Gene Symbol: PTGS2
Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Alias: COX-2, COX2, GRIPGHS, PGG/HS, PGHS-2, PHS-2, hCox-2, prostaglandin G/H synthase 2, PGH synthase 2, PHS II, cyclooxygenase 2, cyclooxygenase 2b, prostaglandin H2 synthase 2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
Species: human
Products:     PTGS2

Top Publications

  1. Andersen V, Nimmo E, Krarup H, Drummond H, Christensen J, Ho G, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) polymorphisms and risk of inflammatory bowel disease in a Scottish and Danish case-control study. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotypes of the COX-2/PTGS2/PGHS2 A-1195G (rs689466), G-765C (rs20417), and T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms were assessed in a Scottish and ..
  2. Zhao D, Xu D, Zhang X, Wang L, Tan W, Guo Y, et al. Interaction of cyclooxygenase-2 variants and smoking in pancreatic cancer: a possible role of nucleophosmin. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1659-68 pubmed
    ..Functional COX-2 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and tobacco smoke specifically increases -765C promoter activity, which might be mediated by p-NPM. ..
  3. Parfenova H, Parfenov V, Shlopov B, Levine V, Falkos S, Pourcyrous M, et al. Dynamics of nuclear localization sites for COX-2 in vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C166-78 pubmed
    ..COX-2 nuclear localization sites and trafficking between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in endothelial cells may indicate a novel function of COX-2 in regulating gene expression...
  4. Balistreri C, Caruso C, Carruba G, Miceli V, Campisi I, Listi F, et al. A pilot study on prostate cancer risk and pro-inflammatory genotypes: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:718-24 pubmed
    ..and treatment of PC, we have investigated the potential role of common SNPs of a gene cluster (TLR4, TLR2, PTGS2 and 5-Lo), involved in innate and inflammatory response, in PC cases, age-matched controls and centenarians from ..
  5. Yamauchi M, Lochhead P, Imamura Y, Kuchiba A, Liao X, Qian Z, et al. Physical activity, tumor PTGS2 expression, and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:1142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..catenin) or CDKN1B (p27) status on colon cancer prognosis, interactive effects of physical activity and tumor PTGS2 (the official symbol for COX-2) status on clinical outcome remain unknown...
  6. Huang M, Chen Q, Xiao J, Liu C, Zhao X. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:363-73 pubmed publisher
  7. Zhang H, Xu Y, Zhang Z, Li L. Meta-analysis of epidemiological studies demonstrates significant association of PTGS2 polymorphism rs689470 and no significant association of rs20417 with prostate cancer. Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:1642-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Two common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene, rs20417 and rs689470, have been found to alter the risk for prostate cancer, but the various studies are ..
  8. Dhakal H, Naume B, Synnestvedt M, Borgen E, Kaaresen R, Schlichting E, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in invasive breast carcinomas and its prognostic impact. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27:1315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, COX-2 expression in this series was associated with the presence of hormone receptors. Low COX-2 expression was observed in triple-negative breast carcinomas. ..
  9. Shao N, Feng N, Wang Y, Mi Y, Li T, Hua L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of COX-2 expression and polymorphisms in prostate cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:10997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). COX-2 might play an important role in the progress of PCa, overexpression of COX-2 correlates with T3-T4 stages of PCa. COX-2 might be a potential therapy target for PCa and work as a prognostic factor for PCa patients. ..

More Information

Publications279 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bu X, Zhao C. The association between cyclooxygenase-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:1479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence from the meta-analysis supports an association between COX-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and HCC risk in Asians. Further studies with large sample and careful design are needed to identify the possible association in Caucasians. ..
  2. Jiao G, Ren T, Lu Q, Sun Y, Lou Z, Peng X, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:2489-95 pubmed publisher
    ..741, 95 % CI 0.762-3.979, P = 0.188), but the difference was not significant. Therefore, this meta-analysis demonstrated that high COX-2 expression might be an unfavorable prognostic effect in osteosarcoma. ..
  3. Wang X, Huang M, Zhang X, Hua R, Guo W. COX-2-765G>C polymorphism increases the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73213 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the COX-2-765 C allele was related to increased cancer susceptibility, especially gastric cancer and cancer in the Asian population. ..
