PTEN

Summary

Gene Symbol: PTEN
Description: phosphatase and tensin homolog
Alias: 10q23del, BZS, CWS1, DEC, GLM2, MHAM, MMAC1, PTEN1, PTENbeta, TEP1, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN, MMAC1 phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10, mitochondrial PTENalpha, mitochondrial phosphatase and tensin protein alpha, mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1, phosphatase and tensin-like protein, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN, protein tyrosine phosphatase
Species: human
Products:     PTEN

Top Publications

  1. Berns K, Horlings H, Hennessy B, Madiredjo M, Hijmans E, Beelen K, et al. A functional genetic approach identifies the PI3K pathway as a major determinant of trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer. Cancer Cell. 2007;12:395-402 pubmed
    ..RNA interference screen to discover genes involved in trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer identified only PTEN as a modulator of drug sensitivity...
  2. Sakamoto K, Iwasaki K, Sugiyama H, Tsuji Y. Role of the tumor suppressor PTEN in antioxidant responsive element-mediated transcription and associated histone modifications. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1606-17 pubmed publisher
    ..regulation of PI3-kinase (PI3K) and the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) plays a pivotal role in various cell functions...
  3. Yin Y, Shen W. PTEN: a new guardian of the genome. Oncogene. 2008;27:5443-53 pubmed publisher
    The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor is a phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphoinositol-3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway and suppresses cell survival as well as cell proliferation...
  4. Bian Y, Hall B, Sun Z, Molinolo A, Chen W, Gutkind J, et al. Loss of TGF-β signaling and PTEN promotes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through cellular senescence evasion and cancer-related inflammation. Oncogene. 2012;31:3322-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditional activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway due to Pten deletion in the mouse head and neck epithelia gives rise to hyperproliferation, but only a few lesions progress to ..
  5. Palumbo T, Faucz F, Azevedo M, Xekouki P, Iliopoulos D, Stratakis C. Functional screen analysis reveals miR-26b and miR-128 as central regulators of pituitary somatomammotrophic tumor growth through activation of the PTEN-AKT pathway. Oncogene. 2013;32:1651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..that miR-26b and miR-128 affected pituitary tumor cell behavior through regulation of their direct targets, PTEN and BMI1, respectively...
  6. Huang F, Zhang L, Wu D, Yuan X, Yu Y, Zhao X, et al. PTEN regulates BCRP/ABCG2 and the side population through the PI3K/Akt pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88298 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced drug resistance along with downregulated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome -10 (PTEN) and activated phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt)...
  7. Won H, Jung C, Chun S, Kang J, Kim Y, Sun D, et al. Difference in expression of EGFR, pAkt, and PTEN between oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2012;48:985-990 pubmed publisher
    The aims of this study were to evaluate the expression of EGFR, PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and PTEN in the oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers, and to investigate their clinical significance as prognostic markers...
  8. Huang F, Wu D, Zhang L, Yu Y, Yuan X, Li W, et al. Inactivation of PTEN increases ABCG2 expression and the side population through the PI3K/Akt pathway in adult acute leukemia. Cancer Lett. 2013;336:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..that ABCG2 expression and SP cell ratios can be upregulated by the inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein, achieved in this study by removing inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway...
  9. Moult P, Cross A, Santos S, Carvalho A, Lindsay Y, Connolly C, et al. Leptin regulates AMPA receptor trafficking via PTEN inhibition. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4088-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, leptin enhanced phosphorylation of the lipid phosphatase PTEN which inhibits PTEN function and elevates PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels...

More Information

Publications378 found, 100 shown here

  1. Lacey J, Yang H, Gaudet M, Dunning A, Lissowska J, Sherman M, et al. Endometrial cancer and genetic variation in PTEN, PIK3CA, AKT1, MLH1, and MSH2 within a population-based case-control study. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;120:167-73 pubmed publisher
    We assessed whether common genetic variation in PTEN, PIK3CA, AKT1, MLH1, and MSH2-genes that reportedly are frequently altered in endometrial cancer-was associated with risk of endometrial cancer...
  2. Kavela S, Shinde S, Ratheesh R, Viswakalyan K, Bashyam M, Gowrishankar S, et al. PNUTS functions as a proto-oncogene by sequestering PTEN. Cancer Res. 2013;73:205-14 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN is a well-defined tumor suppressor gene that antagonizes the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate a multitude of cellular processes, such as survival, growth, motility, invasiveness, and angiogenesis...
