RET

Summary

Gene Symbol: RET
Description: ret proto-oncogene
Alias: CDHF12, CDHR16, HSCR1, MEN2A, MEN2B, MTC1, PTC, RET-ELE1, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret, RET receptor tyrosine kinase, cadherin family member 12, cadherin-related family member 16, proto-oncogene c-Ret, rearranged during transfection, ret proto-oncogene (multiple endocrine neoplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma 1, Hirschsprung disease)
Species: human
Products:     RET

Top Publications

  1. Gandhi M, Dillon L, Pramanik S, Nikiforov Y, Wang Y. DNA breaks at fragile sites generate oncogenic RET/PTC rearrangements in human thyroid cells. Oncogene. 2010;29:2272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we studied the involvement of fragile sites in the formation of RET/PTC rearrangements, which are frequently found in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)...
  2. Cascon A, Pita G, Burnichon N, Landa I, López Jiménez E, Montero Conde C, et al. Genetics of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in Spanish patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1701-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Two hundred thirty-seven nonrelated probands were analyzed for the major susceptibility genes: VHL, RET, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD...
  3. Mukherjee S, Zakalik D. RET codon 804 mutations in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2: genotype-phenotype correlations and implications in clinical management. Clin Genet. 2011;79:1-16 pubmed publisher
    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a genetic syndrome caused by germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene...
  4. Zhang X, Zhou M, Qiu Y, Ding S, Qi M, Li J. Genetic analysis of RET, EDNRB, and EDN3 genes and three SNPs in MCS + 9.7 in Chinese Patients with isolated Hirschsprung disease. Biochem Genet. 2007;45:523-7 pubmed
  5. Tsui C, Pierchala B. CD2AP and Cbl-3/Cbl-c constitute a critical checkpoint in the regulation of ret signal transduction. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..GFLs promote survival and growth via activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Ret. In sympathetic neurons, the duration of Ret signaling is governed by how rapidly Ret is degraded after its ..
  6. Frank Raue K, Rondot S, Schulze E, Raue F. Change in the spectrum of RET mutations diagnosed between 1994 and 2006. Clin Lab. 2007;53:273-82 pubmed
    ..Hereditary MTC is caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. The first RET germline mutations were identified in 1993 in patients with MEN 2A and FMTC...
  7. Pini Prato A, Musso M, Ceccherini I, Mattioli G, Giunta C, Ghiggeri G, et al. Hirschsprung disease and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT): a novel syndromic association. Medicine (Baltimore). 2009;88:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..we designed a prospective study aimed at determining the prevalence of CAKUT in HSCR patients and at identifying RET, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and GDNF family receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1) mutations or ..
  8. Kohno T, Ichikawa H, Totoki Y, Yasuda K, Hiramoto M, Nammo T, et al. KIF5B-RET fusions in lung adenocarcinoma. Nat Med. 2012;18:375-7 pubmed publisher
    We identified in-frame fusion transcripts of KIF5B (the kinesin family 5B gene) and the RET oncogene, which are present in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs) from people from Japan and the United States, using whole-transcriptome ..
  9. Ryu H, Jeon G, Cashman N, Kowall N, Lee J. Differential expression of c-Ret in motor neurons versus non-neuronal cells is linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. Lab Invest. 2011;91:342-52 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated forms (tyrosine (Tyr) residue 905, 1016, and 1062) of c-Ret, a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor, are altered in motor neurons of the ..
  10. Kurotsuchi A, Murakumo Y, Jijiwa M, Kurokawa K, Itoh Y, Kodama Y, et al. Analysis of DOK-6 function in downstream signaling of RET in human neuroblastoma cells. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..the plasma membrane via its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, and was phosphorylated following RET activation via a MEN2A mutation or GDNF stimulation...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Gandhi M, Dillon L, Pramanik S, Nikiforov Y, Wang Y. DNA breaks at fragile sites generate oncogenic RET/PTC rearrangements in human thyroid cells. Oncogene. 2010;29:2272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we studied the involvement of fragile sites in the formation of RET/PTC rearrangements, which are frequently found in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)...
  2. Cascon A, Pita G, Burnichon N, Landa I, López Jiménez E, Montero Conde C, et al. Genetics of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in Spanish patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1701-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Two hundred thirty-seven nonrelated probands were analyzed for the major susceptibility genes: VHL, RET, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD...
  3. Mukherjee S, Zakalik D. RET codon 804 mutations in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2: genotype-phenotype correlations and implications in clinical management. Clin Genet. 2011;79:1-16 pubmed publisher
    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a genetic syndrome caused by germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene...
  4. Zhang X, Zhou M, Qiu Y, Ding S, Qi M, Li J. Genetic analysis of RET, EDNRB, and EDN3 genes and three SNPs in MCS + 9.7 in Chinese Patients with isolated Hirschsprung disease. Biochem Genet. 2007;45:523-7 pubmed
  5. Tsui C, Pierchala B. CD2AP and Cbl-3/Cbl-c constitute a critical checkpoint in the regulation of ret signal transduction. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..GFLs promote survival and growth via activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Ret. In sympathetic neurons, the duration of Ret signaling is governed by how rapidly Ret is degraded after its ..