  4. Chen S, Wu C, Lee Y, Tam K, Tsai Y, Liou J, et al. Caveolin-1 interacts with Derlin-1 and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of cyclooxygenase-2 via collaboration with p97 complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified Cav-1 as a key player in Derlin-1- and p97-mediated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) ubiquitination and degradation...
  5. Mohamed F, Hussein Y, El Deen I, Sabea M. Cyclooxygenase-2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:1461-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been suggested to be associated with hepatocarcinogenesis...
  6. Gharib A, Karam R, Abd El Rahman T, Elsawy W. COX-2 polymorphisms -765G?C and -1195A?G and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Gene. 2014;543:234-6 pubmed publisher
    ..37). The A allele was present significantly more often in HCC patients (OR 1.5; 95%CI, 1.05-2.14). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the -1195AA genotype and A allele have an important role in HCC risk in Egyptian patients. ..
  7. Subbaram S, Lyons S, Svenson K, Hammond S, McCabe L, Chittur S, et al. Integrin ?3?1 controls mRNA splicing that determines Cox-2 mRNA stability in breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) by integrin ?3?1 in breast cancer cells can promote tumor progression...
  8. Barisik N, Bozkurt S, Gumus M, Kaygusuz I, Karadayi N, Bas E, et al. Expression and prognostic significance of Cox-2 and p-53 in Hodgkin lymphomas: a retrospective study. Diagn Pathol. 2010;5:19 pubmed publisher
    ..However the difference between these two subtypes was not significant. This submission must be advocated by studies with large series. ..
  9. Vogel U, Christensen J, Wallin H, Friis S, Nexø B, Tjønneland A. Polymorphisms in COX-2, NSAID use and risk of basal cell carcinoma in a prospective study of Danes. Mutat Res. 2007;617:138-46 pubmed
    ..While it cannot be ruled out that the present findings are due to chance, the results indicate that high COX-2 expression may increase risk of BCC while NSAID use may be protective. ..
  10. Surowiak P, Materna V, Matkowski R, Szczuraszek K, Kornafel J, Wojnar A, et al. Relationship between the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and MDR1/P-glycoprotein in invasive breast cancers and their prognostic significance. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7:R862-70 pubmed
    Recent reports suggest that expression of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme may up-regulate expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), an exponent of resistance to cytostatic drugs...
  11. Timoshenko A, Chakraborty C, Wagner G, Lala P. COX-2-mediated stimulation of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C in human breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:1154-63 pubmed
    ..These results, for the first time, demonstrate a regulatory role of COX-2 in VEGF-C synthesis (and thereby lymphangiogenesis) in human breast cancer, which is mediated at least in part by EP1/EP4 receptors. ..
  12. Antonacopoulou A, Tsamandas A, Petsas T, Liava A, Scopa C, Papavassiliou A, et al. EGFR, HER-2 and COX-2 levels in colorectal cancer. Histopathology. 2008;53:698-706 pubmed
    ..Further investigation is required to evaluate the impact of these markers on the management of patients with colorectal cancer. ..
  13. Li F, Liu Y, Chen H, Liao D, Shen Y, Xu F, et al. EGFR and COX-2 protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer and the correlation with clinical features. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:27 pubmed publisher
    ..555). COX-2 and EGFR are over-expressed in NSCLC. EGFR is an independent prognostic factor and a predictive factor for radiotherapy response in NSCLC. ..
  14. Jiang W, Douglas Jones A, Mansel R. Levels of expression of lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase-2 in human breast cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003;69:275-81 pubmed
  15. Sakaki M, Makino R, Hiroishi K, Ueda K, Eguchi J, Hiraide A, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene promoter polymorphisms affect susceptibility to hepatitis C virus infection and disease progression. Hepatol Res. 2010;40:1219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, once chronic infection is established, the -443TT genotype of the OPN promoter region and the -1195GG genotype of the COX-2 promoter are thought to promote inflammation and contribute to the progression of liver disease. ..
  16. Denkert C, Winzer K, Müller B, Weichert W, Pest S, Köbel M, et al. Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is a negative prognostic factor for disease free survival and overall survival in patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2003;97:2978-87 pubmed
    ..It remains to be investigated whether treatment with selective inhibitors of COX-2 may be an additional therapeutic option for patients with breast carcinoma. ..
  17. Boland G, Butt I, Prasad R, Knox W, Bundred N. COX-2 expression is associated with an aggressive phenotype in ductal carcinoma in situ. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:423-9 pubmed
    ..Cyclooxygenase type-2 inhibition may potentially prevent the development of ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. ..
