FGG

Summary

Gene Symbol: FGG
Description: fibrinogen gamma chain
Alias: fibrinogen gamma chain, fibrinogen, gamma polypeptide, testicular tissue protein Li 70
Species: human
Products:     FGG

Top Publications

  1. Mosesson M. Fibrinogen gamma chain functions. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:231-8 pubmed
  2. Meyer M, Dietzel H, Kaetzel R, Schmidt D, Liebscher K, Brennan S. Fibrinogen Leipzig II (gamma351Gly-->Ser and gamma82Ala-->Gly): hypodysfibrinogenaemia due to two independent amino acid substitutions within the same polypeptide chain. Thromb Haemost. 2007;98:903-5 pubmed
  3. Uitte de Willige S, de Visser M, Houwing Duistermaat J, Rosendaal F, Vos H, Bertina R. Genetic variation in the fibrinogen gamma gene increases the risk for deep venous thrombosis by reducing plasma fibrinogen gamma' levels. Blood. 2005;106:4176-83 pubmed
    We investigated the association between haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha (FGA), beta (FGB), and gamma (FGG), total fibrinogen levels, fibrinogen gamma' (gammaA/gamma' plus gamma'/gamma') levels, and risk for deep venous thrombosis...
  4. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Ericsson C, Hamsten A, Silveira A. Epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms in the fibrinogen and coagulation factor XIII genes on plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin gel structure and risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2006;95:420-7 pubmed
    An intricate interplay between the genes encoding fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB), coagulation factor XIII (F13A1) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and environmental factors is likely to influence plasma fibrinogen ..
  5. Koch W, Hoppmann P, Biele J, Mueller J, Schomig A, Kastrati A. Fibrinogen genes and myocardial infarction: a haplotype analysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:758-63 pubmed publisher
    ..12). A haplotype analysis did not reveal a link between genetic variations in the fibrinogen gene region and myocardial infarction. ..
  6. Carty C, Cushman M, Jones D, Lange L, Hindorff L, Rice K, et al. Associations between common fibrinogen gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease in older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether common (> or = 5% minor allele frequency) variation in the fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, FGG) is associated with fibrinogen concentration, carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) and risk of incident ..
  7. Roy S, Yu S, Banerjee D, Overton O, Mukhopadhyay G, Oddoux C, et al. Assembly and secretion of fibrinogen. Degradation of individual chains. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:23151-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together these studies indicate that B beta and gamma chains are degraded in the endoplasmic reticulum, but only B beta is bound to BiP. By contrast A alpha chains and the A alpha-gamma complex undergo lysosomal degradation. ..
  8. Chung D, Davie E. gamma and gamma' chains of human fibrinogen are produced by alternative mRNA processing. Biochemistry. 1984;23:4232-6 pubmed
    ..These mRNAs code for polypeptide chains with different carboxyl-terminal sequences. Both of these polypeptides are incorporated into the fibrinogen molecule present in plasma. ..
  9. Huang S, Cao Z, Chung D, Davie E. The role of betagamma and alphagamma complexes in the assembly of human fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27942-7 pubmed
    ..These data strongly support the role of alphagamma and betagamma complexes as functional intermediates in the assembly of fibrinogen. ..
  10. Boekholdt S, Bijsterveld N, Moons A, Levi M, Buller H, Peters R. Genetic variation in coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins and their relation with acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review. Circulation. 2001;104:3063-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of clinical implications, our results indicate that screening of patients with myocardial infarction for these genetic variations is not warranted. ..