  3. Shen W, Balajee A, Wang J, Wu H, Eng C, Pandolfi P, et al. Essential role for nuclear PTEN in maintaining chromosomal integrity. Cell. 2007;128:157-70 pubmed
    A broad spectrum of mutations in PTEN, encoding a lipid phosphatase that inactivates the P13-K/AKT pathway, is found associated with primary tumors...
  4. Li H, Gao Q, Guo L, Lu S. The PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway regulates stem-like cells in primary esophageal carcinoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011;11:950-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, PTEN, rather than mTOR, was found to be involved in SP cell regulation in primary ESCC cells...
  5. Redfern R, Daou M, Li L, Munson M, Gericke A, Ross A. A mutant form of PTEN linked to autism. Protein Sci. 2010;19:1948-56 pubmed publisher
    The tumor suppressor, phosphatase, and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), is a phosphoinositide (PI) phosphatase specific for the 3-position of the inositol ring...
  6. Pal A, Barber T, van de Bunt M, Rudge S, Zhang Q, Lachlan K, et al. PTEN mutations as a cause of constitutive insulin sensitivity and obesity. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1002-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) has roles in both cellular growth and metabolic signaling...
  7. Weng L, Smith W, Dahia P, Ziebold U, Gil E, Lees J, et al. PTEN suppresses breast cancer cell growth by phosphatase activity-dependent G1 arrest followed by cell death. Cancer Res. 1999;59:5808-14 pubmed
    PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1, a tumor suppressor gene, is frequently mutated in a variety of human cancers...
  8. Silva A, Yunes J, Cardoso B, Martins L, Jotta P, Abecasis M, et al. PTEN posttranslational inactivation and hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway sustain primary T cell leukemia viability. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3762-74 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene leading to PTEN protein deletion and subsequent activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway are common in cancer...
  9. Cetin Z, Ozbilim G, Erdogan A, Luleci G, Karauzum S. Evaluation of PTEN and Mcl-1 expressions in NSCLC expressing wild-type or mutated EGFR. Med Oncol. 2010;27:853-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgically resected samples were obtained from 50 patients with non-small-cell-lung cancer. PTEN, Mcl-1 and EGFR protein expression levels were evaluated by Western-blot...
  10. Okumura K, Mendoza M, Bachoo R, Depinho R, Cavenee W, Furnari F. PCAF modulates PTEN activity. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:26562-8 pubmed
    The PTEN protein has a single catalytic domain possessing both lipid phosphoinositol and protein phosphatase activities...
  11. Vitolo M, Weiss M, Szmacinski M, Tahir K, Waldman T, Park B, et al. Deletion of PTEN promotes tumorigenic signaling, resistance to anoikis, and altered response to chemotherapeutic agents in human mammary epithelial cells. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8275-83 pubmed publisher
    ..loss-of-function mutations in the catalytic domain of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) or have reduced PTEN expression through loss of heterozygosity and/or epigenetic silencing mechanisms...
  12. Slattery M, Herrick J, Lundgreen A, Fitzpatrick F, Curtin K, Wolff R. Genetic variation in a metabolic signaling pathway and colon and rectal cancer risk: mTOR, PTEN, STK11, RPKAA1, PRKAG2, TSC1, TSC2, PI3K and Akt1. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1604-11 pubmed publisher
    Serine/threonine protein kinase 11 (STK11) and phosphatase tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) link insulin sensitivity and metabolic signaling to inflammation and other hormonal factors and colorectal cancer...
  13. Pezzolesi M, Platzer P, Waite K, Eng C. Differential expression of PTEN-targeting microRNAs miR-19a and miR-21 in Cowden syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:1141-9 pubmed publisher
    Germline mutations in the gene encoding phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN [MIM 601728]) are associated with a number of clinically distinct heritable cancer syndromes, including both Cowden syndrome (CS) and ..
  14. Whelan J, Kellogg A, Shewchuk B, Hewan Lowe K, Bertrand F. Notch-1 signaling is lost in prostate adenocarcinoma and promotes PTEN gene expression. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:992-1001 pubmed publisher
    Prostate tumorigenesis is associated with loss of PTEN gene expression. We and others have recently reported that PTEN is regulated by Notch-1 signaling...
