RBP4

Summary

Gene Symbol: RBP4
Description: retinol binding protein 4
Alias: MCOPCB10, RDCCAS, retinol-binding protein 4, PRBP, RBP, plasma retinol-binding protein, retinol binding protein 4, plasma, retinol-binding protein 4, interstitial
Species: human
Products:     RBP4

Top Publications

  1. Moraes Vieira P, Yore M, Dwyer P, Syed I, Aryal P, Kahn B. RBP4 activates antigen-presenting cells, leading to adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 2014;19:512-26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RBP4, a retinol transporter, is elevated in insulin resistance and contributes to increased diabetes risk...
  2. Verges B, Guiu B, Cercueil J, Duvillard L, Robin I, Buffier P, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4 is an independent factor associated with triglycerides and a determinant of very low-density lipoprotein-apolipoprotein B100 catabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:3050-7 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (rbp4) is an adipokine secreted by adipocytes and liver, whose levels are elevated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma levels of rbp4 and triglycerides are strongly correlated in T2DM...
  3. Li L, Wang C, Bao Y, Wu H, Lu J, Xiang K, et al. Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with insulin secretion in Chinese people with normal glucose tolerance. J Diabetes. 2009;1:125-30 pubmed publisher
    Serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and may impact on ?-cell function...
  4. Santoro N, Perrone L, Cirillo G, Brienza C, Grandone A, Cresta N, et al. Variations of retinol binding protein 4 levels are not associated with changes in insulin resistance during puberty. J Endocrinol Invest. 2009;32:411-4 pubmed
    b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obese adults and children...
  5. Haider D, Schindler K, Prager G, Bohdjalian A, Luger A, Wolzt M, et al. Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is reduced after weight loss in morbidly obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:1168-71 pubmed
    Administration of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) impairs insulin sensitivity in animals, and elevated serum concentrations have been associated with insulin resistance in humans. We have studied whether weight loss influences RBP-4...
  6. Xiao Y, Xu A, Hui X, Zhou P, Li X, Zhong H, et al. Circulating lipocalin-2 and retinol-binding protein 4 are associated with intima-media thickness and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66607 pubmed publisher
    The lipocalin family proteins, including lipocalin-2 and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), are adipokines closely associated with obesity-related metabolic disorders...
  7. Solini A, Santini E, Madec S, Rossi C, Muscelli E. Retinol-binding protein-4 in women with untreated essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22:1001-6 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine able to modulate the action of insulin in several tissues. A variable degree of insulin resistance characterizes the vast majority of hypertensive (HYP) patients...
  8. Tan B, Chen J, Lehnert H, Kennedy R, Randeva H. Raised serum, adipocyte, and adipose tissue retinol-binding protein 4 in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effects of gonadal and adrenal steroids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2764-72 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have shown that serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels increase with obesity...
  9. Xu M, Li X, Wang J, Wang X, Huang Y, Cheng Q, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with impaired glucose regulation and microalbuminuria in a Chinese population. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1511-9 pubmed publisher
    Increased retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been reported in association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...

More Information

Publications83

  1. Raghu P, Ravinder P, Sivakumar B. A new method for purification of human plasma retinol-binding protein and transthyretin. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2003;38:19-24 pubmed
    Retinol is transported in the blood bound to a specific carrier protein called retinol-binding protein (RBP), which in turn binds to another protein, transthyretin (TTR), a homotetrameric, thyroid-hormone-transporting protein...
  2. Han S, Chin B, Lee H, Jeong S, Choi H, Kim C, et al. Serum retinol-binding protein 4 correlates with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in HIV-infected subjects receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Metabolism. 2009;58:1523-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies reported that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is associated with IR, dyslipidemia, and obesity in non-HIV-infected populations...
  3. Kiernan U, Tubbs K, Nedelkov D, Niederkofler E, Nelson R. Comparative phenotypic analyses of human plasma and urinary retinol binding protein using mass spectrometric immunoassay. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:401-5 pubmed
    ..In this work, MSIA is used in the comparative analyses of retinol binding protein (RBP) from the plasma and urine of a small study population...
  4. Aust G, Uptaite Patapoviene M, Scholz M, Richter O, Rohm S, Bluher M. Circulating Nampt and RBP4 levels in patients with carotid stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:1195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..secretion, including increased production of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) may link adipose tissue dysfunction to cardiovascular complications...
