...
  41. Giannini E, Bucci L, Garuti F, Brunacci M, Lenzi B, Valente M, et al. Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma need a personalized management: A lesson from clinical practice. Hepatology. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Patients were sub-classified as: PS1 alone (n=385, 46.1%), PS2 alone (n=146, 17.5%), MVI (n=224, 26.8%), EHS (n=51, 6.1%) and MVI+EHS (n=29, 3.5%)...
  42. Qin J, Zhang X, Wang Z, Li J, Zhang Z, Gao L, et al. Presenilin 2 deficiency facilitates A?-induced neuroinflammation and injury by upregulating P2X7 expression. Sci China Life Sci. 2017;60:189-201 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrated that Presenilin 2 (PS2) deficiency facilitates A?-induced neuroinflammation and injury by upregulating P2X7 expression both in vitro and ..
  43. Sabo E, Meitner P, Tavares R, Corless C, Lauwers G, Moss S, et al. Expression analysis of Barrett's esophagus-associated high-grade dysplasia in laser capture microdissected archival tissue. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:6440-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes decreased in dysplastic epithelium include MUC5AC, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), meprin A, and CD13. Real-time PCR validated the changes in expression in 24 of 28 selected genes...
  44. Aziz A, Omran D, Nabeel M, Elbaz T, Abdelmaksoud A, Attar I, et al. Aggressive Treatment of Performance Status 1 and 2 HCC Patients Significantly Improves Survival - an Egyptian Retrospective Cohort Study of 524 Cases. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:2539-43 pubmed
    ..Most HCC patients were CHILD A and B grades (89.4% versus 85.0%, for PS1 and PS2, respectively). Patients with PS1 were significantly younger...
  45. Sasaki M, Tsuneyama K, Nakanuma Y. Aberrant expression of trefoil factor family 1 in biliary epithelium in hepatolithiasis and cholangiocarcinoma. Lab Invest. 2003;83:1403-13 pubmed
    ..We examined the participation of trefoil factor family 1 (TFF1), which is critical for mucosal protection and tumor suppression in the stomach, in the development and progression ..
  46. Ishibashi Y, Ohtsu H, Ikemura M, Kikuchi Y, Niwa T, Nishioka K, et al. Serum TFF1 and TFF3 but not TFF2 are higher in women with breast cancer than in women without breast cancer. Sci Rep. 2017;7:4846 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TFF1 and TFF3 are expressed in both breast cancer tissue and normal breast...
  47. Du P, Yuan B, Cao J, Zhao J, Ding L, Chen L, et al. Methyltransferase-like 17 physically and functionally interacts with estrogen receptors. IUBMB Life. 2015;67:861-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of METTL17 expression decreases mRNA and protein levels of ER target genes, including PR, cathepsin D, and pS2. Moreover, METTL17 knockdown reduces breast cancer cell growth...
  48. Khaidakov M, Lai K, Roudachevski D, Sargsyan J, Goyne H, Pai R, et al. Gastric Proteins MUC5AC and TFF1 as Potential Diagnostic Markers of Colonic Sessile Serrated Adenomas/Polyps. Am J Clin Pathol. 2016;146:530-537 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed immunostaining for gastric proteins MUC5AC and TFF1 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of HPs (n = 47), SSA/Ps (n = 37), ..
  49. Hu C, Xu J, Zeng L, Li T, Cui M, Xu X. Pen-2 and Presenilin are Sufficient to Catalyze Notch Processing. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;56:1263-1269 pubmed publisher
    Presenilin-1 (PS1) or presenilin-2 (PS2), nicastrin (NCT), anterior pharynx-defective 1 (Aph-1), and presenilin enhancer-2 (Pen-2) have been considered the minimal essential subunits required to form an active ?-secretase complex...
  50. Lim J, Yu C, Kim S, Chung I. Structural characterization of an intestinal immune system-modulating arabino-3,6-galactan-like polysaccharide from the above-ground part of Astragalus membranaceus (Bunge). Carbohydr Polym. 2016;136:1265-72 pubmed publisher
    Arabino-3,6-galactan (AMA-1-b-PS2), an intestinal immunomodulatory compound, was purified from the above-ground portion of Astragalus membranaceus (Bunge)...
  51. Jang E, Jang S, Cho I, Hong D, Jung B, Park M, et al. Hispolon inhibits the growth of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells through modulation of estrogen receptor alpha. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;463:917-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Hispolon treatment also inhibited expression of the ERα target gene pS2. We propose that Hispolon, an anticancer drug extracted from natural sources, inhibits cell growth through ..
  52. Chaiyarit P, Jaresitthikunchai J, Phaonakrop N, Roytrakul S, Potempa B, Potempa J. Proteolytic effects of gingipains on trefoil factor family peptides. Clin Oral Investig. 2018;22:1009-1018 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant human TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 peptides were used as substrates...