  6. Frank Raue K, Rondot S, Schulze E, Raue F. Change in the spectrum of RET mutations diagnosed between 1994 and 2006. Clin Lab. 2007;53:273-82 pubmed
    ..Hereditary MTC is caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. The first RET germline mutations were identified in 1993 in patients with MEN 2A and FMTC...
  7. Pini Prato A, Musso M, Ceccherini I, Mattioli G, Giunta C, Ghiggeri G, et al. Hirschsprung disease and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT): a novel syndromic association. Medicine (Baltimore). 2009;88:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..we designed a prospective study aimed at determining the prevalence of CAKUT in HSCR patients and at identifying RET, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and GDNF family receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1) mutations or ..
  8. Kohno T, Ichikawa H, Totoki Y, Yasuda K, Hiramoto M, Nammo T, et al. KIF5B-RET fusions in lung adenocarcinoma. Nat Med. 2012;18:375-7 pubmed publisher
    We identified in-frame fusion transcripts of KIF5B (the kinesin family 5B gene) and the RET oncogene, which are present in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs) from people from Japan and the United States, using whole-transcriptome ..
  9. Ryu H, Jeon G, Cashman N, Kowall N, Lee J. Differential expression of c-Ret in motor neurons versus non-neuronal cells is linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. Lab Invest. 2011;91:342-52 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated forms (tyrosine (Tyr) residue 905, 1016, and 1062) of c-Ret, a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor, are altered in motor neurons of the ..
  10. Kurotsuchi A, Murakumo Y, Jijiwa M, Kurokawa K, Itoh Y, Kodama Y, et al. Analysis of DOK-6 function in downstream signaling of RET in human neuroblastoma cells. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..the plasma membrane via its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, and was phosphorylated following RET activation via a MEN2A mutation or GDNF stimulation...
  11. Zhou Y, Zhao Y, Cui B, Gu L, Zhu S, Li J, et al. RET proto-oncogene mutations are restricted to codons 634 and 918 in mainland Chinese families with MEN2A and MEN2B. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007;67:570-6 pubmed
    ..gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, which includes multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), type 2B (MEN 2B), and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC)...
  12. Kosari F, Ida C, Aubry M, Yang L, Kovtun I, Klein J, et al. ASCL1 and RET expression defines a clinically relevant subgroup of lung adenocarcinoma characterized by neuroendocrine differentiation. Oncogene. 2014;33:3776-83 pubmed publisher
    ..gene expression profiles in stage I lung adenocarcinomas identified significantly higher expression levels of the RET oncogene in ASCL1-positive tumors (ASCL1(+)) compared with ASCL1(-) tumors (q-value <10(-9))...
  13. Gujral T, Van Veelen W, Richardson D, Myers S, Meens J, Acton D, et al. A novel RET kinase-beta-catenin signaling pathway contributes to tumorigenesis in thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1338-46 pubmed publisher
    The RET receptor tyrosine kinase has essential roles in cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation...
  14. Gattelli A, Nalvarte I, Boulay A, Roloff T, Schreiber M, Carragher N, et al. Ret inhibition decreases growth and metastatic potential of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. EMBO Mol Med. 2013;5:1335-50 pubmed publisher
    We show that elevated levels of Ret receptor are found in different sub-types of human breast cancers and that high Ret correlates with decreased metastasis-free survival...
  15. Richardson D, Mulligan L. Direct visualization of vesicle maturation and plasma membrane protein trafficking. J Fluoresc. 2010;20:401-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the transmembrane receptor RET as a model, we demonstrate how this method can be applied to identify plasma membrane-derived vesicle maturation, ..
  16. Sánchez Mejías A, Fernandez R, Lopez Alonso M, Antinolo G, Borrego S. Contribution of RET, NTRK3 and EDN3 to the expression of Hirschsprung disease in a multiplex family. J Med Genet. 2009;46:862-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A multiplex HSCR family with an additive model of inheritance, in which the contribution of three genes (RET, NTRK3, EDN3) leads to the HSCR phenotype is reported...
  17. Toledo R, Wagner S, Coutinho F, Lourenço D, Azevedo J, Longuini V, et al. High penetrance of pheochromocytoma associated with the novel C634Y/Y791F double germline mutation in the RET protooncogene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:1318-27 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown that double RET mutations may be associated with unusual multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) phenotypes.
  18. Plaza Menacho I, Morandi A, Mologni L, Boender P, Gambacorti Passerini C, Magee A, et al. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) binds RET kinase via its FERM domain, priming a direct and reciprocal RET-FAK transactivation mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:17292-302 pubmed publisher
    Whether RET is able to directly phosphorylate and activate downstream targets independently of the binding of proteins that contain Src homology 2 or phosphotyrosine binding domains and whether mechanisms in trans by cytoplasmic kinases ..