  5. Farjo K, FARJO R, Halsey S, Moiseyev G, Ma J. Retinol-binding protein 4 induces inflammation in human endothelial cells by an NADPH oxidase- and nuclear factor kappa B-dependent and retinol-independent mechanism. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:5103-15 pubmed publisher
    Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the sole specific vitamin A (retinol) transporter in blood. Elevation of serum RBP4 in patients has been linked to cardiovascular disease and diabetic retinopathy...
  6. Ingelsson E, Sundstrom J, Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Berne C, Vasan R, et al. Circulating retinol-binding protein 4, cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease in elderly. Atherosclerosis. 2009;206:239-44 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to examine relations of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) to cardiovascular risk factors, and prevalent metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large community-based sample of elderly...
  7. Yao Borengasser A, Varma V, Bodles A, Rasouli N, Phanavanh B, Lee M, et al. Retinol binding protein 4 expression in humans: relationship to insulin resistance, inflammation, and response to pioglitazone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2590-7 pubmed
    b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was recently found to be expressed and secreted by adipose tissue, and was strongly associated with insulin resistance...
  8. Raila J, Henze A, Spranger J, Mohlig M, Pfeiffer A, Schweigert F. Microalbuminuria is a major determinant of elevated plasma retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients. Kidney Int. 2007;72:505-11 pubmed
    Plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) may be a new adipokine linked to obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The impact of diabetic nephropathy on plasma RBP4 levels, however, is not known...
  9. Nair A, Sugunan D, Kumar H, Anilkumar G. Case-control analysis of SNPs in GLUT4, RBP4 and STRA6: association of SNPs in STRA6 with type 2 diabetes in a South Indian population. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11444 pubmed publisher
    The inverse relationship between GLUT4 and RBP4 expression is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of RBP4 were shown to cause insulin resistance in muscles and liver...
  10. Janke J, Engeli S, Boschmann M, Adams F, Böhnke J, Luft F, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4 in human obesity. Diabetes. 2006;55:2805-10 pubmed
    ..as glucose sensors and regulate systemic glucose metabolism through release of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4). This model has not been validated in humans...
  11. Cho Y, Youn B, Lee H, Lee N, Min S, Kwak S, et al. Plasma retinol-binding protein-4 concentrations are elevated in human subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2457-61 pubmed
    ..Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), a new adipokine, was recently reported to provide a link between obesity and insulin resistance...
  12. Broch M, Ramirez R, Auguet M, Alcaide M, Aguilar C, Garcia Espana A, et al. Macrophages are novel sites of expression and regulation of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4). Physiol Res. 2010;59:299-303 pubmed
    ..Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine associated with parameters of obesity including insulin resistance indices, body mass index, waist ..
  13. Toruner F, Altinova A, Akturk M, Kaya M, Arslan E, Bukan N, et al. The relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein-4, retinol binding protein-4 levels and early diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;91:203-7 pubmed publisher
    Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein-4 (A-FABP4) and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) have recently been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)...
  14. Takebayashi K, Sohma R, Aso Y, Inukai T. Effects of retinol binding protein-4 on vascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of RBP4 on nitric oxide (NO) and insulin-stimulated endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion and on phosphorylation (p) of Akt, ..
  15. Salgado Somoza A, Teijeira Fernandez E, Rubio J, Couso E, Gonzalez Juanatey J, Eiras S. Coronary artery disease is associated with higher epicardial retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lower glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 levels in epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;76:51-8 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), produced by adipocytes and hepatocytes, contributes to an unfavourable lipid profile and insulin resistance, which can contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  16. Kadoglou N, Lambadiari V, Gastounioti A, Gkekas C, Giannakopoulos T, Koulia K, et al. The relationship of novel adipokines, RBP4 and omentin-1, with carotid atherosclerosis severity and vulnerability. Atherosclerosis. 2014;235:606-12 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the relationship of circulating novel adipokines, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and omentin-1, with advanced carotid atherosclerosis and ultrasound indexes of severity (total plaque area-TPA) and plaque echogenicity and ..
  17. Stefan N, Hennige A, Staiger H, Machann J, Schick F, Schleicher E, et al. High circulating retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with elevated liver fat but not with total, subcutaneous, visceral, or intramyocellular fat in humans. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:1173-8 pubmed
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine that induced insulin resistance in mice, and high plasma RBP4 levels were associated with insulin-resistant states in humans...