  18. Kwagyan J, Apprey V, Ashktorab H. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis of COX-2 and risk of colorectal adenoma development. Clin Transl Sci. 2012;5:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, these variations should be taken into account for disease-based association studies in which the COX-2 polymorphism is considered as a candidate gene. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume 5: 60-64...
  19. Koch A, Gustafsson B, Fohlin H, Sörenson S. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lung cancer cells evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Diagn Cytopathol. 2011;39:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a great variation in the proportion of COX-2-positive cells among patients and in the intensity of staining among individual cells in many single cases. ..
  20. Ballif B, Mincek N, Barratt J, Wilson M, Simmons D. Interaction of cyclooxygenases with an apoptosis- and autoimmunity-associated protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5544-9 pubmed
    ..It also identifies Nuc as a potential regulator of COXs through this interaction. ..
  21. Denkert C, Weichert W, Pest S, Koch I, Licht D, Köbel M, et al. Overexpression of the embryonic-lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR in ovarian carcinoma is a prognostic factor and is associated with increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Cancer Res. 2004;64:189-95 pubmed
    ..In addition, it would be interesting to investigate the prognostic role of increased cytoplasmic expression of HuR in prospective studies. ..
  22. Hedelin M, Chang E, Wiklund F, Bellocco R, Klint A, Adolfsson J, et al. Association of frequent consumption of fatty fish with prostate cancer risk is modified by COX-2 polymorphism. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:398-405 pubmed
    ..Frequent consumption of fatty fish and marine fatty acids appears to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, and this association is modified by genetic variation in the COX-2 gene. ..
  23. Sitarz R, Leguit R, de Leng W, Polak M, Morsink F, Bakker O, et al. The COX-2 promoter polymorphism -765 G>C is associated with early-onset, conventional and stump gastric cancers. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:685-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Although early-onset gastric cancers appear to have a unique COX-2 expression pattern when compared with conventional gastric cancer, the exact mechanism by which this occurs is yet to be elucidated. ..
  24. Hamaya Y, Yoshida K, Takai T, Ikuma M, Hishida A, Kanaoka S. Factors that contribute to faecal cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression in subjects with colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:916-21 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2 mRNA expression in faeces seems to originate from tumour lesion and to be affected by factors such as the number of exfoliated cells, exfoliation of inflammatory cells, COX-2 mRNA expression in tumour, and tumour size. ..
  25. Kyzas P, Stefanou D, Agnantis N. COX-2 expression correlates with VEGF-C and lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:153-60 pubmed
    ..Also, the predictive ability for mortality of regional lymph node metastasis can be improved with the combined evaluation of the immunohistochemical expression of these two proteins. ..
  26. Cressey R, Pimpa S, Tontrong W, Watananupong O, Leartprasertsuke N. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in colorectal adenocarcinoma is associated with p53 accumulation and hdm2 overexpression. Cancer Lett. 2006;233:232-9 pubmed
    ..Although mutation of p53 has been previously reported to be associated with COX-2 induction, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show the relationship between HDM2 overexpression and COX-2 overexpression. ..
  27. Loukanov T, Kirilov M, Furstenberger G, Muller Decker K. Localization of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in human recurrent colorectal cancer. Clin Invest Med. 2010;33:E22-9 pubmed
    ..These observations give additional information about the possibility that COX-2 could be involved in tumor promotion during colorectal cancer progression. ..
  28. Glynn S, Prueitt R, Ridnour L, Boersma B, Dorsey T, Wink D, et al. COX-2 activation is associated with Akt phosphorylation and poor survival in ER-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:626 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that COX-2-specific inhibitors and inhibitors of the Akt pathway may act synergistically as anticancer drugs in the ER-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer subtype. ..
  29. Sinicrope F, Gill S. Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in colorectal cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2004;23:63-75 pubmed
    ..Additionally, evidence supporting the role of NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancer is reviewed. ..
  30. Sansbury L, Millikan R, Schroeder J, North K, Moorman P, Keku T, et al. COX-2 polymorphism, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and risk of colon cancer in African Americans (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17:257-66 pubmed
  31. Strillacci A, Griffoni C, Sansone P, Paterini P, Piazzi G, Lazzarini G, et al. MiR-101 downregulation is involved in cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in human colon cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:1439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..An impairment of miR-101 levels could represent one of the leading causes of COX-2 overexpression in colon cancer cells. ..