  19. Richardson D, Gujral T, Peng S, Asa S, Mulligan L. Transcript level modulates the inherent oncogenicity of RET/PTC oncoproteins. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4861-9 pubmed publisher
    ..many as one in three cases of thyroid cancer and have been detected in both the medullary (MTC) and the papillary (PTC) forms of the disease...
  20. Cerchia L, D Alessio A, Amabile G, Duconge F, Pestourie C, Tavitian B, et al. An autocrine loop involving ret and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor mediates retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Mol Cancer Res. 2006;4:481-8 pubmed
    ..factor receptors, including Trk family receptors and the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor receptor, Ret. In several cases, increased expression is dependent on signaling through TrkB...
  21. Takeuchi K, Soda M, Togashi Y, Suzuki R, Sakata S, Hatano S, et al. RET, ROS1 and ALK fusions in lung cancer. Nat Med. 2012;18:378-81 pubmed publisher
    ..unidentified kinase fusions that may be promising for molecular-targeted therapy, kinesin family member 5B (KIF5B)-ret proto-oncogene (RET) and coiled-coil domain containing 6 (CCDC6)-RET, in 14 adenocarcinomas...
  22. Phusantisampan T, Sangkhathat S, Phongdara A, Chiengkriwate P, Patrapinyokul S, Mahasirimongkol S. Association of genetic polymorphisms in the RET-protooncogene and NRG1 with Hirschsprung disease in Thai patients. J Hum Genet. 2012;57:286-93 pubmed publisher
    ..disease (HSCR) is a congenital developmental defect of the enteric nervous system known to be associated with the RET-protooncogene and other candidates...
  23. Garcia Barcelo M, Miao X, Lui V, So M, Ngan E, Leon T, et al. Correlation between genetic variations in Hox clusters and Hirschsprung's disease. Ann Hum Genet. 2007;71:526-36 pubmed
    ..A key signalling mediator is the RET-receptor-tyrosine-kinase which, when defective, causes Hirschprung's disease (HSCR, colon aganglionosis)...
  24. Boikos S, Stratakis C. Molecular mechanisms of medullary thyroid carcinoma: current approaches in diagnosis and treatment. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Dominant-activating mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have been shown to have a central role in the development of MEN 2 and sporadic medullary thyroid ..
  25. Boulay A, Breuleux M, Stephan C, Fux C, Brisken C, Fiche M, et al. The Ret receptor tyrosine kinase pathway functionally interacts with the ERalpha pathway in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2008;68:3743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the contribution of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase to breast tumor biology. Ret was expressed in primary breast tumors and cell lines...
  26. Garcia Barcelo M, Tang C, Ngan E, Lui V, Chen Y, So M, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies NRG1 as a susceptibility locus for Hirschsprung's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RET is a well-established susceptibility locus, although existing evidence strongly suggests additional loci ..
  27. Pierchala B, Milbrandt J, Johnson E. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent recruitment of Ret into lipid rafts enhances signaling by partitioning Ret from proteasome-dependent degradation. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2777-87 pubmed
    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Ret is activated by the formation of a complex consisting of ligands such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and glycerophosphatidylinositol-anchored coreceptors termed GFRalphas...
  28. Frank Raue K, Rybicki L, Erlic Z, Schweizer H, Winter A, Milos I, et al. Risk profiles and penetrance estimations in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A caused by germline RET mutations located in exon 10. Hum Mutat. 2011;32:51-8 pubmed publisher
    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is characterized by germline mutations in RET. For exon 10, comprehensive molecular and corresponding phenotypic data are scarce...
  29. Mannelli M, Castellano M, Schiavi F, Filetti S, Giacchè M, Mori L, et al. Clinically guided genetic screening in a large cohort of italian patients with pheochromocytomas and/or functional or nonfunctional paragangliomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Germ-line mutations in known susceptibility genes were investigated by gene sequencing (VHL, RET, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD) or diagnosed according to phenotype (NF1)...
  30. Romei C, Cosci B, Renzini G, Bottici V, Molinaro E, Agate L, et al. RET genetic screening of sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) allows the preclinical diagnosis of unsuspected gene carriers and the identification of a relevant percentage of hidden familial MTC (FMTC). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;74:241-7 pubmed publisher
    This study was aimed to demonstrate the clinical benefits of rearranged during transfection (RET) genetic screening in patients with apparently sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) not only to identify the hereditary nature of the ..
  31. Korpershoek E, Van Nederveen F, Dannenberg H, Petri B, Komminoth P, Perren A, et al. Genetic analyses of apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas: the Rotterdam experience. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1073:138-48 pubmed
    ..as an autosomal dominant trait alone or as a component of the multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2) syndrome (RET gene), Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease (VHL gene), neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1 gene), or familial ..
  32. Cai W, Su C, Li X, Fan L, Zheng L, Fei K, et al. KIF5B-RET fusions in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer. 2013;119:1486-94 pubmed publisher
    It has been established that "ret proto-oncogene" (RET) fusions are oncogenic drivers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...