  18. Gomez Ambrosi J, Rodriguez A, Catalan V, Ramirez B, Silva C, Rotellar F, et al. Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is not increased in obesity or obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus, but is reduced after relevant reductions in body fat following gastric bypass. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;69:208-15 pubmed
    Controversy exists regarding the elevation of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  19. Khovidhunkit W, Pruksakorn P, Plengpanich W, Tharavanij T. Retinol-binding protein 4 is not associated with insulin resistance in pregnancy. Metabolism. 2012;61:65-9 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine proposed to be specifically associated with insulin resistance (IR). We examined whether serum levels of RBP4 were associated with IR in pregnancy...
  20. Kos K, Wong S, Tan B, Kerrigan D, Randeva H, Pinkney J, et al. Human RBP4 adipose tissue expression is gender specific and influenced by leptin. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;74:197-205 pubmed publisher
    The role of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) in human insulin resistance remains controversial, which may in part be explained by a gender-specific secretion of RBP4 in adipose tissue (AT)...
  21. Kovacs P, Geyer M, Berndt J, Kloting N, Graham T, Bottcher Y, et al. Effects of genetic variation in the human retinol binding protein-4 gene (RBP4) on insulin resistance and fat depot-specific mRNA expression. Diabetes. 2007;56:3095-100 pubmed
    Serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a new liver- and adipocyte-derived signal that may contribute to insulin resistance. Therefore, the RBP4 gene represents a plausible candidate gene involved in susceptibility to type 2 diabetes...
  22. Yang Q, Eskurza I, Kiernan U, Phillips D, Blüher M, Graham T, et al. Quantitative measurement of full-length and C-terminal proteolyzed RBP4 in serum of normal and insulin-resistant humans using a novel mass spectrometry immunoassay. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1519-27 pubmed publisher
    Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are increased in insulin-resistant humans and correlate with severity of insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome...
  23. Hiraoka M, Urschitz J, Sultan O, Ward K. A polymorphism in the retinol binding protein 4 gene is not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in several different ethnic groups. Hawaii Med J. 2011;70:164-7 pubmed
    ..This increased incidence is likely to include genetic factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the retinol binding protein 4 gene have been linked to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes...
  24. Kotnik P, Fischer Posovszky P, Wabitsch M. RBP4: a controversial adipokine. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine suggested to link obesity with its comorbidities, especially ..
  25. Naylor H, Newcomer M. The structure of human retinol-binding protein (RBP) with its carrier protein transthyretin reveals an interaction with the carboxy terminus of RBP. Biochemistry. 1999;38:2647-53 pubmed
    ..or retinol, vitamin A is transported to the target cells as all-trans-retinol bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP)...
  26. Colantuoni V, Romano V, Bensi G, Santoro C, Costanzo F, Raugei G, et al. Cloning and sequencing of a full length cDNA coding for human retinol-binding protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983;11:7769-76 pubmed
    ..Southern and Northern blot analysis suggest that the gene is present in one or few copies per haploid genome and is transcribed in a single mRNA species. ..
  27. Newcomer M, Ong D. Plasma retinol binding protein: structure and function of the prototypic lipocalin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1482:57-64 pubmed
    In terms of both structure and biological function, retinol binding protein (RBP) is one of the best characterized members of the lipocalin superfamily. The molecular interactions in which RBP participates are described herein.
  28. Cubedo J, Padro T, Cinca J, Mata P, Alonso R, Badimon L. Retinol-binding protein 4 levels and susceptibility to ischaemic events in men. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014;44:266-75 pubmed publisher
    ..By applying proteomic approaches, we have detected changes in retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in acute new-onset myocardial infarction patients (AMI) and in high-risk patients with heterozygous familial ..
  29. Sun Q, Kiernan U, Shi L, Phillips D, Kahn B, Hu F, et al. Plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective analysis among women in the nurses' health study. Circulation. 2013;127:1938-47 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) may play an important role in the origin of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Few prospective data are available on the relationship between RBP4 and coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  30. Yang Q, Graham T, Mody N, Preitner F, Peroni O, Zabolotny J, et al. Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2005;436:356-62 pubmed
    ..Here we show, using DNA arrays, that expression of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) is elevated in adipose tissue of adipose-Glut4(-/-) mice...
