Gene Symbol: PTGS2
Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Alias: COX-2, COX2, GRIPGHS, PGG/HS, PGHS-2, PHS-2, hCox-2, prostaglandin G/H synthase 2, PGH synthase 2, PHS II, cyclooxygenase 2, cyclooxygenase 2b, prostaglandin H2 synthase 2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
Species: human
Products:     PTGS2

Top Publications

  1. Andersen V, Nimmo E, Krarup H, Drummond H, Christensen J, Ho G, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) polymorphisms and risk of inflammatory bowel disease in a Scottish and Danish case-control study. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotypes of the COX-2/PTGS2/PGHS2 A-1195G (rs689466), G-765C (rs20417), and T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms were assessed in a Scottish and ..
  2. Zhao D, Xu D, Zhang X, Wang L, Tan W, Guo Y, et al. Interaction of cyclooxygenase-2 variants and smoking in pancreatic cancer: a possible role of nucleophosmin. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1659-68 pubmed
    ..Functional COX-2 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and tobacco smoke specifically increases -765C promoter activity, which might be mediated by p-NPM. ..
  3. Parfenova H, Parfenov V, Shlopov B, Levine V, Falkos S, Pourcyrous M, et al. Dynamics of nuclear localization sites for COX-2 in vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C166-78 pubmed
    ..COX-2 nuclear localization sites and trafficking between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in endothelial cells may indicate a novel function of COX-2 in regulating gene expression...
  4. Balistreri C, Caruso C, Carruba G, Miceli V, Campisi I, Listi F, et al. A pilot study on prostate cancer risk and pro-inflammatory genotypes: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:718-24 pubmed
    ..and treatment of PC, we have investigated the potential role of common SNPs of a gene cluster (TLR4, TLR2, PTGS2 and 5-Lo), involved in innate and inflammatory response, in PC cases, age-matched controls and centenarians from ..
  5. Yamauchi M, Lochhead P, Imamura Y, Kuchiba A, Liao X, Qian Z, et al. Physical activity, tumor PTGS2 expression, and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:1142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..catenin) or CDKN1B (p27) status on colon cancer prognosis, interactive effects of physical activity and tumor PTGS2 (the official symbol for COX-2) status on clinical outcome remain unknown...
  6. Huang M, Chen Q, Xiao J, Liu C, Zhao X. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:363-73 pubmed publisher
  7. Zhang H, Xu Y, Zhang Z, Li L. Meta-analysis of epidemiological studies demonstrates significant association of PTGS2 polymorphism rs689470 and no significant association of rs20417 with prostate cancer. Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:1642-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Two common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene, rs20417 and rs689470, have been found to alter the risk for prostate cancer, but the various studies are ..
  8. Dhakal H, Naume B, Synnestvedt M, Borgen E, Kaaresen R, Schlichting E, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in invasive breast carcinomas and its prognostic impact. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27:1315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, COX-2 expression in this series was associated with the presence of hormone receptors. Low COX-2 expression was observed in triple-negative breast carcinomas. ..
  9. Shao N, Feng N, Wang Y, Mi Y, Li T, Hua L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of COX-2 expression and polymorphisms in prostate cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:10997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). COX-2 might play an important role in the progress of PCa, overexpression of COX-2 correlates with T3-T4 stages of PCa. COX-2 might be a potential therapy target for PCa and work as a prognostic factor for PCa patients. ..

More Information

Publications308 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bu X, Zhao C. The association between cyclooxygenase-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:1479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence from the meta-analysis supports an association between COX-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and HCC risk in Asians. Further studies with large sample and careful design are needed to identify the possible association in Caucasians. ..
  2. Jiao G, Ren T, Lu Q, Sun Y, Lou Z, Peng X, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:2489-95 pubmed publisher
    ..741, 95 % CI 0.762-3.979, P = 0.188), but the difference was not significant. Therefore, this meta-analysis demonstrated that high COX-2 expression might be an unfavorable prognostic effect in osteosarcoma. ..
  3. Wang X, Huang M, Zhang X, Hua R, Guo W. COX-2-765G>C polymorphism increases the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73213 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the COX-2-765 C allele was related to increased cancer susceptibility, especially gastric cancer and cancer in the Asian population. ..
