Gene Symbol: MMP19
Description: matrix metallopeptidase 19
Alias: CODA, MMP18, RASI-1, matrix metalloproteinase-19, matrix metalloproteinase RASI, matrix metalloproteinase-18, matrix metalloproteinase-beta19
Species: human
Products:     MMP19

Top Publications

  1. Sadowski T, Dietrich S, Koschinsky F, Sedlacek R. Matrix metalloproteinase 19 regulates insulin-like growth factor-mediated proliferation, migration, and adhesion in human keratinocytes through proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:4569-80 pubmed
    ..This activity might have widespread consequences for the behavior of epidermal keratinocytes. ..
  2. Sadowski T, Dietrich S, Koschinsky F, Ludwig A, Proksch E, Titz B, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 19 processes the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain and induces epithelial cell migration. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005;62:870-80 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the MMP-19-dependent processing of the gamma2 chains leads to the integrin switch favoring epithelial migration and that MMP-19 actively participates in the early stages of SCC invasion. ..
  3. Sedlacek R, Mauch S, Kolb B, Schätzlein C, Eibel H, Peter H, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase MMP-19 (RASI-1) is expressed on the surface of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and is detected as an autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis. Immunobiology. 1998;198:408-23 pubmed
    ..The novel autoantigen MMP-19 thus could play a role in the pathological processes participating in RA-associated joint tissue destruction. ..
  4. Titz B, Dietrich S, Sadowski T, Beck C, Petersen A, Sedlacek R. Activity of MMP-19 inhibits capillary-like formation due to processing of nidogen-1. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61:1826-33 pubmed
    b>Matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP-19) is able to process various proteins of the basement membrane...
  5. Sadowski T, Dietrich S, Muller M, Havlickova B, Schunck M, Proksch E, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 expression in normal and diseased skin: dysregulation by epidermal proliferation. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121:989-96 pubmed
    ..The dysregulation of MMP-19 expression in epidermis suggests its possible involvement in the perpetuation of cutaneous infections and proliferative disorders such as psoriasis. ..
  6. Stracke J, Hutton M, Stewart M, Pendas A, Smith B, Lopez Otin C, et al. Biochemical characterization of the catalytic domain of human matrix metalloproteinase 19. Evidence for a role as a potent basement membrane degrading enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:14809-16 pubmed
    ..Finally, and in contrast to studies with other MMPs, MMP-19 catalytic domain was not able to activate any of the latent MMPs tested in vitro. ..
  7. Mueller M, Mauch S, Sedlacek R. Structure of the human MMP-19 gene. Gene. 2000;252:27-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, it has been shown by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay that the AP-1 consensus sequence is able to bind a HeLa nuclear extract derived AP-1 factor. ..
  8. Stracke J, Fosang A, Last K, Mercuri F, Pendas A, Llano E, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases 19 and 20 cleave aggrecan and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). FEBS Lett. 2000;478:52-6 pubmed
  9. Djonov V, Högger K, Sedlacek R, Laissue J, Draeger A. MMP-19: cellular localization of a novel metalloproteinase within normal breast tissue and mammary gland tumours. J Pathol. 2001;195:147-55 pubmed

More Information


  1. Cossins J, Dudgeon T, Catlin G, Gearing A, Clements J. Identification of MMP-18, a putative novel human matrix metalloproteinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;228:494-8 pubmed
  2. Pendas A, Knauper V, Puente X, Llano E, Mattei M, Apte S, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel human matrix metalloproteinase with unique structural characteristics, chromosomal location, and tissue distribution. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:4281-6 pubmed
  3. Kolb C, Mauch S, Peter H, Krawinkel U, Sedlacek R. The matrix metalloproteinase RASI-1 is expressed in synovial blood vessels of a rheumatoid arthritis patient. Immunol Lett. 1997;57:83-8 pubmed
    ..RASI-1, although its function and substrates are unknown, could be involved in processes such as neovascularization and angiogenesis or lymphocyte extravasation and thus may participate in joint tissue destruction during RA. ..
  4. Kolb C, Mauch S, Krawinkel U, Sedlacek R. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 in capillary endothelial cells: expression in acutely, but not in chronically, inflamed synovium. Exp Cell Res. 1999;250:122-30 pubmed
    ..The results strongly suggest the regulated induction of matrix metalloproteinase-19 in capillary endothelial cells during acute inflammation and hint at a role of MMP-19 in angiogenesis. ..