  31. El Mesallamy H, Hamdy N, Zaghloul A, Sallam A. Serum retinol binding protein-4 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin are interrelated in pancreatic cancer patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2012;72:602-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to determine serum retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and neutophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels in pancreatic cancer patients...
  32. Lorkova L, Pospisilova J, Lacheta J, Leahomschi S, Zivny J, Cibula D, et al. Decreased concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 in sera of epithelial ovarian cancer patients: a potential biomarker identified by proteomics. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:318-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A-IV confirms previous studies but the identification of significantly decreased levels of RBP4 in ovarian cancer patients represents a novel observation...
  33. Christou G, Tselepis A, Kiortsis D. The metabolic role of retinol binding protein 4: an update. Horm Metab Res. 2012;44:6-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP(4)) is regarded as a novel cardiometabolic risk factor, which is secreted mainly by the hepatocytes and also by the adipose tissue...
  34. Tepper B, Kim Y, Shete V, Shabrova E, Quadro L. Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and retinol in a cohort of borderline obese women with and without gestational diabetes. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:320-3 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate whether serum RBP4 correlates with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a cohort of borderline obese (BMI>30) pregnant women. Serum RBP4 and retinol were measured in pregnant women with (n=12) and without (n=10) GDM...
  35. An C, Wang H, Liu X, Li Y, Su Y, Gao X, et al. Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is elevated and positively associated with insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. Endocr J. 2009;56:987-96 pubmed
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a newly discovered adipokine, which is reported to be correlated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
  36. Ribel Madsen R, Friedrichsen M, Vaag A, Poulsen P. Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and action. Diabetes. 2009;58:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate the ..
  37. Friebe D, Neef M, Erbs S, Dittrich K, Kratzsch J, Kovacs P, et al. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is primarily associated with adipose tissue mass in children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6:e345-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipocytokine that may link obesity and insulin resistance. We aimed to discriminate between primary and secondary associations of RBP4 with obesity and related disease...
  38. Gavi S, Stuart L, Kelly P, Melendez M, Mynarcik D, Gelato M, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with insulin resistance and body fat distribution in nonobese subjects without type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:1886-90 pubmed
    ..The primary objective of this study was to determine whether an association between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance exists in nonobese individuals without a family history or diagnosis of diabetes...
  39. Munkhtulga L, Nagashima S, Nakayama K, Utsumi N, Yanagisawa Y, Gotoh T, et al. Regulatory SNP in the RBP4 gene modified the expression in adipocytes and associated with BMI. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1006-14 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine that was involved in insulin resistance...
  40. van Hoek M, Dehghan A, Zillikens M, Hofman A, Witteman J, Sijbrands E. An RBP4 promoter polymorphism increases risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008;51:1423-8 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), originally known for retinol transport, was recently identified as an adipokine affecting insulin resistance...
  41. Yagmur E, Weiskirchen R, Gressner A, Trautwein C, Tacke F. Insulin resistance in liver cirrhosis is not associated with circulating retinol-binding protein 4. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:1168-72 pubmed
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been identified as a novel adipokine mediating systemic insulin resistance, and elevated serum RBP4 indicates overt or impending insulin resistance in lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects...
  42. Hu C, Jia W, Zhang R, Wang C, Lu J, Wu H, et al. Effect of RBP4 gene variants on circulating RBP4 concentration and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Diabet Med. 2008;25:11-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a newly discovered adipokine, which plays a role in insulin resistance and obesity...
  43. Park Y, Kim K, Lee K, Kim E, Sohn M, Kim K. Clinical implications of serum retinol-binding protein 4 in asthmatic children. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:1010-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Total eosinophil count, serum total IgE, serum eosinophil cationic protein, and serum RBP4 were measured in all subjects...
  44. Li Z, Lu X, Liu J, Chen L. Serum retinol-binding protein 4 levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy. J Int Med Res. 2010;38:95-9 pubmed
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been reported to be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes...
  45. Munkhtulga L, Nakayama K, Utsumi N, Yanagisawa Y, Gotoh T, Omi T, et al. Identification of a regulatory SNP in the retinol binding protein 4 gene associated with type 2 diabetes in Mongolia. Hum Genet. 2007;120:879-88 pubmed
    Increased levels of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in serum is associated with insulin resistance...
  46. Jia W, Wu H, Bao Y, Wang C, Lu J, Zhu J, et al. Association of serum retinol-binding protein 4 and visceral adiposity in Chinese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3224-9 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that adipose-derived serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are increased in insulin-resistant mouse models and in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes...