  4. Chen S, Wu C, Lee Y, Tam K, Tsai Y, Liou J, et al. Caveolin-1 interacts with Derlin-1 and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of cyclooxygenase-2 via collaboration with p97 complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified Cav-1 as a key player in Derlin-1- and p97-mediated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) ubiquitination and degradation...
  5. Mohamed F, Hussein Y, El Deen I, Sabea M. Cyclooxygenase-2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:1461-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been suggested to be associated with hepatocarcinogenesis...
  6. Gharib A, Karam R, Abd El Rahman T, Elsawy W. COX-2 polymorphisms -765G?C and -1195A?G and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Gene. 2014;543:234-6 pubmed publisher
    ..37). The A allele was present significantly more often in HCC patients (OR 1.5; 95%CI, 1.05-2.14). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the -1195AA genotype and A allele have an important role in HCC risk in Egyptian patients. ..
  7. Subbaram S, Lyons S, Svenson K, Hammond S, McCabe L, Chittur S, et al. Integrin ?3?1 controls mRNA splicing that determines Cox-2 mRNA stability in breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) by integrin ?3?1 in breast cancer cells can promote tumor progression...
  8. Chan C, Ma B, Hui E, Wong S, Mo F, Leung S, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma--a prognostic evaluation and correlation with hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor. Oral Oncol. 2007;43:373-8 pubmed
    ..Contrary to previous report, this study failed to demonstrate any prognostic significance of COX-2 expression alone or co-expression with HIF-1alpha or VEGF in advanced NPC. ..
  9. Sales K, Katz A, Howard B, Soeters R, Millar R, Jabbour H, et al. Cyclooxygenase-1 is up-regulated in cervical carcinomas: autocrine/paracrine regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin e receptors, and angiogenic factors by cyclooxygenase-1. Cancer Res. 2002;62:424-32 pubmed
    ..It is likely that similar mechanisms may act in vivo to modulate tumorigenesis of cervical carcinomas. ..
  10. Richardson J, Ottolini M, Pletneva L, Boukhvalova M, Zhang S, Vogel S, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induces cyclooxygenase 2: a potential target for RSV therapy. J Immunol. 2005;174:4356-64 pubmed
    ..Treatment of cotton rats with indomethacin significantly mitigated lung histopathology produced by RSV. The studies described in this study provide the first evidence that COX-2 is a potential therapeutic target in RSV-induced disease. ..
  11. Eibl G, Bruemmer D, Okada Y, Duffy J, Law R, Reber H, et al. PGE(2) is generated by specific COX-2 activity and increases VEGF production in COX-2-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:887-97 pubmed
    ..These data identify a subset of human PaCa cell lines that express functional COX-2 enzyme. PGE(2) generated by specific COX-2 activity increases VEGF secretion in human PaCa cells through an autocrine mechanism. ..
  12. Scoditti E, Massaro M, Carluccio M, Distante A, Storelli C, De Caterina R. PPARgamma agonists inhibit angiogenesis by suppressing PKCalpha- and CREB-mediated COX-2 expression in the human endothelium. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;86:302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-angiogenic effect of PPARgamma agonists is due, at least in part, to an interference with the VEGF-stimulated PKCalpha-mediated activation of CREB and the related expression of COX-2. ..
  13. Pandey S, Mittal R, Srivastava M, Srivastava K, Mittal B. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms and risk of cervical cancer in a North Indian population. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20:625-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies evaluating the role of COX-2 gene polymorphisms in ethnically diverse populations and a larger cohort may help in understanding the etiopathogenesis of cervical cancer in women worldwide. ..
  14. Chen L, Sooranna S, Lei K, Kandola M, Bennett P, Liang Z, et al. Cyclic AMP increases COX-2 expression via mitogen-activated kinase in human myometrial cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1447-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide further evidence in support of a dual role for cAMP in the regulation of myometrial function...
  15. Kranzhofer R, Ruef J. Aspirin resistance in coronary artery disease is correlated to elevated markers for oxidative stress but not to the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) 1/2, a novel COX-1 polymorphism or the PlA(1/2) polymorphism. Platelets. 2006;17:163-9 pubmed
    ..However, a correlation exists to elevated eicosanoids generated by oxidative stress indicating COX-1-independent pathways for the generation of platelet activating molecules represent a potential cause for AR. ..