  15. He X, Ni Y, Wang Y, Romigh T, Eng C. Naturally occurring germline and tumor-associated mutations within the ATP-binding motifs of PTEN lead to oxidative damage of DNA associated with decreased nuclear p53. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:80-9 pubmed publisher
    Somatic and germline mutations in PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) are found in sporadic cancers and Cowden syndrome patients, respectively...
  16. Fornari F, Milazzo M, Chieco P, Negrini M, Marasco E, Capranico G, et al. In hepatocellular carcinoma miR-519d is up-regulated by p53 and DNA hypomethylation and targets CDKN1A/p21, PTEN, AKT3 and TIMP2. J Pathol. 2012;227:275-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These functions are, at least in part, exerted through the direct targeting of CDKN1A/p21, PTEN, AKT3 and TIMP2...
  17. Zheng H, Sun J, Li X, Yang X, Zhang Y, Xin Y. Role of PTEN and MMP-7 expression in growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of gastric carcinoma. Pathol Int. 2003;53:659-66 pubmed
    To investigate the role of PTEN and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) expression in tumorigenesis and progression of gastric carcinoma, their expression in 113 gastric carcinomas was studied by immunohistochemistry...
  18. Wang M, Lu K, Zhu S, Dia E, Vivanco I, Shackleford G, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition promotes response to epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors in PTEN-deficient and PTEN-intact glioblastoma cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:7864-9 pubmed
    ..We have recently shown that coexpression of EGFRvIII and PTEN protein by glioblastoma cells is strongly associated with clinical response to EGFR kinase inhibitor therapy...
  19. He L, Ingram A, Rybak A, Tang D. Shank-interacting protein-like 1 promotes tumorigenesis via PTEN inhibition in human tumor cells. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2094-108 pubmed publisher
    Inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a critical step during tumorigenesis, and PTEN inactivation by genetic and epigenetic means has been well studied...
  20. Liu Z, Wang H, Liu J, Wang Z. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression promotes growth, metastasis, and chemo- or radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells by targeting PTEN. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;372:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, miR-21 mimics could inhibit expression of PTEN mRNA and protein and the luciferase activity of a PTEN 3'-untranslated region (UTR)-based reporter construct in ..
  21. Busa T, Chabrol B, Perret O, Longy M, Philip N. Novel PTEN germline mutation in a family with mild phenotype: difficulties in genetic counseling. Gene. 2013;512:194-7 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN gene (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten, MIM 601628) is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS) including Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome and Proteus-like ..
  22. Haier J, Nicolson G. PTEN regulates tumor cell adhesion of colon carcinoma cells under dynamic conditions of fluid flow. Oncogene. 2002;21:1450-60 pubmed
    ..Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been recently found to be a substrate of the dual-specific phosphatase PTEN in glioma cells, where it appears to be involved in regulation of cell spreading and migration as part of focal ..
  23. Hettinger K, Vikhanskaya F, Poh M, Lee M, de Belle I, Zhang J, et al. c-Jun promotes cellular survival by suppression of PTEN. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:218-29 pubmed
    ..expression of c-Jun promotes cellular survival by negatively regulating the expression of the tumor-suppressor PTEN, resulting in the concomitant activation of the Akt survival pathway...
  24. Liu J, Mao Z, Lafortune T, Alonso M, Gallick G, Fueyo J, et al. Cell cycle-dependent nuclear export of phosphatase and tensin homologue tumor suppressor is regulated by the phosphoinositide-3-kinase signaling cascade. Cancer Res. 2007;67:11054-63 pubmed
    The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) plays distinct growth-regulatory roles in the cytoplasm and nucleus...
  25. McCall P, Witton C, Grimsley S, Nielsen K, Edwards J. Is PTEN loss associated with clinical outcome measures in human prostate cancer?. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1296-301 pubmed publisher
    Inactivating PTEN mutations are commonly found in prostate cancer, resulting in an increased activation of Akt...
  26. Cao J, Schulte J, Knight A, Leslie N, Zagozdzon A, Bronson R, et al. Prdx1 inhibits tumorigenesis via regulating PTEN/AKT activity. EMBO J. 2009;28:1505-17 pubmed publisher
    ..elevated Akt activation established a novel role for Prdx1 as a safeguard for the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN, which is essential for its tumour suppressive function...
  27. Conde Perez A, Larue L. PTEN and melanomagenesis. Future Oncol. 2012;8:1109-20 pubmed publisher
    The PI3K-PTEN-AKT signaling pathway is involved in various cellular activities, including proliferation, migration, cell growth, cell survival and differentiation during adult homeostasis as well as in tumorigenesis...