  47. Biesalski H, Frank J, Beck S, Heinrich F, Illek B, Reifen R, et al. Biochemical but not clinical vitamin A deficiency results from mutations in the gene for retinol binding protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:931-6 pubmed
    ..In both siblings, plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations were below the limit of detection (<0...
  48. Ost A, Danielsson A, Lidén M, Eriksson U, Nystrom F, Stralfors P. Retinol-binding protein-4 attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of IRS1 and ERK1/2 in primary human adipocytes. FASEB J. 2007;21:3696-704 pubmed
    ..Animal models and patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit elevated levels of circulating retinol-binding protein (RBP4), and RBP4 can induce insulin resistance in mice. However, little is known about how RBP4 affects insulin signaling...
  49. Frey S, Spranger J, Henze A, Pfeiffer A, Schweigert F, Raila J. Factors that influence retinol-binding protein 4-transthyretin interaction are not altered in overweight subjects and overweight subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2009;58:1386-92 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine bound in plasma to transthyretin (TTR), which prevents its glomerular filtration and subsequent catabolism in the kidney...
  50. Seeliger M, Biesalski H, Wissinger B, Gollnick H, Gielen S, Frank J, et al. Phenotype in retinol deficiency due to a hereditary defect in retinol binding protein synthesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:3-11 pubmed
    ..compound heterozygous missense mutations (Ile41Asn and Gly75Asp) in the gene for serum retinol binding protein (RBP)...
  51. Tschoner A, Sturm W, Engl J, Kaser S, Laimer M, Laimer E, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4, visceral fat, and the metabolic syndrome: effects of weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:2439-44 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) has been reported to be associated with visceral-fat accumulation and parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
  52. Choi S, Kwak S, Youn B, Lim S, Park Y, Lee H, et al. High plasma retinol binding protein-4 and low plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with severity of glucose intolerance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SETTING, PATIENTS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured the plasma concentrations of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), transthyretin (TTR), and adiponectin and metabolic parameters in four groups of women who exhibited normal ..
  53. Bahr M, Boeker K, Manns M, Tietge U. Decreased hepatic RBP4 secretion is correlated with reduced hepatic glucose production but is not associated with insulin resistance in patients with liver cirrhosis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70:60-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to determine circulating levels and hepatic production of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in relation to parameters of hepatic and systemic metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis...
  54. Sell H, Eckel J. Regulation of retinol binding protein 4 production in primary human adipocytes by adiponectin, troglitazone and TNF-alpha. Diabetologia. 2007;50:2221-3 pubmed
  55. Kloting N, Graham T, Berndt J, Kralisch S, Kovacs P, Wason C, et al. Serum retinol-binding protein is more highly expressed in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue and is a marker of intra-abdominal fat mass. Cell Metab. 2007;6:79-87 pubmed
    ..Levels of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4), secreted by fat and liver cells, are increased in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
  56. Wallenius V, Elias E, Bergstrom G, Zetterberg H, Behre C. The lipocalins retinol-binding protein-4, lipocalin-2 and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2-synthase correlate with markers of inflammatory activity, alcohol intake and blood lipids, but not with insulin sensitivity in metabolically healthy 58-year-old. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2011;119:75-80 pubmed publisher
    The lipocalins retinol-binding protein (RBP)-4, lipocalin-2 and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D-synthase (L-PGDS) have been suggested to mediate obesity-associated insulin resistance and other metabolic co-morbidities...
  57. Henze A, Frey S, Raila J, Tepel M, Scholze A, Pfeiffer A, et al. Evidence that kidney function but not type 2 diabetes determines retinol-binding protein 4 serum levels. Diabetes. 2008;57:3323-6 pubmed publisher
    It has been suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) links adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, circulating RBP4 levels are also affected by kidney function...
  58. Meisinger C, Rückert I, Rathmann W, Doring A, Thorand B, Huth C, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with prediabetes in adults from the general population: the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 Study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:1648-50 pubmed publisher
    We examined the association between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine, and prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose [i-IFG], isolated impaired glucose tolerance [i-IGT], and combined IFG and IGT) in men and women ..
  59. Koch A, Weiskirchen R, Sanson E, Zimmermann H, Voigt S, Dückers H, et al. Circulating retinol binding protein 4 in critically ill patients before specific treatment: prognostic impact and correlation with organ function, metabolism and inflammation. Crit Care. 2010;14:R179 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) promotes insulin resistance in mice and is systemically elevated in patients with obesity and ..