  16. Gao J, Ke Q, Ma H, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Hu Z, et al. Functional polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene and risk of breast cancer in a Chinese population. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007;70:908-15 pubmed
    ..16, 95% CI 1.14-73.51 for A-1195C-765T8473) compared with the most common haplotype, G-1195G-765T8473. These findings indicate that these three variants in the regulatory regions of COX-2 may contribute to the etiology of breast cancer. ..
  17. Wu H, Chang C, Ke H, Chang W, Cheng H, Lin H, et al. Association of cyclooxygenase 2 polymorphic genotypes with prostate cancer in taiwan. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:221-5 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of polymorphic genotypes in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene (COX2), which is reported to be overexpressed in prostate tumors, with Taiwan prostate cancer patients...
  18. Chiang C, Cheng Y, Lin C, Lee H, Tsai F, Tseng S, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in pterygium. Mol Vis. 2007;13:635-8 pubmed
    ..Because cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2) was reported to exist and play an important role in UV-related cutaneous carcinogenesis, it is ..
  19. Zhu H, Cong J, Yu D, Bresnahan W, Shenk T. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 blocks human cytomegalovirus replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3932-7 pubmed
    b>Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA, protein, and activity are transiently induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus...
  20. Fradet V, Cheng I, Casey G, Witte J. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids, cyclooxygenase-2 genetic variation, and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:2559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the hypothesis that LC n-3 may impact prostate inflammation and carcinogenesis through the COX-2 enzymatic pathway. ..
  21. Pereira C, Pimentel Nunes P, Brandão C, Moreira Dias L, Medeiros R, Dinis Ribeiro M. COX-2 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk: a strategy for chemoprevention. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22:607-13 pubmed publisher
  22. Papafili A, Hill M, Brull D, McAnulty R, Marshall R, Humphries S, et al. Common promoter variant in cyclooxygenase-2 represses gene expression: evidence of role in acute-phase inflammatory response. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:1631-6 pubmed
    ..05 for all time points). For several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, -765G>C may influence the variability of response observed. ..
  23. Langsenlehner U, Yazdani Biuki B, Eder T, Renner W, Wascher T, Paulweber B, et al. The cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) 8473T>C polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:1392-4 pubmed
    ..The gene for COX-2, designated as PTGS2, carries a common polymorphism at position 8473 in the 3'-untranslated region (PTGS2 8473T>C), which has been ..
  24. Shahedi K, Lindstrom S, Zheng S, Wiklund F, Adolfsson J, Sun J, et al. Genetic variation in the COX-2 gene and the association with prostate cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:668-72 pubmed
    ..036, global simulated p-value=0.046). This study supports the hypothesis that inflammation is involved in prostate carcinogenesis and that sequence variation within the COX-2 gene influence the risk of prostate cancer. ..
  25. Athanassiadou P, Grapsa D, Athanassiades P, Gonidi M, Athanassiadou A, Tsipis A, et al. The prognostic significance of COX-2 and survivin expression in ovarian cancer. Pathol Res Pract. 2008;204:241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations of the exact prognostic and therapeutic implications of COX-2 and survivin expression are strongly warranted. ..
  26. Maitra A, Ashfaq R, Gunn C, Rahman A, Yeo C, Sohn T, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: an immunohistochemical analysis with automated cellular imaging. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002;118:194-201 pubmed
    ..30 lesions; pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia [PanIN], 65; normal pancreatic ducts, 30) for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) with an automated platform...
  27. Cipollone F, Toniato E, Martinotti S, Fazia M, Iezzi A, Cuccurullo C, et al. A polymorphism in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene as an inherited protective factor against myocardial infarction and stroke. JAMA. 2004;291:2221-8 pubmed
    ..Production of macrophage MMP-2 and MMP-9 is induced by cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis...
  28. Saxena A, Prasad K, Ghoshal U, Bhagat M, Krishnani N, Husain N. Polymorphism of -765G > C COX-2 is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer disease in addition to H pylori infection: a study from northern India. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1498-503 pubmed
    ..34). -765G > C COX-2 polymorphism with or without H pylori could be a marker for genetic susceptibility to gastric adenocarcinoma. COX-2 polymorphism in presence of H pylori infection might be useful in predicting the risk of PUD. ..