  28. Zhou Y, Xiong Y, Wu X, Shi D, Fan W, Zhou T, et al. Inactivation of PTEN is associated with increased angiogenesis and VEGF overexpression in gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:3225-9 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of PTEN/MMAC(1)/TEP(1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), their roles in biologic behavior and angiogenesis and their association in gastric cancer...
  29. Yoshimoto M, Cutz J, Nuin P, Joshua A, Bayani J, Evans A, et al. Interphase FISH analysis of PTEN in histologic sections shows genomic deletions in 68% of primary prostate cancer and 23% of high-grade prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasias. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006;169:128-37 pubmed
    ..One of the important genes that might play a role in CaP development is the PTEN gene...
  30. Hildebrandt M, Yang H, Hung M, Izzo J, Huang M, Lin J, et al. Genetic variations in the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway are associated with clinical outcomes in esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:857-71 pubmed publisher
    The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has been implicated in resistance to several ..
  31. Mulholland D, Kobayashi N, Ruscetti M, Zhi A, Tran L, Huang J, et al. Pten loss and RAS/MAPK activation cooperate to promote EMT and metastasis initiated from prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells. Cancer Res. 2012;72:1878-89 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN loss or PI3K/AKT signaling pathway activation correlates with human prostate cancer progression and metastasis...
  32. Shenoy S, Shekhar P, Heinrich F, Daou M, Gericke A, Ross A, et al. Membrane association of the PTEN tumor suppressor: molecular details of the protein-membrane complex from SPR binding studies and neutron reflection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32591 pubmed publisher
    The structure and function of the PTEN phosphatase is investigated by studying its membrane affinity and localization on in-plane fluid, thermally disordered synthetic membrane models...
  33. Canbay E, Kahraman O, Bugra D, Caykara B, Seyhan M, Bulut T, et al. Association between PTEN IVS4 polymorphism and development of colorectal cancer in a Turkish population. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2013;17:1-6 pubmed publisher
    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is one of the most frequently mutated suppressor genes in human cancers. However, there are no data about the role of PTEN IVS4 polymorphism in development of colorectal cancer (CRC)...
  34. Razis E, Pentheroudakis G, Rigakos G, Bobos M, Kouvatseas G, Tzaida O, et al. EGFR gene gain and PTEN protein expression are favorable prognostic factors in patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014;140:737-48 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PTEN is a downstream inhibitor of the EGFR pathway and has been evaluated as a predictive factor of cetuximab efficacy ..
  35. Song P, Wu Y, Xu J, Xie Z, Dong Y, Zhang M, et al. Reactive nitrogen species induced by hyperglycemia suppresses Akt signaling and triggers apoptosis by upregulating phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) in an LKB1-dependent manner. Circulation. 2007;116:1585-95 pubmed
    ..increased apoptosis, phosphorylation, and activity of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)...
  36. Rychahou P, Kang J, Gulhati P, Doan H, Chen L, Xiao S, et al. Akt2 overexpression plays a critical role in the establishment of colorectal cancer metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Akt2 overexpression in wild-type PTEN expressing SW480 colorectal cancer cells led to the formation of micrometastases; however, loss of PTEN is required ..
  37. Campbell R, Liu F, Ross A. Allosteric activation of PTEN phosphatase by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33617-20 pubmed
    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor that is lost in many human tumors and encodes a phosphatidylinositol phosphate phosphatase specific for the 3-position of the inositol ring...
  38. Haiman C, Stram D, Cheng I, Giorgi E, Pooler L, Penney K, et al. Common genetic variation at PTEN and risk of sporadic breast and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1021-5 pubmed
    b>PTEN frequently shows loss of heterozygosity in breast and prostate cancers, and mutations in this gene are responsible for Cowden disease, a rare Mendelian syndrome that includes breast cancer as part of its phenotype...
  39. Mirmohammadsadegh A, Marini A, Nambiar S, Hassan M, Tannapfel A, Ruzicka T, et al. Epigenetic silencing of the PTEN gene in melanoma. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6546-52 pubmed
    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) seems to be an important tumor suppressor gene in melanoma...
  40. Aguissa Touré A, Li G. Genetic alterations of PTEN in human melanoma. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:1475-91 pubmed publisher
    The PTEN gene is one of the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressor genes in sporadic cancers. Inactivating mutations and deletions of the PTEN gene are found in many types of cancers, including melanoma...