  32. Schwartzbaum J, Ahlbom A, Malmer B, Lonn S, Brookes A, Doss H, et al. Polymorphisms associated with asthma are inversely related to glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6459-65 pubmed
    ..However, our findings are also consistent with associations between IL-4RA, IL-13, and GBM that are independent of their role in allergic conditions. ..
  33. Mohan A, Sooranna S, Lindstrom T, Johnson M, Bennett P. The effect of mechanical stretch on cyclooxygenase type 2 expression and activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB activity in human amnion cells. Endocrinology. 2007;148:1850-7 pubmed
    ..Stretch of the amnion may contribute to increased expression of COX-2- and other AP-1- and NF-kappaB-regulated genes with the onset of labor in the human. ..
  34. Ogino S, Kirkner G, Nosho K, Irahara N, Kure S, Shima K, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:8221-7 pubmed publisher
    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; PTGS2) is considered to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis and is often up-regulated in colon cancers...
  35. Wild P, Kunz Schughart L, Stoehr R, Burger M, Blaszyk H, Simon R, et al. High-throughput tissue microarray analysis of COX2 expression in urinary bladder cancer. Int J Oncol. 2005;27:385-91 pubmed
    To investigate whether protein expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) is associated with tumor phenotype, immunohistochemical alterations, and clinical outcome in urinary bladder cancer (BC)...
  36. Ferrandina G, Lauriola L, Distefano M, Zannoni G, Gessi M, Legge F, et al. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression is associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor survival in cervical cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:973-81 pubmed
    ..The assessment of COX-2 status could provide additional information to identify patients with cervical cancer with a poor chance of response to neoadjuvant treatment and unfavorable prognosis. ..
  37. Grimminger P, Stöhlmacher J, Vallbohmer D, Schneider P, Holscher A, Metzger R, et al. Prognostic Significance and Clinicopathological Associations of COX-2 SNP in Patients with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer. J Oncol. 2009;2009:139590 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest COX-2 926G>C SNP as a molecular marker for lymph node involvement in this disease. ..
  38. Brosens L, Iacobuzio Donahue C, Keller J, Hustinx S, Carvalho R, Morsink F, et al. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression in duodenal compared with colonic tissues in familial adenomatous polyposis and relationship to the -765G -> C COX-2 polymorphism. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:4090-6 pubmed
    ..As a result, duodenal adenocarcinoma has become a leading cause of death in patients with FAP. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition is effective against colorectal polyposis in FAP, but is less effective in treating ..
  39. Polydorides A, Kalish R, Witkin S, Baergen R. A fetal cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphism is associated with placental malperfusion. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2007;26:284-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, a fetal polymorphism in the COX-2 gene influences the occurrence of placental malperfusion and ischemia, which may be of sufficient severity to promote or allow the development of IUGR. ..
  40. Xu K, Shu H. EGFR activation results in enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent activation of the Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors in human gliomas. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6121-9 pubmed
  41. Badawi A, Habib S, Mohammed M, Abadi A, Michael M. Influence of cigarette smoking on prostaglandin synthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in human urinary bladder cancer. Cancer Invest. 2002;20:651-6 pubmed
  42. Sawaoka H, Dixon D, Oates J, Boutaud O. Tristetraprolin binds to the 3'-untranslated region of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA. A polyadenylation variant in a cancer cell line lacks the binding site. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:13928-35 pubmed
    ..However, the truncated transcript escaped tristetraprolin binding and downregulation. ..
  43. Matsubayashi H, Infante J, Winter J, Klein A, Schulick R, Hruban R, et al. Tumor COX-2 expression and prognosis of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007;6:1569-75 pubmed
    ..52 (95% CI 1.04-2.22) versus 1.11 (95% CI 0.75-1.67) in cancers <3 cm. Tumor COX-2 expression portends a poor prognosis for patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, particularly in tumors > or =3 cm. ..
  44. Upadhyay R, Jain M, Kumar S, Ghoshal U, Mittal B. Functional polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene and risk for esophageal squmaous cell carcinoma. Mutat Res. 2009;663:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Interaction of COX-2 -1195GA and -765C carrier genotypes also modulates ESCC risk. ..
  45. Andersen V, Ostergaard M, Christensen J, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Vogel U. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:407 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that MDR1 polymorphisms affect the relationship between meat and CRC risk. ..