  29. Fernandez P, de Beer P, van der Merwe L, Heyns C. COX-2 promoter polymorphisms and the association with prostate cancer risk in South African men. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2347-50 pubmed publisher
    ..54 versus ACC; CI = 2.12-5.92; P < 0.0001). These findings in conjunction with findings in other populations of African descent might suggest a common causal variant for prostate cancer in COX-2, or a variant in a nearby gene. ..
  30. Srivastava K, Srivastava A, Pandey S, Kumar A, Mittal B. Functional polymorphisms of the cyclooxygenase (PTGS2) gene and risk for gallbladder cancer in a North Indian population. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:774-80 pubmed publisher
    Cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) overexpression has been implicated in various cancers...
  31. Cha J, Li S, Cha I. Association between expression of embryonic lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR and cyclooxygenase-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2011;33:627-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the cytoplasmic expression of HuR is associated with COX-2 expression in OSCCs and HuR can regulate COX-2 expression in oral cancer cell lines. ..
  32. Onguru O, Scheithauer B, Kovacs K, Vidal S, Jin L, Zhang S, et al. Analysis of Cox-2 and thromboxane synthase expression in pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Endocr Pathol. 2004;15:17-27 pubmed
    ..In summary, TBXAS appears to be one of the up-regulated downstream enzymes of Cox metabolism in pituitary tumors. Both Cox-2 and TBXAS may play an important role in pituitary tumor development and progression. ..
  33. Ladetto M, Vallet S, Trojan A, Dell Aquila M, Monitillo L, Rosato R, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently expressed in multiple myeloma and is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Blood. 2005;105:4784-91 pubmed
    b>Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an inflammation-associated enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of many solid tumors, but little is known about its presence and role in hematologic neoplasms...
  34. Takai T, Kanaoka S, Yoshida K, Hamaya Y, Ikuma M, Miura N, et al. Fecal cyclooxygenase 2 plus matrix metalloproteinase 7 mRNA assays as a marker for colorectal cancer screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1888-93 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that fecal cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA assay, detecting COX-2 mRNA in feces, is useful for identifying subjects with colorectal cancer (CRC)...
  35. Sharma Walia N, Paul A, Bottero V, Sadagopan S, Veettil M, Kerur N, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) induced COX-2: a key factor in latency, inflammation, angiogenesis, cell survival and invasion. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000777 pubmed publisher
  36. Barisik N, Bozkurt S, Gumus M, Kaygusuz I, Karadayi N, Bas E, et al. Expression and prognostic significance of Cox-2 and p-53 in Hodgkin lymphomas: a retrospective study. Diagn Pathol. 2010;5:19 pubmed publisher
    ..However the difference between these two subtypes was not significant. This submission must be advocated by studies with large series. ..
  37. Vogel U, Christensen J, Wallin H, Friis S, Nexø B, Tjønneland A. Polymorphisms in COX-2, NSAID use and risk of basal cell carcinoma in a prospective study of Danes. Mutat Res. 2007;617:138-46 pubmed
    ..While it cannot be ruled out that the present findings are due to chance, the results indicate that high COX-2 expression may increase risk of BCC while NSAID use may be protective. ..
  38. Ferrandina G, Ranelletti F, Legge F, Gessi M, Salutari V, Distefano M, et al. Prognostic role of the ratio between cyclooxygenase-2 in tumor and stroma compartments in cervical cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:3117-23 pubmed
    ..The assessment of COX-2 status in both tumor and stroma compartment could provide valuable information to identify cervical cancer patients endowed with a very poor chance of response to neoadjuvant treatment and unfavorable prognosis. ..
  39. Surowiak P, Materna V, Matkowski R, Szczuraszek K, Kornafel J, Wojnar A, et al. Relationship between the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and MDR1/P-glycoprotein in invasive breast cancers and their prognostic significance. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7:R862-70 pubmed
    Recent reports suggest that expression of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme may up-regulate expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), an exponent of resistance to cytostatic drugs...
  40. Timoshenko A, Chakraborty C, Wagner G, Lala P. COX-2-mediated stimulation of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C in human breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:1154-63 pubmed
    ..These results, for the first time, demonstrate a regulatory role of COX-2 in VEGF-C synthesis (and thereby lymphangiogenesis) in human breast cancer, which is mediated at least in part by EP1/EP4 receptors. ..