  41. Dahia P, Marsh D, Zheng Z, Zedenius J, Komminoth P, Frisk T, et al. Somatic deletions and mutations in the Cowden disease gene, PTEN, in sporadic thyroid tumors. Cancer Res. 1997;57:4710-3 pubmed
    ..PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1 codes for a dual-specificity phosphatase and is likely a tumor suppressor gene...
  42. Stemke Hale K, Gonzalez Angulo A, Lluch A, Neve R, Kuo W, Davies M, et al. An integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of PIK3CA, PTEN, and AKT mutations in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6084-91 pubmed publisher
    ..breast cancers and 41 cell lines, we determined the subtype specificity and signaling effects of PIK3CA, AKT, and PTEN mutations and the effects of PIK3CA mutations on responsiveness to PI3K inhibition in vitro and on outcome after ..
  43. Dubrovska A, Kim S, Salamone R, Walker J, Maira S, Garcia Echeverria C, et al. The role of PTEN/Akt/PI3K signaling in the maintenance and viability of prostate cancer stem-like cell populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..beta-protein levels were higher in cells grown under sphere-forming conditions, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) knockdown by shRNA led to an increase in sphere formation as well as increased clonogenic and tumorigenic ..
  44. Sircar K, Yoshimoto M, Monzon F, Koumakpayi I, Katz R, Khanna A, et al. PTEN genomic deletion is associated with p-Akt and AR signalling in poorer outcome, hormone refractory prostate cancer. J Pathol. 2009;218:505-13 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN haploinsufficiency is common in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer, though the incidence of genomic deletion and its downstream effects have not been elucidated in clinical samples of hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC)...
  45. Rodriguez Escudero I, Oliver M, Andrés Pons A, Molina M, Cid V, Pulido R. A comprehensive functional analysis of PTEN mutations: implications in tumor- and autism-related syndromes. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4132-42 pubmed publisher
    The PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) phosphatase is unique in mammals in terms of its tumor suppressor activity, exerted by dephosphorylation of the lipid second messenger PIP(3) (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate), which ..
  46. Lin C, Liang Y, Zhu H, Zhang J, Zhong X. R280T mutation of p53 gene promotes proliferation of human glioma cells through GSK-3?/PTEN pathway. Neurosci Lett. 2012;529:60-5 pubmed publisher
    ..e. R280T was detected in SWO-38 cells. Knockdown of R280T mutant p53 by RNA interference inhibited the GSK-3?/PTEN associated cell proliferation, and PI3K/Akt but not Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway was involved in this process...
  47. Mutter G, Lin M, Fitzgerald J, Kum J, Eng C. Changes in endometrial PTEN expression throughout the human menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:2334-8 pubmed
    Frequent mutation of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in endometrial adenocarcinoma has led to the prediction that its product, a phosphatase that regulates the cell cycle, apoptosis, and possibly cell adhesion, is functionally active ..
  48. Hou P, Ji M, Xing M. Association of PTEN gene methylation with genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway in thyroid tumors. Cancer. 2008;113:2440-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Epigenetic silencing of the PTEN gene, a negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway, also occurs in thyroid tumors, but its relationship with ..
  49. Wang Z, Lu B, Wang H, Cheng Z, Yin Y. MicroRNA-21 modulates chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin by targeting PTEN. Arch Med Res. 2011;42:281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR or Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression of mature miR-21 and tumor suppressor gene (PTEN) protein. MCF-7 or MCF-7/ADR cell line was transfected with miR-21mimic or inhibitor...
  50. Seo J, Ahn Y, Lee S, Yeol Yeo C, Chung Hur K. The major target of the endogenously generated reactive oxygen species in response to insulin stimulation is phosphatase and tensin homolog and not phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase) in the PI-3 kinase/Akt pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:348-57 pubmed
    ..Analyses of the insulin-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) oxidation indicate that PTEN oxidation occurred in SK-N-SH cells, which can produce ROS, but not in SK-N-BE(2) ..
  51. Wang X, Shi Y, Wang J, Huang G, Jiang X. Crucial role of the C-terminus of PTEN in antagonizing NEDD4-1-mediated PTEN ubiquitination and degradation. Biochem J. 2008;414:221-9 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10), a potent tumour suppressor and multifunctional signalling protein, is under intricate regulation...