Detail Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Mosesson M. Fibrinogen gamma chain functions. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:231-8 pubmed
  2. Meyer M, Dietzel H, Kaetzel R, Schmidt D, Liebscher K, Brennan S. Fibrinogen Leipzig II (gamma351Gly-->Ser and gamma82Ala-->Gly): hypodysfibrinogenaemia due to two independent amino acid substitutions within the same polypeptide chain. Thromb Haemost. 2007;98:903-5 pubmed
  3. Uitte de Willige S, de Visser M, Houwing Duistermaat J, Rosendaal F, Vos H, Bertina R. Genetic variation in the fibrinogen gamma gene increases the risk for deep venous thrombosis by reducing plasma fibrinogen gamma' levels. Blood. 2005;106:4176-83 pubmed
    We investigated the association between haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha (FGA), beta (FGB), and gamma (FGG), total fibrinogen levels, fibrinogen gamma' (gammaA/gamma' plus gamma'/gamma') levels, and risk for deep venous thrombosis...
  4. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Ericsson C, Hamsten A, Silveira A. Epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms in the fibrinogen and coagulation factor XIII genes on plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin gel structure and risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2006;95:420-7 pubmed
    An intricate interplay between the genes encoding fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB), coagulation factor XIII (F13A1) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and environmental factors is likely to influence plasma fibrinogen ..
  5. Koch W, Hoppmann P, Biele J, Mueller J, Schomig A, Kastrati A. Fibrinogen genes and myocardial infarction: a haplotype analysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:758-63 pubmed publisher
    ..12). A haplotype analysis did not reveal a link between genetic variations in the fibrinogen gene region and myocardial infarction. ..
  6. Carty C, Cushman M, Jones D, Lange L, Hindorff L, Rice K, et al. Associations between common fibrinogen gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease in older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether common (> or = 5% minor allele frequency) variation in the fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, FGG) is associated with fibrinogen concentration, carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) and risk of incident ..
  7. Roy S, Yu S, Banerjee D, Overton O, Mukhopadhyay G, Oddoux C, et al. Assembly and secretion of fibrinogen. Degradation of individual chains. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:23151-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together these studies indicate that B beta and gamma chains are degraded in the endoplasmic reticulum, but only B beta is bound to BiP. By contrast A alpha chains and the A alpha-gamma complex undergo lysosomal degradation. ..
  8. Chung D, Davie E. gamma and gamma' chains of human fibrinogen are produced by alternative mRNA processing. Biochemistry. 1984;23:4232-6 pubmed
    ..These mRNAs code for polypeptide chains with different carboxyl-terminal sequences. Both of these polypeptides are incorporated into the fibrinogen molecule present in plasma. ..
  9. Huang S, Cao Z, Chung D, Davie E. The role of betagamma and alphagamma complexes in the assembly of human fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27942-7 pubmed
    ..These data strongly support the role of alphagamma and betagamma complexes as functional intermediates in the assembly of fibrinogen. ..
  10. Boekholdt S, Bijsterveld N, Moons A, Levi M, Buller H, Peters R. Genetic variation in coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins and their relation with acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review. Circulation. 2001;104:3063-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of clinical implications, our results indicate that screening of patients with myocardial infarction for these genetic variations is not warranted. ..
  11. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Lundman P, Samnegard A, Boquist S, Ericsson C, et al. Contribution of haplotypes across the fibrinogen gene cluster to variation in risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2005;93:570-7 pubmed
    ..Candidate regions in the fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB) genes were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
  12. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Leander K, Wiman B, de Faire U, Hamsten A, et al. The association between fibrinogen haplotypes and myocardial infarction in men is partly mediated through pleiotropic effects on the serum IL-6 concentration. J Intern Med. 2007;261:138-47 pubmed
    ..case-control study (a substudy to the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program), the effects of the fibrinogen gamma (FGG) 9340T>C [rs1049636], fibrinogen alpha (FGA) 2224G>A [rs2070011] and F13A1 Val34Leu [rs5985] htSNPs on ..
  13. Kardys I, Uitterlinden A, Hofman A, Witteman J, de Maat M. Fibrinogen gene haplotypes in relation to risk of coronary events and coronary and extracoronary atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study. Thromb Haemost. 2007;97:288-95 pubmed
    Fibrin network structure has been correlated with coronary disease. Fibrinogen gamma and alpha (FGG and FGA) gene haplotypes (chromosome 4q28) may be associated with fibrin network structure, and thereby with rigidity of the fibrin clot ..