  60. Krzyzanowska K, Zemany L, Krugluger W, Schernthaner G, Mittermayer F, Schnack C, et al. Serum concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 in women with and without gestational diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008;51:1115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) could be related to insulin resistance. We hypothesised that RBP4 is elevated in gestational diabetes...
  61. Bajzova M, Kovacikova M, Vitkova M, Klimcakova E, Polak J, Kovacova Z, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4 expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat in human obesity. Physiol Res. 2008;57:927-34 pubmed
    b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine which might be involved in the development of insulin resistance...
  62. Wu J, Shi Y, Niu D, Li H, Zhang C, Wang J. Association among retinol-binding protein 4, small dense LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL levels in dyslipidemia subjects. Clin Biochem. 2012;45:619-22 pubmed publisher
    To investigate retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and their associations in dyslipidemia subjects...
  63. Fernandez Real J, Moreno J, Ricart W. Circulating retinol-binding protein-4 concentration might reflect insulin resistance-associated iron overload. Diabetes. 2008;57:1918-25 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms behind the association between retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance are not well understood. An interaction between iron and vitamin A status, of which RBP4 is a surrogate, has long been recognized...
  64. Reinehr T, Stoffel Wagner B, Roth C. Retinol-binding protein 4 and its relation to insulin resistance in obese children before and after weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2287-93 pubmed publisher
    There are limited and controversial data concerning the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), weight status, and insulin resistance in obese humans and especially in children...
  65. Lee J, Im J, Lee H, Shim J, Youn B, Lee D. Visceral adiposity is associated with serum retinol binding protein-4 levels in healthy women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:2225-32 pubmed
    Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) has been reported to impair insulin sensitivity throughout the body. We investigated the relationship between serum RBP4 levels and adiposity indices as well as metabolic risk variables...
  66. Ingelsson E, Lind L. Circulating retinol-binding protein 4 and subclinical cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:733-5 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated associations of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  67. Langouche L, Vander Perre S, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Hansen T, Van den Berghe G. Adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4, and leptin in protracted critical illness of pulmonary origin. Crit Care. 2009;13:R112 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied circulating levels of the adipokines adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and leptin during critical illness, and the impact of intensive insulin therapy, a therapy shown to affect ..
  68. von Eynatten M, Lepper P, Liu D, Lang K, Baumann M, Nawroth P, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome, but not with insulin resistance, in men with type 2 diabetes or coronary artery disease. Diabetologia. 2007;50:1930-1937 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has recently been reported to be associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome...
  69. Weiping L, Qingfeng C, Shikun M, Xiurong L, Hua Q, Xiaoshu B, et al. Elevated serum RBP4 is associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrine. 2006;30:283-7 pubmed
    b>Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipocyte-secreted protein that contributes to systemic insulin resistance. Experiments in mice suggest that elevated RBP4 causes insulin resistance...
  70. Vitkova M, Klimcakova E, Kovacikova M, Valle C, Moro C, Polak J, et al. Plasma levels and adipose tissue messenger ribonucleic acid expression of retinol-binding protein 4 are reduced during calorie restriction in obese subjects but are not related to diet-induced changes in insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2330-5 pubmed
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) may play a role in the development of insulin resistance. We investigated whether RBP4 adipose tissue mRNA expression and plasma level are related to insulin sensitivity during a diet-induced weight loss...
  71. Alapatt P, Guo F, Komanetsky S, Wang S, Cai J, Sargsyan A, et al. Liver retinol transporter and receptor for serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4). J Biol Chem. 2013;288:1250-65 pubmed publisher
    ..in the small intestine, stored in liver, and secreted into circulation bound to serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4)...
  72. Craig R, Chu W, Elbein S. Retinol binding protein 4 as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes and prediabetic intermediate traits. Mol Genet Metab. 2007;90:338-44 pubmed
    Serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was recently described as a new adipokine that reduced peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis...
  73. Jaconi S, Rose K, Hughes G, Saurat J, Siegenthaler G. Characterization of two post-translationally processed forms of human serum retinol-binding protein: altered ratios in chronic renal failure. J Lipid Res. 1995;36:1247-53 pubmed
    Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is the specific blood carrier for the transport of retinol (vitamin A) to target tissues...