  5. Mauch S, Kolb C, Kolb B, Sadowski T, Sedlacek R. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 is expressed in myeloid cells in an adhesion-dependent manner and associates with the cell surface. J Immunol. 2002;168:1244-51 pubmed
  6. Jara P, Calyeca J, Romero Y, Plácido L, Yu G, Kaminski N, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-19-deficient fibroblasts display a profibrotic phenotype. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;308:L511-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently found that matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP-19)-deficient (Mmp19-/-) mice develop an exaggerated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, but the ..
  7. Rosewell K, Al Alem L, Zakerkish F, McCord L, Akin J, Chaffin C, et al. Induction of proteinases in the human preovulatory follicle of the menstrual cycle by human chorionic gonadotropin. Fertil Steril. 2015;103:826-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Localization of MMPs and ADAMTSs by immunohistochemistry. Expression of MMP1 and MMP19 mRNA increased in both granulosa and theca cells after hCG administration...
  8. Davoodi S, Cooke R, Fernandes A, Cappellozza B, Vasconcelos J, Cerri R. Expression of estrus modifies the gene expression profile in reproductive tissues on Day 19 of gestation in beef cows. Theriogenology. 2016;85:645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..estrous expression in the endometrium belong to the immune system and adhesion molecule family (MX1, MX2, MYL12A, MMP19, CXCL10, IGLL1, and SLPI; P ≤ 0...
  9. Zhou Y, Xu X, Lv H, Wen Q, Li J, Tan L, et al. The Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Is Highly Expressed in Ovarian Cancer and Induces Cell Growth and Migration. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0155250 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence of MALAT-1 knockdown, MMP13 protein expression decreased, while the expression of MMP19 and ADAMTS1 was increased. The present study found that MALAT-1 is highly expressed in ovarian tumors...
  10. Jansen A, Schoffelen T, Textoris J, Mege J, Bleeker Rovers C, Roest H, et al. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in chronic Q fever. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017;23:487.e7-487.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..In healthy controls, the MMP pathway involving four genes (MMP1, MMP7, MMP10, MMP19) was significantly up-regulated in C...
  11. Duan J, Rapti M, Tsigkou A, Lee M. Expanding the Activity of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 against Surface-Anchored Metalloproteinases by the Replacement of Its C-Terminal Domain: Implications for Anti-Cancer Effects. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136384 pubmed publisher
    ..The affinity of the chimeras against ADAM10, ADAM17, MMP14 and MMP19 was investigated...
  12. Kuang C, Fu X, Hua Y, Shuai W, Ye Z, Li Y, et al. BST2 confers cisplatin resistance via NF-?B signaling in nasopharyngeal cancer. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2874 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously generated a cisplatin-sensitive NPC cell line, S16, from CNE2 cells and found that eIF3a, ASNS and MMP19 are upregulated in S16 cells, which contributes to their cisplatin sensitivity...
  13. Chang Z, Meng F, Zhang Z, Mao G, Huang Z, Liao W, et al. MicroRNA-193b-3p regulates matrix metalloproteinase 19 expression in interleukin-1β-induced human chondrocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2018;119:4775-4782 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-193b-3p is an important regulator of MMP-19 in human chondrocytes and may relieve the inflammatory response in OA. ..
  14. Fosang A, Last K, Fujii Y, Seiki M, Okada Y. Membrane-type 1 MMP (MMP-14) cleaves at three sites in the aggrecan interglobular domain. FEBS Lett. 1998;430:186-90 pubmed
    ..The data are consistent with MT1-MMP cleavage at three sites in the aggrecan interglobular domain; one at N342-F342, a second at D441-L442 and a third at Q354-T355. ..
  15. Yang M, Kurkinen M. Cloning and characterization of a novel matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), CMMP, from chicken embryo fibroblasts. CMMP, Xenopus XMMP, and human MMP19 have a conserved unique cysteine in the catalytic domain. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:17893-900 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, a homologously inserted cysteine is also found in Xenopus XMMP and human MMP19, two recently cloned novel members of the MMP family...
  16. Hoffmann J, Marsh L, Pieper M, Stacher E, Ghanim B, Kovacs G, et al. Compartment-specific expression of collagens and their processing enzymes in intrapulmonary arteries of IPAH patients. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;308:L1002-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of unstudied collagens, MMPs, ADAMs, and TIMPs were found to be significantly altered in IPAH intima+media. Elevated levels of circulating collagen XVIII/endostatin are associated with markers of a poor prognosis. ..
  17. Jackson V, Olsson T, Kurtovic S, Folkersen L, Paloschi V, Wågsäter D, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 and 19 expression is associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;144:459-66 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP2 and MMP9), stromelysin 3 (MMP11), all membrane bound MMPs (MMP14, MMP15, MMP16, MMP17, MMP24, MMP25), MMP19, MMP21, and MMP28 in ascending aorta. No expression of collagenases was detected...