  14. Jacquemin B, Antoniades C, Nyberg F, Plana E, Müller M, Greven S, et al. Common genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha, beta, and gamma chains affect fibrinogen levels and the response to proinflammatory stimulation in myocardial infarction survivors: the AIRGENE study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:941-52 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) and haplotypes of the fibrinogen gene-cluster (fibrinogen chains alpha [FGA], beta [FGB], and gamma [FGG]) could explain the inter- and intraindividual variability of fibrinogen levels in patients with atherosclerosis...
  15. Uitte de Willige S, Pyle M, Vos H, de Visser M, Lally C, Dowling N, et al. Fibrinogen gamma gene 3'-end polymorphisms and risk of venous thromboembolism in the African-American and Caucasian population. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101:1078-84 pubmed
    ..It was recently shown that fibrinogen gamma gene (FGG) polymorphisms 10034C>T and 9340T>C influence VTE risk in the Caucasian population...
  16. Tang W, Teichert M, Chasman D, Heit J, Morange P, Li G, et al. A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. Genet Epidemiol. 2013;37:512-521 pubmed publisher
    ..significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG; P < 5.0 × 10(-13) for both)...
  17. Zhang M, Knisely A, Wang N, Gong J, Wang J. Fibrinogen storage disease in a Chinese boy with de novo fibrinogen Aguadilla mutation: Incomplete response to carbamazepine and ursodeoxycholic acid. BMC Gastroenterol. 2016;16:92 pubmed publisher
    ..storage disease (FSD) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutation in FGG, encoding the fibrinogen gamma chain. Here we report the first Han Chinese patient with FSD, caused by de novo fibrinogen Aguadilla mutation, ..
  18. Castaman G, Rimoldi V, Giacomelli S, Duga S. Congenital hypofibrinogenemia associated with novel homozygous fibrinogen Aα and heterozygous Bβ chain mutations. Thromb Res. 2015;136:144-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After sequencing all coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of the three fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, and FGG), two different novel mutations were found, one homozygous and one heterozygous...
  19. Tsai J, Kuo H, Lee K, Tsai T. Proteomic analysis of plasma from rats following total parenteral nutrition-induced liver injury. Proteomics. 2015;15:3865-74 pubmed publisher
    ..displays, downregulated proteins included peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), alpha-1-antiproteinase (A1AT), and fibrinogen gamma chain (FIBG), which were involved in oxidative stress, inflammatory respondence and cells apoptosis...
  20. Prada Arias M, Vazquez J, Salgado Barreira A, Gómez Veiras J, Montero Sánchez M, Fernández Lorenzo J. Diagnostic accuracy of fibrinogen to differentiate appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain in children. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35:66-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In a child with suspected appendicitis, a plasma FB level (prothrombin time-derived method) >520 mg/dL is associated to an increased likelihood of complicated appendicitis. ..
  21. Shlebak A, Katsarou A, Adams G, Fernando F. A novel mutation in exon 2 of FGB caused by c.221G>T † substitution, predicting the replacement of the native Arginine at position 74 with a Leucine (p.Arg74Leu † ) in a proband from a Kurdish family with dysfibrinogenaemia and familial venous and. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2017;43:263-270 pubmed publisher
    ..family was investigated using standard coagulation assays and DNA sequencing of the genes encoding the FGA, FGB and FGG. All cases have dysfibrinogenaemia with a fibrinogen level 1.4 to 1.5 (1.9-4.3 g/L)...
  22. Jacquemin M, Vanlinthout I, Van Horenbeeck I, Debasse M, Toelen J, Schoeters J, et al. The amplitude of coagulation curves from thrombin time tests allows dysfibrinogenemia caused by the common mutation FGG-Arg301 to be distinguished from hypofibrinogenemia. Int J Lab Hematol. 2017;39:301-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that the amplitude and maximal velocity of coagulation curves from plasma samples from FGG p...