  52. Iliopoulos D, Jaeger S, Hirsch H, Bulyk M, Struhl K. STAT3 activation of miR-21 and miR-181b-1 via PTEN and CYLD are part of the epigenetic switch linking inflammation to cancer. Mol Cell. 2010;39:493-506 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-21 and miR-181b-1, respectively, inhibit PTEN and CYLD tumor suppressors, leading to increased NF-kappaB activity required to maintain the transformed state...
  53. Maddika S, Kavela S, Rani N, Palicharla V, Pokorny J, Sarkaria J, et al. WWP2 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for PTEN. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:728-33 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN, a lipid phosphatase, is one of the most frequently mutated tumour suppressors in human cancer...
  54. Di Cristofano A, Pesce B, Cordon Cardo C, Pandolfi P. Pten is essential for embryonic development and tumour suppression. Nat Genet. 1998;19:348-55 pubmed
    The PTEN gene encodes a dual-specificity phosphatase mutated in a variety of human cancers...
  55. Pérez Tenorio G, Alkhori L, Olsson B, Waltersson M, Nordenskjold B, Rutqvist L, et al. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN loss correlate with similar prognostic factors and are not mutually exclusive in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:3577-84 pubmed
    The phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway is frequently altered in breast cancer. PTEN, a phosphatase that opposes the effect of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, can be mutated or lost, whereas the PIK3CA gene is mutated...
  56. Yoshimoto M, Ludkovski O, Degrace D, Williams J, Evans A, Sircar K, et al. PTEN genomic deletions that characterize aggressive prostate cancer originate close to segmental duplications. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012;51:149-60 pubmed publisher
    Deletion of PTEN at 10q23.3 occurs in ∼40% of human prostate cancers and is associated with aggressive metastatic potential, poor prognosis, and androgen-independence...
  57. Qu C, Liang Z, Huang J, Zhao R, Su C, Wang S, et al. MiR-205 determines the radioresistance of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma by directly targeting PTEN. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:785-96 pubmed publisher
    ..A target prediction algorithm suggests that miR?205 regulates expression of PTEN, a tumor-suppressor...
  58. Dicuonzo G, Angeletti S, Garcia Foncillas J, Brugarolas A, Okrouzhnov Y, Santini D, et al. Colorectal carcinomas and PTEN/MMAC1 gene mutations. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7:4049-53 pubmed
    PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1 is a tumor suppressor gene encoding a dual-specificity protein phosphatase with homology to the cytoskeleton proteins, chicken tensin and bovine auxilin. PTEN mutations have been described in several types of human cancer...
  59. Lee S, Yang K, Kwon J, Lee C, Jeong W, Rhee S. Reversible inactivation of the tumor suppressor PTEN by H2O2. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20336-42 pubmed
    The tumor suppressor PTEN regulates cell migration, growth, and survival by removing the 3'-phosphate of phosphoinositides...
  60. Das S, Dixon J, Cho W. Membrane-binding and activation mechanism of PTEN. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7491-6 pubmed
    b>PTEN is a tumor suppressor that reverses the action of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by catalyzing the removal of the 3' phosphate of phosphoinositides...
  61. Tokunaga E, Oki E, Kimura Y, Yamanaka T, Egashira A, Nishida K, et al. Coexistence of the loss of heterozygosity at the PTEN locus and HER2 overexpression enhances the Akt activity thus leading to a negative progesterone receptor expression in breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;101:249-57 pubmed
    ..A loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) function also activates Akt...
  62. Yu J, Zhang S, Saito K, Williams S, Arimura Y, Ma Y, et al. PTEN regulation by Akt-EGR1-ARF-PTEN axis. EMBO J. 2009;28:21-33 pubmed publisher
    The PTEN tumour suppressor gene is induced by the early growth response 1 (EGR1) transcription factor, which also transactivates p53, p73, and p300/CBP as well as other proapoptotic and anti-cancer genes...
  63. Le L, Nielsen G, Rosenberg A, Thomas D, Batten J, Deshpande V, et al. Recurrent chromosomal copy number alterations in sporadic chordomas. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18846 pubmed publisher
    ..7 megabases. One copy loss of the 10q23.31 region which encodes PTEN was found in 16/20 (80%) cases...
  64. Liu D, Yang Z. Overexpression of EZH2 and loss of expression of PTEN is associated with invasion, metastasis, and poor progression of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Pathol Res Pract. 2011;207:472-8 pubmed publisher
    Overexpression of EZH2 and inactivation or loss of PTEN expression was observed in invasive and metastatic tumors. However, their expressions and clinical significances in gallbladder cancer (GBC) have rarely been reported...