  18. Lettau I, Hattermann K, Held Feindt J, Brauer R, Sedlacek R, Mentlein R. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 is highly expressed in astroglial tumors and promotes invasion of glioma cells. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010;69:215-23 pubmed publisher
    Glial tumors exhibit a high morbidity and mortality because of their invasive nature. Matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) is a secreted protease that together with epilysin (MMP28) forms a structural subgroup of MMPs...
  19. Muller M, Beck I, Gadesmann J, Karschuk N, Paschen A, Proksch E, et al. MMP19 is upregulated during melanoma progression and increases invasion of melanoma cells. Mod Pathol. 2010;23:511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analysed the expression of MMP19 in the course of melanoma progression...
  20. Yu G, Kovkarova Naumovski E, Jara P, Parwani A, Kass D, Ruiz V, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 is a key regulator of lung fibrosis in mice and humans. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:752-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was evaluated in Mmp19-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice...
  21. Hieta N, Impola U, Lopez Otin C, Saarialho Kere U, Kahari V. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 expression in dermal wounds and by fibroblasts in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121:997-1004 pubmed
  22. Wu X, Qi H, Yang Y, Yin Y, Ma D, Li H, et al. Downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase‑19 induced by respiratory syncytial viral infection affects the interaction between epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the findings of the present study suggested that the downregulation of MMP‑19 following RSV infection may be associated with the development of airway hyper‑responsiveness. ..
  23. Zhai L, Wu Y, Cai C, Huang Q, Tang Z. High-Level Expression and Prognostic Significance of Matrix Metalloprotease-19 and Matrix Metalloprotease-20 in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Pancreas. 2016;45:1067-72 pubmed publisher
    ..High-level expression of MMP-19 and MMP-20 is closely correlated to progression and prognosis of PDAC, and these may be considered as promising markers for unfavorable prognoses. ..
  24. Gruber H, Ingram J, Hanley E. Immunolocalization of MMP-19 in the human intervertebral disc: implications for disc aging and degeneration. Biotech Histochem. 2005;80:157-62 pubmed
    ..Because MMP-19 has been shown to regulate IGF-mediated proliferation in other tissues, its decline in the aging/degenerating disc may contribute to the age-related decrease in disc cell numbers. ..
  25. Yu G, Herazo Maya J, Nukui T, Romkes M, Parwani A, Juan Guardela B, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 promotes metastatic behavior in vitro and is associated with increased mortality in non-small cell lung cancer. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;190:780-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that MMP19, a relatively novel member of the MMP family, is overexpressed in lung tumors when compared with control subjects...
  26. Stojic J, Hagemann C, Haas S, Herbold C, Kühnel S, Gerngras S, et al. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1, MMP-11 and MMP-19 is correlated with the WHO-grading of human malignant gliomas. Neurosci Res. 2008;60:40-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, MMP-1, MMP-11 and MMP-19 might be of importance for the development of high-grade astrocytic tumors and may be promising targets for therapy. ..
  27. Rodriguez Manzaneque J, Westling J, Thai S, Luque A, Knauper V, Murphy G, et al. ADAMTS1 cleaves aggrecan at multiple sites and is differentially inhibited by metalloproteinase inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:501-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, we developed an activity assay using an artificial peptide substrate based on the interglobular domain cleavage site (E(373)-A) of rat aggrecan. ..
  28. Brauer R, Beck I, Roderfeld M, Roeb E, Sedlacek R. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 inhibits growth of endothelial cells by generating angiostatin-like fragments from plasminogen. BMC Biochem. 2011;12:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, MMP-19 exhibits an anti-angiogenic effect on endothelial cells via generation of angiostatin-like fragments. ..
  29. Reel B, Sala Newby G, Huang W, Newby A. Diverse patterns of cyclooxygenase-independent metalloproteinase gene regulation in human monocytes. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163:1679-90 pubmed publisher
  30. Shin J, Song K, Kim H, Cho N, Kim J, Kim H, et al. The gene expression profile of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164:1348-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to describe the expression profile of all known MMPs and TIMPs in children with HSP, and our results suggested that abnormal levels of MMP and TIMP activity may have a role in the pathogenesis of HSP. ..
  31. Fosang A, Last K, Neame P, Murphy G, Knauper V, Tschesche H, et al. Neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8) cleaves at the aggrecanase site E373-A374 in the interglobular domain of cartilage aggrecan. Biochem J. 1994;304 ( Pt 2):347-51 pubmed
    ..The possibility remains that 'aggrecanase' may be a metalloproteinase in cartilage. ..