  23. Dumitrescu G, Komáromi A, Rooyackers O, Klaude M, Hebert C, Wernerman J, et al. Repeated quantitative measurements of De Novo synthesis of albumin and fibrinogen. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174611 pubmed publisher
    ..For fibrinogen the larger intra-individual scatter necessitates larger study groups to detect changes in longitudinal studies. Repeated measurements within 48 hours need to be validated further. ..
  24. Bahammam M. Effect of platelet-rich fibrin palatal bandage on pain scores and wound healing after free gingival graft: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..whether the application of a platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) palatal bandage after harvesting free gingival grafts (FGG) would improve healing of donor sites and decrease pain scores and patient discomfort...
  25. Shattil S. Integrins and Src: dynamic duo of adhesion signaling. Trends Cell Biol. 2005;15:399-403 pubmed
    ..Here, the biochemical basis for and biological significance of this integrin-SFK interaction is summarized, and I propose a general mechanism for initiation of outside-in integrin signaling. ..
  26. Bamford C, Fenno J, Jenkinson H, Dymock D. The chymotrypsin-like protease complex of Treponema denticola ATCC 35405 mediates fibrinogen adherence and degradation. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4364-72 pubmed
    ..denticola cells, but not strain CKE (CTLP(-)) cells, were extended. These results suggest that interactions of T. denticola with fibrinogen, which may promote colonization and modulate hemostasis, are mediated principally by CTLP...
  27. de Moerloose P, Casini A, Neerman Arbez M. Congenital fibrinogen disorders: an update. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2013;39:585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia, most mutations of the FGA, FGB, or FGG fibrinogen encoding genes are null mutations...
  28. Tamura T, Arai S, Nagaya H, Mizuguchi J, Wada I. Stepwise assembly of fibrinogen is assisted by the endoplasmic reticulum lectin-chaperone system in HepG2 cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74580 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a novel insight into the assembly of most abundant multi-subunit secretory proteins. ..
  29. Liao Z, Tang H, Xie Y, Duan X, Xu S, Liu C, et al. Fibrinogen Hangzhou: congenital dysfibrinogenemia caused by the novel missense mutation in FGG (?308Asn?Thr). Clin Chim Acta. 2014;428:106-9 pubmed
  30. Domingues M, Macrae F, Duval C, McPherson H, Bridge K, Ajjan R, et al. Thrombin and fibrinogen γ' impact clot structure by marked effects on intrafibrillar structure and protofibril packing. Blood. 2016;127:487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that regulation of protofibril content of fibers is an important mechanism by which thrombin and fibrinogen γ' modulate fibrin clot structure and strength. ..
  31. Kan Y, Zhu Y, Tang L, Fu Q, Pei H. FGG-NUFFT-Based Method for Near-Field 3-D Imaging Using Millimeter Waves. Sensors (Basel). 2016;16: pubmed
    ..Finally, fast Gaussian gridding based nonuniform FFT (FGG-NUFFT) combined with 2-D inverse FFT (IFFT) is performed on the nonuniform 3-D spatial spectrum in the frequency ..
  32. Rosenberg J, Newman P, Mosesson M, Guillin M, Amrani D. Paris I dysfibrinogenemia: a point mutation in intron 8 results in insertion of a 15 amino acid sequence in the fibrinogen gamma-chain. Thromb Haemost. 1993;69:217-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the insertion of this amino acid sequence leads to a conformationally-altered, and dysfunctional gamma-chain in Paris I fibrinogen. ..
  33. Everse S, Spraggon G, Veerapandian L, Riley M, Doolittle R. Crystal structure of fragment double-D from human fibrin with two different bound ligands. Biochemistry. 1998;37:8637-42 pubmed
    ..Additionally, we have found that the beta-chain domain, like its gamma-chain counterpart, binds calcium. ..