  41. Antonacopoulou A, Tsamandas A, Petsas T, Liava A, Scopa C, Papavassiliou A, et al. EGFR, HER-2 and COX-2 levels in colorectal cancer. Histopathology. 2008;53:698-706 pubmed
    ..Further investigation is required to evaluate the impact of these markers on the management of patients with colorectal cancer. ..
  42. Koki A, Khan N, Woerner B, Seibert K, Harmon J, Dannenberg A, et al. Characterization of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) during tumorigenesis in human epithelial cancers: evidence for potential clinical utility of COX-2 inhibitors in epithelial cancers. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002;66:13-8 pubmed
    ..These data collectively imply COX-2 may play an important role during premalignant hyperproliferation, as well as the later stages of invasive carcinoma and metastasis in various human epithelial cancers. ..
  43. N Guessan P, Hippenstiel S, Etouem M, Zahlten J, Beermann W, Lindner D, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae induced p38 MAPK- and NF-kappaB-dependent COX-2 expression in human lung epithelium. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;290:L1131-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, recruitment of NF-kappaB subunit p65/RelA and RNA polymerase II to the cox2 promoter depended on p38 MAPK but not on JNK activity...
  44. Li F, Liu Y, Chen H, Liao D, Shen Y, Xu F, et al. EGFR and COX-2 protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer and the correlation with clinical features. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:27 pubmed publisher
    ..555). COX-2 and EGFR are over-expressed in NSCLC. EGFR is an independent prognostic factor and a predictive factor for radiotherapy response in NSCLC. ..
  45. Chan M, Wong C, Cheng A, Chan V, Chan K, To K, et al. Targeted inhibition of COX-2 expression by RNA interference suppresses tumor growth and potentiates chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human gastric cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:1557-62 pubmed
    ..RNA interference may be a promising alternative to specific COX-2 inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer. ..
  46. Jiang W, Douglas Jones A, Mansel R. Levels of expression of lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase-2 in human breast cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003;69:275-81 pubmed
  47. Sørensen M, Autrup H, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou Nielsen O. A genetic polymorphism in prostaglandin synthase 2 (8473, T-->C) and the risk of lung cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005;226:49-54 pubmed
    Prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) mediated production of prostaglandins is an important step in the inflammatory response...
  48. Colaizzo D, Fofi L, Tiscia G, Guglielmi R, Cocomazzi N, Prencipe M, et al. The COX-2 G/C -765 polymorphism may modulate the occurrence of cerebrovascular ischemia. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2006;17:93-6 pubmed
    ..07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.61). Our data show an association between the COX-2 G/C-765 gene polymorphism and cerebrovascular ischemia, suggesting that the COX-2 gene is a susceptibility locus for the risk of cerebrovascular ischemic disease. ..
  49. Ulrich C, Whitton J, Yu J, Sibert J, Sparks R, Potter J, et al. PTGS2 (COX-2) -765G > C promoter variant reduces risk of colorectal adenoma among nonusers of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:616-9 pubmed
    Prostaglandin H synthase 2 (PTGS2) or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of inflammation, and its inhibition is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer...
  50. Sakaki M, Makino R, Hiroishi K, Ueda K, Eguchi J, Hiraide A, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene promoter polymorphisms affect susceptibility to hepatitis C virus infection and disease progression. Hepatol Res. 2010;40:1219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, once chronic infection is established, the -443TT genotype of the OPN promoter region and the -1195GG genotype of the COX-2 promoter are thought to promote inflammation and contribute to the progression of liver disease. ..
  51. Denkert C, Winzer K, Müller B, Weichert W, Pest S, Köbel M, et al. Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is a negative prognostic factor for disease free survival and overall survival in patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2003;97:2978-87 pubmed
    ..It remains to be investigated whether treatment with selective inhibitors of COX-2 may be an additional therapeutic option for patients with breast carcinoma. ..
  52. Boland G, Butt I, Prasad R, Knox W, Bundred N. COX-2 expression is associated with an aggressive phenotype in ductal carcinoma in situ. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:423-9 pubmed
    ..Cyclooxygenase type-2 inhibition may potentially prevent the development of ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. ..