  53. Wu C, Miao X, Huang L, Che X, Jiang G, Yu D, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies five loci associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer in Chinese populations. Nat Genet. 2011;44:62-6 pubmed publisher
    ..1 previously reported in populations of European ancestry. These results advance our understanding of the development of pancreatic cancer and highlight potential targets for the prevention or treatment of this cancer. ..
  54. Regalo G, Förster S, Resende C, Bauer B, Fleige B, Kemmner W, et al. C/EBP? regulates homeostatic and oncogenic gastric cell proliferation. J Mol Med (Berl). 2016;94:1385-1395 pubmed
    ..is frequently overexpressed in gastric cancer and associated with the suppression of the differentiation marker TFF1. We show that the murine C/EBP? knockout stomach displays unbalanced homeostasis and reduced cell proliferation and ..
  55. Lafontaine P, Arnal M, Buron N, Solary E, Bron A, Westley B, et al. Trefoil factor family mRNA and protein expression in pterygium. Int J Oncol. 2005;27:997-1003 pubmed
    ..Fourteen pterygia (P) and 21 biopsies from normal human conjunctiva (NC) were studied. TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 mRNA levels were measured by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-..
  56. Ruibal A, Sanchez Salmon A. Reduced clinicopathological influence of hormone-dependence on breast carcinomas in women older than 70 years. Int J Biol Markers. 2008;23:58-62 pubmed
    ..carcinoma of the breast we have assayed the cytosolic levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), pS2 and cathepsin D in 53 women aged over 70 years and in 95 women aged between 55 and 70 years...
  57. Jin E, Lee S, Kim J, Seo E, Lee S, Hur G, et al. Association between Promoter Polymorphisms of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 and the Risk of Gastric and Diffuse Gastric Cancers in a Korean Population. J Korean Med Sci. 2015;30:1035-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in TFF gene family, TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 and the risk of gastric cancer (GC) and GC subgroups in a Korean population via a case-control ..
  58. Busch M, Große Kreul J, Wirtz J, Beier M, Stephan H, Royer Pokora B, et al. Reduction of the tumorigenic potential of human retinoblastoma cell lines by TFF1 overexpression involves p53/caspase signaling and miR-18a regulation. Int J Cancer. 2017;141:549-560 pubmed publisher
    ..In the study presented, we investigated the effect of TFF1 overexpression on cell growth, viability, migration and tumorigenicity of different retinoblastoma (RB) cell lines...
  59. Polshakov V, Frenkiel T, Westley B, Chadwick M, May F, Carr M, et al. NMR-based structural studies of the pNR-2/pS2 single domain trefoil peptide. Similarities to porcine spasmolytic peptide and evidence for a monomeric structure. Eur J Biochem. 1995;233:847-55 pubmed
    NMR spectroscopy measurements have been used to obtain structural information about the pNR-2/pS2 single-domain trefoil peptide...
  60. Yang J, Li C, Dai Y, Peng F, Weng X, Ji M. [Expression and significance of trefoil factor 1 protein and serum pepsinogen in benign and malignant gastric ulcers]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012;92:1540-3 pubmed
    To explore the clinical significance of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) protein expression and serum pepsinogen (PG) concentration in benign and malignant gastric ulcers...
  61. Seib T, Blin N, Hilgert K, Seifert M, Theisinger B, Engel M, et al. The three human trefoil genes TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 are located within a region of 55 kb on chromosome 21q22.3. Genomics. 1997;40:200-2 pubmed
  62. Sunagawa M, Yamaguchi J, Kokuryo T, Ebata T, Yokoyama Y, Sugawara G, et al. Trefoil factor family 1 expression in the invasion front is a poor prognostic factor associated with lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer. Pancreatology. 2017;17:782-787 pubmed publisher
    Trefoil Factor Family protein 1 (TFF1) is secreted from mucus-producing cells. The relationship between TFF1 expression and clinical outcome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unknown...
  63. Zurek J, Fedora M. Trefoil factor 1 as a marker of mucosal damage of the gastrointestinal tract in children with sepsis. Biomarkers. 2013;18:338-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of our study was an analysis of Trefoil factor 1 levels dynamics in patients with SIRS or septic condition during a 5-day period...
  64. Berry A, Scott H, Kudoh J, Talior I, Korostishevsky M, Wattenhofer M, et al. Refined localization of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness DFNB10 locus using 34 novel microsatellite markers, genomic structure, and exclusion of six known genes in the region. Genomics. 2000;68:22-9 pubmed
    ..All six genes in this region (in order from centromere to telomere: White/ABCG1, TFF3, TFF2, TFF1, PDE9A, and NDUVF3) have been screened and eliminated as candidates for DFNB10...
  65. Radiloff D, Wakeman T, Feng J, Schilling S, Seto E, Wang X. Trefoil factor 1 acts to suppress senescence induced by oncogene activation during the cellular transformation process. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6591-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is a secreted protein involved in maintaining the gastrointestinal epithelium by serving a tumor-..