  34. Mukai S, Nagata K, Ikeda M, Arai S, Sugano M, Honda T, et al. Genetic analyses of novel compound heterozygous hypodysfibrinogenemia, Tsukuba I: FGG c.1129+62_65 del AATA and FGG c.1299+4 del A. Thromb Res. 2016;148:111-117 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a novel hypodysfibrinogenemia designated Tsukuba I caused by compound heterozygous nucleotide deletions with FGG c.1129+62_65 del AATA and FGG c.1299+4 del A on different alleles...
  35. Ni F, Konishi Y, Frazier R, Scheraga H, Lord S. High-resolution NMR studies of fibrinogen-like peptides in solution: interaction of thrombin with residues 1-23 of the A alpha chain of human fibrinogen. Biochemistry. 1989;28:3082-94 pubmed
    ..Residues Asp(7)-Arg(16) constitute an essential structural element in the interaction of thrombin with fibrinogen. ..
  36. Bahadori B, Uitz E, Dehchamani D, Pilger E, Renner W. The fibrinogen gamma 10034C>T polymorphism is not associated with Peripheral Arterial Disease. Thromb Res. 2010;126:350-2 pubmed publisher
    ..polypeptide chains, encoded by different genes (fibrinogen alpha [FGA], fibrinogen beta [FGB] and fibrinogen gamma [FGG])...
  37. Yamazumi K, Shimura K, Terukina S, Takahashi N, Matsuda M. A gamma methionine-310 to threonine substitution and consequent N-glycosylation at gamma asparagine-308 identified in a congenital dysfibrinogenemia associated with posttraumatic bleeding, fibrinogen Asahi. J Clin Invest. 1989;83:1590-7 pubmed
    ..The structure of the extra carbohydrate moiety attached to asparagine-308 was found to be identical with those derived from the normal B beta and gamma chains as evidenced by HPLC. ..
  38. Steinmann C, Bögli C, Jungo M, Lammle B, Heinemann G, Wermuth B, et al. Fibrinogen Milano V: a congenital dysfibrinogenaemia with a gamma 275 Arg-->Cys substitution. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1994;5:463-71 pubmed
    ..Treatment of fibrinogen Milano V with cysteamine, that is surmised to convert the mutant cysteine to a positively charged lysine analogue, did not improve the clotting properties of fibrinogen Milano V. ..
  39. Steinmann C, Reber P, Jungo M, Lammle B, Heinemann G, Wermuth B, et al. Fibrinogen Bern I: substitution gamma 337 Asn-->Lys is responsible for defective fibrin monomer polymerization. Blood. 1993;82:2104-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the substitution gamma 337 Asn-->Lys in fibrinogen Bern I is responsible for defective polymerization of fibrin monomers and for impaired protection by calcium against plasmic degradation. ..
  40. Huang Z, Fang Y, Luo Q, Liu S, An G, Hou C, et al. Construction of supramolecular polymer by enzyme-triggered covalent condensation of CB[8]-FGG-based supramonomer. Chem Commun (Camb). 2016;52:2083-6 pubmed publisher
  41. Languino L, Duperray A, Joganic K, Fornaro M, Thornton G, Altieri D. Regulation of leukocyte-endothelium interaction and leukocyte transendothelial migration by intercellular adhesion molecule 1-fibrinogen recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:1505-9 pubmed
    ..These two processes are the earliest events of immune inflammatory responses and may also contribute to atherosclerosis. ..
  42. Chen J, Chen W, Liu L, Lin W, Jiao B, Wu Y, et al. Hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) generated by a spliced hepatitis B virus RNA participates in abnormality of fibrin formation and functions by binding to fibrinogen ? chain. J Med Virol. 2010;82:2019-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between HBSP and fibrinogen ? chain (FGG) was further confirmed in vitro using a GST pull-down assay and confirmed in vivo using a mammalian two-hybrid ..
  43. Pieters M, Kotze R, Jerling J, Kruger A, Ariens R. Evidence that fibrinogen ?' regulates plasma clot structure and lysis and relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in black Africans. Blood. 2013;121:3254-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that fibrinogen ?' modulates plasma clot structure and fibrinolysis and is also influenced by factors other than fibrinogen. ..