  46. Liu F, He Y, Peng X, Wang W, Yang X. Association of the 8473T>C cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene polymorphism with lung cancer risk in Asians. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11:1257-62 pubmed
    ..54, 95% CI=0.31 to 0.95) stratified by pathological type. Our results suggest the COX-2 gene is a factor for suffering from lung cancer, especially of small cell type among Asians. ..
  47. Sackett M, Bairati I, Meyer F, Jobin E, Lussier S, Fortin A, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in glottic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies are needed to explain observed effects on SPC. COX-2 expression may prove helpful in defining an individual patient's prognosis. ..
  48. Niesporek S, Kristiansen G, Thoma A, Weichert W, Noske A, Buckendahl A, et al. Expression of the ELAV-like protein HuR in human prostate carcinoma is an indicator of disease relapse and linked to COX-2 expression. Int J Oncol. 2008;32:341-7 pubmed
    ..Our results point to a potential prognostic role of HuR expression in prostate cancer diagnostics and propose HuR as a future therapeutic target in prostate cancer therapy. ..
  49. Kim E, Raval A, Perez Pinzon M. Preconditioning mediated by sublethal oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 phosphorylation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:1329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings suggest that PC signaling cascade involves STAT3 activation after varepsilonPKC and ERK1/2 activation. Finally, we show that STAT3 activation mediates COX-2 expression and ischemic tolerance. ..
  50. Sonoda R, Naomoto Y, Shirakawa Y, Fujiwara Y, Yamatsuji T, Noma K, et al. Preferential up-regulation of heparanase and cyclooxygenase-2 in carcinogenesis of Barrett's oesophagus and intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. Histopathology. 2010;57:90-100 pubmed publisher
    ..HPSE and COX-2 are preferentially up-regulated in Barrett's oesophagus and intestinal-type GC. These molecules may play an important role during the development of inflammation-related adenocarcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. ..
  51. Miladi Abdennadher I, Abdelmaksoud Dammak R, Ayed Guerfali D, Ayadi L, Khabir A, Amouri A, et al. Expression of COX-2 and E-cadherin in Tunisian patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Acta Histochem. 2012;114:577-81 pubmed publisher
    ..006), and in an advanced stage (P=0.001). Survival analysis showed that COX-2 over-expression confers a reduced overall survival rate (Plog rank=0.036) and is an independent factor predictive for prognosis. ..
  52. He J, Zhang Q, Ren Z, Li Y, Li X, Zhou W, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 -765 G/C polymorphisms and susceptibility to hepatitis B-related liver cancer in Han Chinese population. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:4163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2 -765 C allele genotype, drinking history and family history of liver cancer may increase the susceptibility to hepatitis B-related liver cancer in Gansu province, China. ..
  53. Kang S, Kim Y, Kim M, Yoon K, Kim J, Park N, et al. Polymorphism in the nuclear factor kappa-B binding promoter region of cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005;217:11-6 pubmed
    ..Further research is needed to investigate the functional implications of the polymorphisms of the COX-2 promoter gene in human cancer. ..
  54. Mbonye U, Wada M, Rieke C, Tang H, DeWitt D, Smith W. The 19-amino acid cassette of cyclooxygenase-2 mediates entry of the protein into the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation system. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35770-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, kifunensine, a mannosidase inhibitor that can block entry of ER proteins into the ER-associated degradation system, retards COX-2 degradation. ..
  55. Tong X, Yin L, Joshi S, Rosenberg D, Giardina C. Cyclooxygenase-2 regulation in colon cancer cells: modulation of RNA polymerase II elongation by histone deacetylase inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15503-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that histone deacetylases regulate a transcriptional block on the Cox-2 and c-myc genes and that this block may be a potential target for pharmacological intervention. ..
  56. Gustafsson A, Hansson E, Kressner U, Nordgren S, Andersson M, Wang W, et al. EP1-4 subtype, COX and PPAR gamma receptor expression in colorectal cancer in prediction of disease-specific mortality. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:232-40 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that both prostaglandin production (COX-2) and signaling via EP(1-4) subtype receptors, particularly EP(2), predict disease-specific mortality in colorectal cancer. ..
  57. Chen S, Liou J, Huang T, Lin Y, Yeh A, Tam K, et al. Caveolin-1 facilitates cyclooxygenase-2 protein degradation. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:356-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a novel function of Cav-1 in controlling COX-2 expression, which may regulate physiological functions and have tumor suppression effects. ..