  53. Talar Wojnarowska R, Gasiorowska A, Olakowski M, Lampe P, Smolarz B, Romanowicz Makowska H, et al. Role of cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms in pancreatic carcinogenesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:4113-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary results indicate that the -1195G/A COX-2 polymorphism may play an important role in PC prognosis and carcinogenesis. ..
  54. Saukkonen K, Rintahaka J, Sivula A, Buskens C, van Rees B, Rio M, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 and gastric carcinogenesis. APMIS. 2003;111:915-25 pubmed
    ..Taken together these data support efforts to initiate clinical studies to investigate the effect of Cox-2 inhibitors as chemotherapeutic agents and as adjuvant treatment modalities against gastric neoplasias. ..
  55. Wang W, Bergh A, Damber J. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with local chronic inflammation and tumor neovascularization in human prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:3250-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that COX-2 may be an effective therapeutic target in prostate cancer treatment. ..
  56. Kwagyan J, Apprey V, Ashktorab H. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis of COX-2 and risk of colorectal adenoma development. Clin Transl Sci. 2012;5:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, these variations should be taken into account for disease-based association studies in which the COX-2 polymorphism is considered as a candidate gene. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume 5: 60-64...
  57. Koch A, Gustafsson B, Fohlin H, Sörenson S. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lung cancer cells evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Diagn Cytopathol. 2011;39:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a great variation in the proportion of COX-2-positive cells among patients and in the intensity of staining among individual cells in many single cases. ..
  58. Ballif B, Mincek N, Barratt J, Wilson M, Simmons D. Interaction of cyclooxygenases with an apoptosis- and autoimmunity-associated protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5544-9 pubmed
    ..It also identifies Nuc as a potential regulator of COXs through this interaction. ..
  59. Denkert C, Weichert W, Pest S, Koch I, Licht D, Köbel M, et al. Overexpression of the embryonic-lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR in ovarian carcinoma is a prognostic factor and is associated with increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Cancer Res. 2004;64:189-95 pubmed
    ..In addition, it would be interesting to investigate the prognostic role of increased cytoplasmic expression of HuR in prospective studies. ..
  60. Hedelin M, Chang E, Wiklund F, Bellocco R, Klint A, Adolfsson J, et al. Association of frequent consumption of fatty fish with prostate cancer risk is modified by COX-2 polymorphism. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:398-405 pubmed
    ..Frequent consumption of fatty fish and marine fatty acids appears to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, and this association is modified by genetic variation in the COX-2 gene. ..
  61. Sitarz R, Leguit R, de Leng W, Polak M, Morsink F, Bakker O, et al. The COX-2 promoter polymorphism -765 G>C is associated with early-onset, conventional and stump gastric cancers. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:685-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Although early-onset gastric cancers appear to have a unique COX-2 expression pattern when compared with conventional gastric cancer, the exact mechanism by which this occurs is yet to be elucidated. ..
  62. Hamaya Y, Yoshida K, Takai T, Ikuma M, Hishida A, Kanaoka S. Factors that contribute to faecal cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression in subjects with colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:916-21 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2 mRNA expression in faeces seems to originate from tumour lesion and to be affected by factors such as the number of exfoliated cells, exfoliation of inflammatory cells, COX-2 mRNA expression in tumour, and tumour size. ..
  63. Kyzas P, Stefanou D, Agnantis N. COX-2 expression correlates with VEGF-C and lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:153-60 pubmed
    ..Also, the predictive ability for mortality of regional lymph node metastasis can be improved with the combined evaluation of the immunohistochemical expression of these two proteins. ..
  64. Cressey R, Pimpa S, Tontrong W, Watananupong O, Leartprasertsuke N. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in colorectal adenocarcinoma is associated with p53 accumulation and hdm2 overexpression. Cancer Lett. 2006;233:232-9 pubmed
    ..Although mutation of p53 has been previously reported to be associated with COX-2 induction, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show the relationship between HDM2 overexpression and COX-2 overexpression. ..
  65. Loukanov T, Kirilov M, Furstenberger G, Muller Decker K. Localization of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in human recurrent colorectal cancer. Clin Invest Med. 2010;33:E22-9 pubmed
    ..These observations give additional information about the possibility that COX-2 could be involved in tumor promotion during colorectal cancer progression. ..