  44. Terukina S, Matsuda M, Hirata H, Takeda Y, Miyata T, Takao T, et al. Substitution of gamma Arg-275 by Cys in an abnormal fibrinogen, "fibrinogen Osaka II". Evidence for a unique solitary cystine structure at the mutation site. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:13579-87 pubmed
  45. Xia H. Regulation of gamma-fibrinogen chain expression by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13171-8 pubmed
  46. Cho J, Degen J, Coller B, Mosher D. Fibrin but not adsorbed fibrinogen supports fibronectin assembly by spread platelets. Effects of the interaction of alphaIIb beta3 with the C terminus of the fibrinogen gamma-chain. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35490-8 pubmed
    ..This interaction is less dominant when platelets adhere to fibrin, resulting in enhanced fibronectin assembly. ..
  47. Pruissen D, Kappelle L, Rosendaal F, Algra A. Prothrombotic genetic variants and atherosclerosis in patients with cerebral ischemia of arterial origin. Atherosclerosis. 2009;204:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study does not support the hypothesis that prothrombotic genetic variants have a direct role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. ..
  48. Uitte de Willige S, Standeven K, Philippou H, Ariens R. The pleiotropic role of the fibrinogen gamma' chain in hemostasis. Blood. 2009;114:3994-4001 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the key biologic aspects of this interesting variant of fibrinogen and discusses inconsistencies in current reports. ..
  49. Brennan S, Laurie A, Smith M. Novel FGG variant (?339C?S) confirms importance of the ?326-339 disulphide bond for plasma expression of newly synthesised fibrinogen. Thromb Haemost. 2015;113:903-5 pubmed publisher
  50. Ivaškevičius V, Thomas A, Biswas A, Ensikat H, Schmitt U, Horneff S, et al. A novel fibrinogen γ chain frameshift deletion (c.637delT) in a patient with hypodysfibrinogenemia associated with thrombosis. Hamostaseologie. 2015;35 Suppl 1:S27-31 pubmed
    ..A novel deletion in FGG gene (c.637delT) resulting in a frameshift and the premature termination of the γ chain at amino acid position p...
  51. Byrnes J, Wilson C, Boutelle A, Brandner C, Flick M, Philippou H, et al. The interaction between fibrinogen and zymogen FXIII-A2B2 is mediated by fibrinogen residues ?390-396 and the FXIII-B subunits. Blood. 2016;128:1969-1978 pubmed
    ..These findings provide insight into assembly of the fibrinogen/FXIII-A2B2 complex in both physiologic and therapeutic situations. ..
  52. Yoshida N, Hirata H, Morigami Y, Imaoka S, Matsuda M, Yamazumi K, et al. Characterization of an abnormal fibrinogen Osaka V with the replacement of gamma-arginine 375 by glycine. The lack of high affinity calcium binding to D-domains and the lack of protective effect of calcium on fibrinolysis. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:2753-9 pubmed
    ..During these studies, we found that the NH2-terminal amino acid of the gamma-remnant in fragments D or D dimer which were obtained after prolonged digestion with plasmin is gamma-Met89. ..
  53. Hawiger J, Timmons S, Kloczewiak M, Strong D, Doolittle R. gamma and alpha chains of human fibrinogen possess sites reactive with human platelet receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:2068-71 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the gamma chain of human fibrinogen bears the main site for interaction with the platelet receptor. ..
  54. Kant J, Lord S, Crabtree G. Partial mRNA sequences for human A alpha, B beta, and gamma fibrinogen chains: evolutionary and functional implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:3953-7 pubmed
    ..A comparison of human and rat gamma-chain cDNAs shows more than 88% sequence homology over the carboxyl-terminal 162 amino acids, implying strong selective pressures on these portions of the gamma-chain gene. ..
  55. Chung D, Chan W, Davie E. Characterization of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid coding for the gamma chain of human fibrinogen. Biochemistry. 1983;22:3250-6 pubmed
    ..Specific regions of the cDNA of the gamma chain were then compared with the cDNAs for the alpha and beta chains of human fibrinogen. ..