  58. Hla T, Neilson K. Human cyclooxygenase-2 cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:7384-8 pubmed
    ..High-level induction of the hCox-2 transcript in mesenchymal-derived inflammatory cells suggests a role in inflammatory conditions. ..
  59. Kohsaka S, Volcik K, Folsom A, Wu K, Ballantyne C, Willerson J, et al. Increased risk of incident stroke associated with the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) G-765C polymorphism in African-Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Atherosclerosis. 2008;196:926-30 pubmed
    ..This study provides additional evidence for utilizing inflammation-related genetic polymorphisms for identifying individuals at increased risk for stroke. ..
  60. Liu X, Kirschenbaum A, Lu M, Yao S, Dosoretz A, Holland J, et al. Prostaglandin E2 induces hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha stabilization and nuclear localization in a human prostate cancer cell line. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50081-6 pubmed
  61. Yamac D, Celenkoglu G, Coskun U, Akyurek N, Akcali Z, Dursun A, et al. Prognostic importance of COX-2 expression in patients with colorectal cancer. Pathol Res Pract. 2005;201:497-502 pubmed
    ..In the multivariate analysis, COX-2 expression was not found as an independent prognostic factor. We demonstrated that COX-2 expression was not correlated with clinicopathological characteristics of colon carcinoma and disease outcome. ..
  62. Pan J, Han J, Wu J, Sheng L, Huang H, Yu Q. MDR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms predict response to vinorelbine-based chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Respiration. 2008;75:380-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that MDR1 2677G-->T/A and 3435C-->T polymorphisms can be used to predict treatment response to VC chemotherapy in NSCLC patients. ..
  63. Llorente Izquierdo C, Mayoral R, Flores J, Garcia Palencia P, Cucarella C, Bosca L, et al. Transgenic mice expressing cyclooxygenase-2 in hepatocytes reveal a minor contribution of this enzyme to chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1361-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Endogenous COX-2 expression in wild-type mice is a late event in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma...
  64. Chu J, Lloyd F, Trifan O, Knapp B, Rizzo M. Potential involvement of the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in the regulation of tumor-associated angiogenesis and growth in pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003;2:1-7 pubmed
  65. Pereira C, Sousa H, Ferreira P, Fragoso M, Moreira Dias L, Lopes C, et al. -765G > C COX-2 polymorphism may be a susceptibility marker for gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:5473-8 pubmed
    ..67, 95% CI = 1.03-6.93; P = 0.04). -765C carrier status should be considered as another susceptibility marker for gastric adenocarcinoma development in patients with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia. ..
  66. Ogino S, Brahmandam M, Kawasaki T, Kirkner G, Loda M, Fuchs C. Combined analysis of COX-2 and p53 expressions reveals synergistic inverse correlations with microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer. Neoplasia. 2006;8:458-64 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that a combined analysis of COX-2 and p53 may be more useful for the molecular classification of colorectal cancer than either COX-2 or p53 analysis alone. ..
  67. Loo W, Wang M, Jin L, Cheung M, Li G. Association of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9) and cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms and their proteins with chronic periodontitis. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:1081-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Combine genotype and serum expression of inflammatory mediators that may be a good bio-marker for diagnosis and prognosis of the periodontitis. ..
  68. Coward W, Watts K, Feghali Bostwick C, Knox A, Pang L. Defective histone acetylation is responsible for the diminished expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4325-39 pubmed publisher
    Diminished cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression in fibroblasts, with a resultant defect in the production of the antifibrotic mediator prostaglandin E(2), plays a key role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)...
  69. Spizzo G, Gastl G, Wolf D, Gunsilius E, Steurer M, Fong D, et al. Correlation of COX-2 and Ep-CAM overexpression in human invasive breast cancer and its impact on survival. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:574-8 pubmed
    Recent studies have demonstrated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) overexpression in various human malignancies, especially in breast cancer, where COX-2 turned out to be a predictor of poor survival...
  70. Yan M, Rerko R, Platzer P, Dawson D, Willis J, Tong M, et al. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, a COX-2 oncogene antagonist, is a TGF-beta-induced suppressor of human gastrointestinal cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17468-73 pubmed
    Marked increased expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), a prostaglandin-synthesizing enzyme that is pharmacologically inhibited by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory-type drugs, is a major early oncogenic event in the genesis of human colon ..