  66. Glynn S, Prueitt R, Ridnour L, Boersma B, Dorsey T, Wink D, et al. COX-2 activation is associated with Akt phosphorylation and poor survival in ER-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:626 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that COX-2-specific inhibitors and inhibitors of the Akt pathway may act synergistically as anticancer drugs in the ER-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer subtype. ..
  67. Sinicrope F, Gill S. Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in colorectal cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2004;23:63-75 pubmed
    ..Additionally, evidence supporting the role of NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancer is reviewed. ..
  68. Sansbury L, Millikan R, Schroeder J, North K, Moorman P, Keku T, et al. COX-2 polymorphism, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and risk of colon cancer in African Americans (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17:257-66 pubmed
  69. Strillacci A, Griffoni C, Sansone P, Paterini P, Piazzi G, Lazzarini G, et al. MiR-101 downregulation is involved in cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in human colon cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:1439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..An impairment of miR-101 levels could represent one of the leading causes of COX-2 overexpression in colon cancer cells. ..
  70. Schwartzbaum J, Ahlbom A, Malmer B, Lonn S, Brookes A, Doss H, et al. Polymorphisms associated with asthma are inversely related to glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6459-65 pubmed
    ..However, our findings are also consistent with associations between IL-4RA, IL-13, and GBM that are independent of their role in allergic conditions. ..
  71. Mohan A, Sooranna S, Lindstrom T, Johnson M, Bennett P. The effect of mechanical stretch on cyclooxygenase type 2 expression and activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB activity in human amnion cells. Endocrinology. 2007;148:1850-7 pubmed
    ..Stretch of the amnion may contribute to increased expression of COX-2- and other AP-1- and NF-kappaB-regulated genes with the onset of labor in the human. ..
  72. Ogino S, Kirkner G, Nosho K, Irahara N, Kure S, Shima K, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:8221-7 pubmed publisher
    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; PTGS2) is considered to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis and is often up-regulated in colon cancers...
  73. Wild P, Kunz Schughart L, Stoehr R, Burger M, Blaszyk H, Simon R, et al. High-throughput tissue microarray analysis of COX2 expression in urinary bladder cancer. Int J Oncol. 2005;27:385-91 pubmed
    To investigate whether protein expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) is associated with tumor phenotype, immunohistochemical alterations, and clinical outcome in urinary bladder cancer (BC)...
  74. Ferrandina G, Lauriola L, Distefano M, Zannoni G, Gessi M, Legge F, et al. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression is associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor survival in cervical cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:973-81 pubmed
    ..The assessment of COX-2 status could provide additional information to identify patients with cervical cancer with a poor chance of response to neoadjuvant treatment and unfavorable prognosis. ..
  75. Grimminger P, Stöhlmacher J, Vallbohmer D, Schneider P, Holscher A, Metzger R, et al. Prognostic Significance and Clinicopathological Associations of COX-2 SNP in Patients with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer. J Oncol. 2009;2009:139590 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest COX-2 926G>C SNP as a molecular marker for lymph node involvement in this disease. ..
  76. Brosens L, Iacobuzio Donahue C, Keller J, Hustinx S, Carvalho R, Morsink F, et al. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression in duodenal compared with colonic tissues in familial adenomatous polyposis and relationship to the -765G -> C COX-2 polymorphism. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:4090-6 pubmed
    ..As a result, duodenal adenocarcinoma has become a leading cause of death in patients with FAP. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition is effective against colorectal polyposis in FAP, but is less effective in treating ..
  77. Polydorides A, Kalish R, Witkin S, Baergen R. A fetal cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphism is associated with placental malperfusion. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2007;26:284-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, a fetal polymorphism in the COX-2 gene influences the occurrence of placental malperfusion and ischemia, which may be of sufficient severity to promote or allow the development of IUGR. ..
  78. Xu K, Shu H. EGFR activation results in enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent activation of the Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors in human gliomas. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6121-9 pubmed
  79. Badawi A, Habib S, Mohammed M, Abadi A, Michael M. Influence of cigarette smoking on prostaglandin synthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in human urinary bladder cancer. Cancer Invest. 2002;20:651-6 pubmed
  80. Sawaoka H, Dixon D, Oates J, Boutaud O. Tristetraprolin binds to the 3'-untranslated region of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA. A polyadenylation variant in a cancer cell line lacks the binding site. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:13928-35 pubmed
    ..However, the truncated transcript escaped tristetraprolin binding and downregulation. ..