  66. Cuthbert G, Daujat S, Snowden A, Erdjument Bromage H, Hagiwara T, Yamada M, et al. Histone deimination antagonizes arginine methylation. Cell. 2004;118:545-53 pubmed
    ..This modification appears on the estrogen-regulated pS2 promoter when the CARM1 methyltransferase is recruited during transcriptional activation...
  67. Kouznetsova I, Laubinger W, Kalbacher H, Kalinski T, Meyer F, Roessner A, et al. Biosynthesis of gastrokine-2 in the human gastric mucosa: restricted spatial expression along the antral gland axis and differential interaction with TFF1, TFF2 and mucins. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;20:899-908 pubmed
    ..It forms disulfide-linked heterodimers with the trefoil factor family (TFF) peptide TFF1. Binding with TFF2 was also reported. Antral SMCs differ from those of the corpus by their TFF3 expression...
  68. Yang X, Lu Y, Liu J, Huang J, Liu Y, Xiao C, et al. Piezo1 is as a novel trefoil factor family 1 binding protein that promotes gastric cancer cell mobility in vitro. Dig Dis Sci. 2014;59:1428-35 pubmed publisher
    Trefoil factor family 1 (TFF1) is a member of the TFF-domain peptide family involved in epithelial restitution and cell motility. Recently, we screened Piezo1 as a candidate TFF1-binding protein...
  69. May F, Griffin S, Westley B. The trefoil factor interacting protein TFIZ1 binds the trefoil protein TFF1 preferentially in normal gastric mucosal cells but the co-expression of these proteins is deregulated in gastric cancer. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:632-40 pubmed publisher
    The gastric tumour suppressor trefoil protein TFF1 is present as a covalently bound heterodimer with a previously uncharacterised protein, TFIZ1, in normal human gastric mucosa...
  70. Moghanibashi M, Mohamadynejad P, Rasekhi M, Ghaderi A, Mohammadianpanah M. Polymorphism of estrogen response element in TFF1 gene promoter is associated with an increased susceptibility to gastric cancer. Gene. 2012;492:100-3 pubmed publisher
    b>TFF1 is a cysteine-rich protein that forms a characteristic trefoil domain through disulfide bonds, which render it resistant to vigorous conditions and it involves in maintaining the integrity of the gastric mucosa...
  71. Xu X, Murdoch F, Curran E, Welshons W, Fritsch M. Transcription factor accessibility and histone acetylation of the progesterone receptor gene differs between parental MCF-7 cells and a subline that has lost progesterone receptor expression. Gene. 2004;328:143-51 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the histone acetylation level at this site may be a marker for chromatin structure that affects the access of transcription factors to the whole promoter. ..
  72. Soutto M, Romero Gallo J, Krishna U, Piazuelo M, Washington M, Belkhiri A, et al. Loss of TFF1 promotes Helicobacter pylori-induced β-catenin activation and gastric tumorigenesis. Oncotarget. 2015;6:17911-22 pubmed
    Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated the role of TFF1 in suppressing H. pylori-mediated activation of oncogenic β-catenin in gastric tumorigenesis. A reconstitution of TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cells decreased H...
  73. Zuo Q, Xiong S, Chen Z, Chen Y, Yu R. A novel calibration strategy based on background correction for quantitative circular dichroism spectroscopy. Talanta. 2017;174:320-324 pubmed publisher
    ..g. ps2.m)...
  74. Kalachaveedu M, Raghavan D, Telapolu S, Kuruvilla S, Kedike B. Phytoestrogenic effect of Inula racemosa Hook f - A cardioprotective root drug in traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;210:408-416 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR analysis evaluated the mRNA expression of pS2 in these cells post exposure to ALT, IALT and SG...
  75. Mori K, Fujii R, Kida N, Takahashi H, Ohkubo S, Fujino M, et al. Complete primary structure of the human estrogen-responsive gene (pS2) product. J Biochem. 1990;107:73-6 pubmed
    b>pS2 is a human gene whose transcription is directly triggered by estrogen in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). We described here the complete primary structure of the pS2 gene product...
  76. Lebherz Eichinger D, Tudor B, Ankersmit H, Reiter T, Haas M, Roth Walter F, et al. Trefoil Factor 1 Excretion Is Increased in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0138312 pubmed publisher
    ..We analysed TFF1 and TFF3 in serum and urine of 115 patients with CKD stages 1-5 without dialysis by ELISA...
  77. Montefusco S, Esposito R, D Andrea L, Monti M, Dunne C, Dolan B, et al. Copper promotes TFF1-mediated Helicobacter pylori colonization. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79455 pubmed publisher
    The trefoil peptides (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) are a family of small highly conserved proteins that play an essential role in epithelial regeneration within the gastrointestinal tract, where they are mainly expressed...