  71. Crowell P, Schmidt C, Yip Schneider M, Savage J, Hertzler D, Cummings W. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in hamster and human pancreatic neoplasia. Neoplasia. 2006;8:437-45 pubmed
    ..The BOP-induced hamster carcinogenesis model is a representative model used to study the role of COX-2 in well-differentiated pancreatic tumorigenesis. COX inhibitors may have a role in preventing tumor engraftment/formation. ..
  72. Yang C, Sorokin A. Upregulation of fibronectin expression by COX-2 is mediated by interaction with ELMO1. Cell Signal. 2011;23:99-104 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction of ELMO1 with COX-2 could play an important role in the development and progression of renal glomerular injury. ..
  73. Takaoka K, Kishimoto H, Segawa E, Hashitani S, Zushi Y, Noguchi K, et al. Elevated cell migration, invasion and tumorigenicity in human KB carcinoma cells transfected with COX-2 cDNA. Int J Oncol. 2006;29:1095-101 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that overexpression of COX-2 elevated tumorigenicity, tumor growth and invasion of human KB carcinoma cells via up-regulated MMP and Rho family small GTPases and down-regulated TIMP activities. ..
  74. Vogel U, Segel S, Dethlefsen C, Tjønneland A, Saber A, Wallin H, et al. Associations between COX-2 polymorphisms, blood cholesterol and risk of acute coronary syndrome. Atherosclerosis. 2010;209:155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate if the polymorphisms COX2 T8473C (rs5275), and COX2 A-1195G (rs689466), which modify the enzyme levels of COX-2, were associated with risk of ..
  75. Brasky T, Bonner M, Moysich K, Ochs Balcom H, Marian C, Ambrosone C, et al. Genetic variants in COX-2, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and breast cancer risk: the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;126:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Better understanding of the role of COX-2 genetic variation and interaction with NSAID use in breast carcinogenesis has potential to inform prevention strategies. ..
  76. Peters W, Te Morsche R, Roelofs H, Mathus Vliegen E, Berkhout M, Nagengast F. COX-2 polymorphisms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Oncol Res. 2009;17:347-51 pubmed
    ..The predicted low COX-2 expression genotype -1195GG was found overrepresented in the patients with FAP. The COX-2 genotypes showed no association with the severity of duodenal adenomatosis. ..
  77. Liu C, Hsia T, Wang R, Tsai C, Chu C, Hang L, et al. Interaction of cyclooxygenase 2 genotype and smoking habit in Taiwanese lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:1195-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) gene with smoking habits with lung cancer patients in Taiwan...
  78. Mittal M, Kapoor V, Mohanti B, Das S. Functional variants of COX-2 and risk of tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk Asian Indians. Oral Oncol. 2010;46:622-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of the present study indicate that these three functional variants in the COX-2 regulatory region may contribute to risk modification of tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinoma in Asian Indians. ..
  79. Soumaoro L, Uetake H, Takagi Y, Iida S, Higuchi T, Yasuno M, et al. Coexpression of VEGF-C and Cox-2 in human colorectal cancer and its association with lymph node metastasis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49:392-8 pubmed
    ..046-8.994). These data show that in human colorectal carcinoma, vascular endothelial growth factor-C and cyclooxygenase-2 are coexpressed and significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and prognosis. ..
  80. Xiang Z, Ho L, Yemul S, Zhao Z, Qing W, Pompl P, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 promotes amyloid plaque deposition in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. Gene Expr. 2002;10:271-8 pubmed
    ..Collectively these data suggest that COX-2 influences APP processing and promotes amyloidosis in the brain. ..
  81. Cao H, Xu Z, Long H, Li X, Li S. The -765C allele of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene as a potential risk factor of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2010;222:15-21 pubmed
    ..Human colorectal carcinogenesis is a complex, multistep and multigenetic process. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), a key enzyme in arachidonic acid metabolism, is overexpressed in several epithelial malignancies including ..
  82. Nuñez F, Bravo S, Cruzat F, Montecino M, De Ferrari G. Wnt/?-catenin signaling enhances cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) transcriptional activity in gastric cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18562 pubmed publisher
    Increased expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX2) is one of the main characteristics of gastric cancer (GC), which is a leading cause of death in the world, particularly in Asia and South America...