  81. Matsubayashi H, Infante J, Winter J, Klein A, Schulick R, Hruban R, et al. Tumor COX-2 expression and prognosis of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007;6:1569-75 pubmed
    ..52 (95% CI 1.04-2.22) versus 1.11 (95% CI 0.75-1.67) in cancers <3 cm. Tumor COX-2 expression portends a poor prognosis for patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, particularly in tumors > or =3 cm. ..
  82. Upadhyay R, Jain M, Kumar S, Ghoshal U, Mittal B. Functional polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene and risk for esophageal squmaous cell carcinoma. Mutat Res. 2009;663:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Interaction of COX-2 -1195GA and -765C carrier genotypes also modulates ESCC risk. ..
  83. Andersen V, Ostergaard M, Christensen J, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Vogel U. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:407 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that MDR1 polymorphisms affect the relationship between meat and CRC risk. ..
  84. Liu F, He Y, Peng X, Wang W, Yang X. Association of the 8473T>C cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene polymorphism with lung cancer risk in Asians. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11:1257-62 pubmed
    ..54, 95% CI=0.31 to 0.95) stratified by pathological type. Our results suggest the COX-2 gene is a factor for suffering from lung cancer, especially of small cell type among Asians. ..
  85. Sackett M, Bairati I, Meyer F, Jobin E, Lussier S, Fortin A, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in glottic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies are needed to explain observed effects on SPC. COX-2 expression may prove helpful in defining an individual patient's prognosis. ..
  86. Niesporek S, Kristiansen G, Thoma A, Weichert W, Noske A, Buckendahl A, et al. Expression of the ELAV-like protein HuR in human prostate carcinoma is an indicator of disease relapse and linked to COX-2 expression. Int J Oncol. 2008;32:341-7 pubmed
    ..Our results point to a potential prognostic role of HuR expression in prostate cancer diagnostics and propose HuR as a future therapeutic target in prostate cancer therapy. ..
  87. Kim E, Raval A, Perez Pinzon M. Preconditioning mediated by sublethal oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 phosphorylation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:1329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings suggest that PC signaling cascade involves STAT3 activation after varepsilonPKC and ERK1/2 activation. Finally, we show that STAT3 activation mediates COX-2 expression and ischemic tolerance. ..
  88. Sonoda R, Naomoto Y, Shirakawa Y, Fujiwara Y, Yamatsuji T, Noma K, et al. Preferential up-regulation of heparanase and cyclooxygenase-2 in carcinogenesis of Barrett's oesophagus and intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. Histopathology. 2010;57:90-100 pubmed publisher
    ..HPSE and COX-2 are preferentially up-regulated in Barrett's oesophagus and intestinal-type GC. These molecules may play an important role during the development of inflammation-related adenocarcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. ..
  89. Miladi Abdennadher I, Abdelmaksoud Dammak R, Ayed Guerfali D, Ayadi L, Khabir A, Amouri A, et al. Expression of COX-2 and E-cadherin in Tunisian patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Acta Histochem. 2012;114:577-81 pubmed publisher
    ..006), and in an advanced stage (P=0.001). Survival analysis showed that COX-2 over-expression confers a reduced overall survival rate (Plog rank=0.036) and is an independent factor predictive for prognosis. ..
  90. He J, Zhang Q, Ren Z, Li Y, Li X, Zhou W, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 -765 G/C polymorphisms and susceptibility to hepatitis B-related liver cancer in Han Chinese population. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:4163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2 -765 C allele genotype, drinking history and family history of liver cancer may increase the susceptibility to hepatitis B-related liver cancer in Gansu province, China. ..
  91. Kang S, Kim Y, Kim M, Yoon K, Kim J, Park N, et al. Polymorphism in the nuclear factor kappa-B binding promoter region of cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005;217:11-6 pubmed
    ..Further research is needed to investigate the functional implications of the polymorphisms of the COX-2 promoter gene in human cancer. ..