  65. Tamura M, Gu J, Takino T, Yamada K. Tumor suppressor PTEN inhibition of cell invasion, migration, and growth: differential involvement of focal adhesion kinase and p130Cas. Cancer Res. 1999;59:442-9 pubmed
    PTEN/MMAC1 is a major new tumor suppressor gene that encodes a dual-specificity phosphatase with sequence similarity to the cytoskeletal protein tensin...
  66. Georgescu M, Kirsch K, Akagi T, Shishido T, Hanafusa H. The tumor-suppressor activity of PTEN is regulated by its carboxyl-terminal region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:10182-7 pubmed
    b>PTEN is a recently identified tumor suppressor inactivated in a variety of cancers such as glioblastoma and endometrial and prostate carcinoma...
  67. Miller S, Lou D, Seldin D, Lane W, Neel B. Direct identification of PTEN phosphorylation sites. FEBS Lett. 2002;528:145-53 pubmed
    The PTEN tumor suppressor gene encodes a phosphatidylinositol 3'-phosphatase that is inactivated in a high percentage of human tumors, particularly glioblastoma, melanoma, and prostate and endometrial carcinoma...
  68. Shoman N, Klassen S, McFadden A, Bickis M, Torlakovic E, Chibbar R. Reduced PTEN expression predicts relapse in patients with breast carcinoma treated by tamoxifen. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:250-9 pubmed
    ..The PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome Ten) gene is a novel candidate tumor suppressor that plays an ..
  69. Wang Q, Zhou Y, Wang X, Chung D, Evers B. Regulation of PTEN expression in intestinal epithelial cells by c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation and nuclear factor-kappaB inhibition. Cancer Res. 2007;67:7773-81 pubmed
    The tumor suppressor protein phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) plays an important role in intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation and tumor suppression by antagonizing phosphatidylinositol 3-..
  70. Barbareschi M, Cuorvo L, Girlando S, Bragantini E, Eccher C, Leonardi E, et al. PI3KCA mutations and/or PTEN loss in Her2-positive breast carcinomas treated with trastuzumab are not related to resistance to anti-Her2 therapy. Virchows Arch. 2012;461:129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..subunit of class A phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3KCA) or complete loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is associated with response to anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) treatment in breast cancer (BC)..
  71. Ikenoue T, Inoki K, Zhao B, Guan K. PTEN acetylation modulates its interaction with PDZ domain. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6908-12 pubmed publisher
    The PTEN tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated in human cancer. As a major tumor suppressor, PTEN function must be tightly regulated. Both phosphorylation and membrane association have been reported to regulate PTEN activity...
  72. Mao J, Kim I, Wu D, Climent J, Kang H, DelRosario R, et al. FBXW7 targets mTOR for degradation and cooperates with PTEN in tumor suppression. Science. 2008;321:1499-502 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer cell lines and primary tumors showed a reciprocal relation between loss of FBXW7 and deletion or mutation of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), which also activates mTOR...
  73. Hino R, Uozaki H, Murakami N, Ushiku T, Shinozaki A, Ishikawa S, et al. Activation of DNA methyltransferase 1 by EBV latent membrane protein 2A leads to promoter hypermethylation of PTEN gene in gastric carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2766-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Aberrant promoter methylation and expression loss of PTEN were evaluated in cancer tissues of GC by methylation-specific PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, showing ..
  74. Yim E, Peng G, Dai H, Hu R, Li K, Lu Y, et al. Rak functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating PTEN protein stability and function. Cancer Cell. 2009;15:304-14 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor is frequently lost in breast cancer in the absence of mutation or promoter methylation through as yet undetermined mechanisms...
  75. Jang K, Song Y, Jang S, Min K, Na W, Jang S, et al. Clinicopathological significance of nuclear PTEN expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Histopathology. 2010;56:229-39 pubmed publisher
    Tumour suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is an important negative regulator for the PIP3/Akt signalling pathway that promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis...
  76. Singh G, Chan A. Post-translational modifications of PTEN and their potential therapeutic implications. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2011;11:536-47 pubmed
    b>PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene localized to human chromosome 10q23.31, a genomic region frequently lost in glioblastoma and prostate cancer...