  32. Cervinkova M, Horak P, Kanchev I, Matej R, Fanta J, Sequens R, et al. Differential expression and processing of matrix metalloproteinase 19 marks progression of gastrointestinal diseases. Folia Biol (Praha). 2014;60:113-22 pubmed
    ..As this processing likely leads to the activation of this MMP, the differential staining pattern may be an important sign of disease progression. ..
  33. O Hara A, Lim F, Mazzatti D, Trayhurn P. Microarray analysis identifies matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as key genes whose expression is up-regulated in human adipocytes by macrophage-conditioned medium. Pflugers Arch. 2009;458:1103-14 pubmed publisher
    ..metalloproteinase genes were highly up-regulated at both time-points, including MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, MMP10, MMP12 and MMP19. At 4 and 24 h, MMP1 was the most highly up-regulated gene (>2,400-fold increase in mRNA at 24 h)...
  34. Wang L, Yuan J, Tu Y, Mao X, He S, Fu G, et al. Co-expression of MMP-14 and MMP-19 predicts poor survival in human glioma. Clin Transl Oncol. 2013;15:139-45 pubmed publisher
  35. Velinov N, Aebersold D, Haeni N, Hlushchuk R, Mishev G, Weinstein F, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 is a predictive marker for tumor invasiveness in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Biol Markers. 2007;22:265-73 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether MMP-19 expression correlates with lymphatic or systemic metastasis and prognosis in patients who have received definitive radiotherapy...
  36. Tanskanen M, Myllykangas L, Saarialho Kere U, Paetau A. Matrix metalloproteinase-?19 expressed in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Amyloid. 2011;18:3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-26 associated with CAA (p=0.021) but not with intracerebral haemorrhage. This is the first human study showing local MMP-19 immunoreactivity in the A?-amyloid-laden blood vessels in CAA, suggesting that MMPs may be involved in CAA. ..
  37. Murphy G, Knauper V, Cowell S, Hembry R, Stanton H, Butler G, et al. Evaluation of some newer matrix metalloproteinases. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;878:25-39 pubmed
    ..b>MMP19 shows a limited sequence identity with other MMPs and may represent a novel subclass...
  38. Chan K, Ko J, Lung H, Sedlacek R, Zhang Z, Luo D, et al. Catalytic activity of Matrix metalloproteinase-19 is essential for tumor suppressor and anti-angiogenic activities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2011;129:1826-37 pubmed publisher
    The association of Matrix metalloproteinase-19 (MMP19) in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was identified from differential gene profiling, which showed MMP19 was one of the candidate genes down-regulated in the NPC cell ..
  39. Impola U, Toriseva M, Suomela S, Jeskanen L, Hieta N, Jahkola T, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 is expressed by proliferating epithelium but disappears with neoplastic dedifferentiation. Int J Cancer. 2003;103:709-16 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that, unlike most MMPs, MMP-19 expression in the epidermis is downregulated during transformation and histologic dedifferentiation. ..
  40. Bernal F, Elias B, Hartung H, Kieseier B. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors by interferon-beta: a longitudinal study in multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler. 2009;15:721-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that MMPs may differ in their expression levels in MS patients and that this group of enzymes is differentially regulated during the treatment with IFN-beta in MS for at least 6 months. ..
  41. Baum O, Ganster M, Baumgartner I, Nieselt K, Djonov V. Basement membrane remodeling in skeletal muscles of patients with limb ischemia involves regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases. J Vasc Res. 2007;44:202-13 pubmed
    ..Expression of basement membrane components in skeletal muscles of CLI and acute limb ischemia patients is altered, possibly contributing to the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial disease. ..
  42. Beck I, Muller M, Mentlein R, Sadowski T, Mueller M, Paus R, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 expression in keratinocytes is repressed by transcription factors Tst-1 and Skn-1a: implications for keratinocyte differentiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1107-14 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Tst-1 and Skn-1a regulate expression of MMPs in keratinocytes and effect both the expression and activation of these proteolytic enzymes. ..
  43. Suomela S, Kariniemi A, Impola U, Karvonen S, Snellman E, Uurasmaa T, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 is expressed by keratinocytes in psoriasis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2003;83:108-14 pubmed
    ..Upregulation of MMP-19 in keratinocytes may be influenced by changes in the architecture of the basement membrane zone. ..