  77. Iqbal J, Thike A, Cheok P, Tse G, Tan P. Insulin growth factor receptor-1 expression and loss of PTEN protein predict early recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer. Histopathology. 2012;61:652-9 pubmed publisher
    ..potential for the rapid development of novel selective anticancer agents specifically targeting components of the PTEN-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT pathway, including the phosphorylated form of AKT (pAKT) and the tumour suppressor ..
  78. Steelman L, Navolanic P, Sokolosky M, Taylor J, Lehmann B, Chappell W, et al. Suppression of PTEN function increases breast cancer chemotherapeutic drug resistance while conferring sensitivity to mTOR inhibitors. Oncogene. 2008;27:4086-95 pubmed publisher
    Ectopic expression of mutant forms of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) lacking lipid (G129E) or lipid and protein (C124S) phosphatase activity decreased sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, which have ..
  79. Gupta A, Yang Q, Pandita R, Hunt C, Xiang T, Misri S, et al. Cell cycle checkpoint defects contribute to genomic instability in PTEN deficient cells independent of DNA DSB repair. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:2198-210 pubmed
    Chromosomes in PTEN deficient cells display both numerical as well as structural alterations including regional amplification...
  80. Molina J, Morales F, Hayashi Y, Aldape K, Georgescu M. Loss of PTEN binding adapter protein NHERF1 from plasma membrane in glioblastoma contributes to PTEN inactivation. Cancer Res. 2010;70:6697-703 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor suppressor PTEN, a major inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, is frequently deleted in GBM tumors...
  81. Guzeloglu Kayisli O, Kayisli U, Al Rejjal R, Zheng W, Luleci G, Arici A. Regulation of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) expression by estradiol and progesterone in human endometrium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:5017-26 pubmed
    b>PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) is a tumor suppressor gene, mutated frequently in a variety of human tumors. PTEN regulates cell growth, apoptosis, and proliferation...
  82. Uegaki K, Kanamori Y, Kigawa J, Kawaguchi W, Kaneko R, Naniwa J, et al. PTEN-positive and phosphorylated-Akt-negative expression is a predictor of survival for patients with advanced endometrial carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2005;14:389-92 pubmed
    b>PTEN and the PI3K/Akt pathway are involved in the development and/or progression of endometrial carcinoma...
  83. Zhou J, Wulfkuhle J, Zhang H, Gu P, Yang Y, Deng J, et al. Activation of the PTEN/mTOR/STAT3 pathway in breast cancer stem-like cells is required for viability and maintenance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16158-63 pubmed
    ..rapamycin (mTOR), signal transduction and activator of transcription (STAT3), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was confirmed to be critical for MCF7 SP cell survival and proliferation by pathway specific inhibitors, selected ..
  84. Pradella L, Evangelisti C, Ligorio C, Ceccarelli C, Neri I, Zuntini R, et al. A novel deleterious PTEN mutation in a patient with early-onset bilateral breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:70 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the others, a fraction may carry mutations in rarer BC genes, such as TP53, STK11, CDH1 and PTEN. As the identification of women harboring such mutations allows for targeted risk-management, the knowledge of ..
  85. Nelen M, van Staveren W, Peeters E, Hassel M, Gorlin R, Hamm H, et al. Germline mutations in the PTEN/MMAC1 gene in patients with Cowden disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:1383-7 pubmed
    ..The gene involved has been localized to chromosome 10q22-23. Recently, the tumour suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1, encoding a putative protein tyrosine or dual-specificity phosphatase, was cloned from that region and three ..
  86. Orchiston E, Bennett D, Leslie N, Clarke R, Winward L, Downes C, et al. PTEN M-CBR3, a versatile and selective regulator of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5). Evidence for Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 as a proliferative signal. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:1116-22 pubmed
    The PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) tumor suppressor is a phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdInsP3) 3-phosphatase that plays a crucial role in regulating many cellular processes by antagonizing ..
  87. Park J, Lee E, Esau C, Schmittgen T. Antisense inhibition of microRNA-21 or -221 arrests cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and sensitizes the effects of gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pancreas. 2009;38:e190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein levels of tumor suppressor targets of the miRNAs were increased by antisense to miR-21 (PTEN and RECK) and miR-221 (p27)...
  88. Das F, Ghosh Choudhury N, Dey N, Mandal C, Mahimainathan L, Kasinath B, et al. Unrestrained mammalian target of rapamycin complexes 1 and 2 increase expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 to regulate phosphorylation of Akt kinase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:3808-22 pubmed publisher
    Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) function to block growth factor-induced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and are mutated in autosomal dominant hamartoma ..