  44. Impola U, Jeskanen L, Ravanti L, Syrjanen S, Baldursson B, Kahari V, et al. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and MMP-13 and loss of MMP-19 and p16 are associated with malignant progression in chronic wounds. Br J Dermatol. 2005;152:720-6 pubmed
    ..The loss of MMP-19 and p16 from the epithelium could aid in making the differential diagnosis between well-differentiated SCCs and nonmalignant chronic wounds. ..
  45. Nalvarte I, Töhönen V, Lindeberg M, Varshney M, Gustafsson J, Inzunza J. Estrogen receptor β controls MMP-19 expression in mouse ovaries during ovulation. Reproduction. 2016;151:253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a molecular explanation for the observed follicle rupture defect that contributes to the subfertility of female BERKO mice. ..
  46. Bister V, Salmela M, Karjalainen Lindsberg M, Uria J, Lohi J, Puolakkainen P, et al. Differential expression of three matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-19, MMP-26, and MMP-28, in normal and inflamed intestine and colon cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49:653-61 pubmed
    ..In contrast to many previously characterized MMPs, MMP-19 and MMP-28 are downregulated during malignant transformation of the colon and may play a prominent role in tissue homeostasis. ..
  47. Kuivanen T, Tanskanen M, Jahkola T, Impola U, Asko Seljavaara S, Saarialho Kere U. Matrilysin-1 (MMP-7) and MMP-19 are expressed by Paget's cells in extramammary Paget's disease. J Cutan Pathol. 2004;31:483-91 pubmed
  48. Delassus G, Cho H, Eliceiri G. New signaling pathways from cancer progression modulators to mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases in breast cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:3378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The MMPs tested are MMP1, MMP2, MMP7, MMP13, MMP14, MMP16, MMP19, and MMP25...
  49. Sena P, Mariani F, Marzona L, Benincasa M, Ponz de Leon M, Palumbo C, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases 15 and 19 are stromal regulators of colorectal cancer development from the early stages. Int J Oncol. 2012;41:260-6 pubmed publisher
  50. Terp G, Christensen I, Jørgensen F. Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases. Homology modeling and energy minimization of enzyme-substrate complexes. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2000;17:933-46 pubmed
    ..Differences in the P1' pocket are well-documented and have been extensively exploited in inhibitor design. The present work indicates that selectivity could be further improved by considering the P2 pocket as well. ..
  51. Grant G, Giambernardi T, Grant A, Klebe R. Overview of expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-17, MMP-18, and MMP-20) in cultured human cells. Matrix Biol. 1999;18:145-8 pubmed
    ..PCR primers for MMP-17, MMP-18, and MMP-20 were optimized for use in RT-PCR. The results demonstrate one or more cell lines or tissue that express mRNA for each of these newly described MMPs. ..
  52. Lee D, Lee S, Kim J, Park J, Cho Y, Kim K, et al. Loss of NDRG2 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gallbladder carcinoma cells through MMP-19-mediated Slug expression. J Hepatol. 2015;63:1429-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that NDRG2 could be a favorable prognostic indicator and promising target for therapeutic agents against GBC. ..
  53. Hazlewood R, Roos B, Solivan Timpe F, Honkanen R, Jampol L, Gieser S, et al. Heterozygous triplication of upstream regulatory sequences leads to dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 19 in patients with cavitary optic disc anomaly. Hum Mutat. 2015;36:369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR analysis of this pedigree, we report identifying a 6-Kbp heterozygous triplication upstream of the matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) gene, present in all 17 affected family members and no normal members...
  54. van Horssen J, Vos C, Admiraal L, Van Haastert E, Montagne L, van der Valk P, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 is highly expressed in active multiple sclerosis lesions. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2006;32:585-93 pubmed
  55. Liu R, Dong Z, Liu J, Zhou L, Huang W, Khoo S, et al. Overexpression of asparagine synthetase and matrix metalloproteinase 19 confers cisplatin sensitivity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2013;12:2157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..and found three other genes, asparagine synthetase (ASNS), choriogonadotropin ? subunit (CGA), and matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19), that are upregulated in the cisplatin-sensitive S16 cells compared with the CNE-2 cells...
  56. Gueders M, Hirst S, Quesada Calvo F, Paulissen G, Hacha J, Gilles C, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 deficiency promotes tenascin-C accumulation and allergen-induced airway inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43:286-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that MMP-19 may act on Th2 inflammation homeostasis by preventing the accumulation of tenascin protein. ..
  57. Fosang A, Last K, Knauper V, Neame P, Murphy G, Hardingham T, et al. Fibroblast and neutrophil collagenases cleave at two sites in the cartilage aggrecan interglobular domain. Biochem J. 1993;295 ( Pt 1):273-6 pubmed