  56. Wann E, Gurusiddappa S, Hook M. The fibronectin-binding MSCRAMM FnbpA of Staphylococcus aureus is a bifunctional protein that also binds to fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:13863-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, by overexpressing FnbpA in a mutant strain of S. aureus that lacks the expression of both ClfA and ClfB, we show that native FnbpA can mediate the interaction of S. aureus with soluble Fg. ..
  57. Meyer M, Kutscher G, Stürzebecher J, Riesener G, Lutze G. Fibrinogen Magdeburg I: a novel variant of human fibrinogen with an amino acid exchange in the fibrinopeptide A (Aalpha 9, Leu-->Pro). Thromb Res. 2003;109:145-51 pubmed
  58. Duan H, Simpson Haidaris P. Functional analysis of interleukin 6 response elements (IL-6REs) on the human gamma-fibrinogen promoter: binding of hepatic Stat3 correlates negatively with transactivation potential of type II IL-6REs. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41270-81 pubmed
    ..Together these data suggest that Stat3 transactivation via IL-6REs on FBG promoters likely involves participation of additional transcription factors and/or coactivators to achieve optimal coordinated up-regulation during an APR. ..
  59. Scott E, Ariens R, Grant P. Genetic and environmental determinants of fibrin structure and function: relevance to clinical disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1558-66 pubmed
    ..This review discusses how genetic and environmental factors alter fibrin structure and function and the implications this has for the clinical presentation of vascular disease. ..
  60. Neerman Arbez M, Germanos Haddad M, Tzanidakis K, Vu D, Deutsch S, David A, et al. Expression and analysis of a split premature termination codon in FGG responsible for congenital afibrinogenemia: escape from RNA surveillance mechanisms in transfected cells. Blood. 2004;104:3618-23 pubmed
    ..is encoded by adjacent exons (TG-intron 4-A) affected neither mRNA splicing nor stability, but led to the production of an unstable, severely truncated fibrinogen gamma chain that is not incorporated into a functional fibrinogen hexamer.
  61. Hirota Kawadobora M, Terasawa F, Suzuki T, Tozuka M, Sano K, Okumura N. Comparison of thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and factor XIIIa-catalyzed cross-linking of fibrin among three recombinant variant fibrinogens, gamma 275C, gamma 275H, and gamma 275A. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:1359-67 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the existence of a subsequent disulfide-linked Cys in gamma 275C fibrinogen augments the impairment caused by a His or Ala substitution. ..
  62. Kani S, Terasawa F, Yamauchi K, Tozuka M, Okumura N. Analysis of fibrinogen variants at gamma387Ile shows that the side chain of gamma387 and the tertiary structure of the gammaC-terminal tail are important not only for assembly and secretion of fibrinogen but also for lateral aggregation of protofibri. Blood. 2006;108:1887-94 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, our results clearly indicate that the conformations critical for these 2 functions are different from each other. ..
  63. Spena S, Asselta R, Platè M, Castaman G, Duga S, Tenchini M. Pseudo-exon activation caused by a deep-intronic mutation in the fibrinogen gamma-chain gene as a novel mechanism for congenital afibrinogenaemia. Br J Haematol. 2007;139:128-32 pubmed
    ..Congenital afibrinogenaemia, characterized by severe fibrinogen deficiency, is caused by mutations within FGA, FGB or FGG. Conventional sequencing of coding regions and splice signals of these three genes did not reveal any mutation in ..
  64. Cheung E, Uitte de Willige S, Vos H, Leebeek F, Dippel D, Bertina R, et al. Fibrinogen gamma' in ischemic stroke: a case-control study. Stroke. 2008;39:1033-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine the contribution of fibrinogen gamma' levels and FGG haplotypes to ischemic stroke...
  65. Jood K, Danielson J, Ladenvall C, Blomstrand C, Jern C. Fibrinogen gene variation and ischemic stroke. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate associations between variation in the fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB) genes, fibrinogen level, and ischemic stroke...
  66. Tang H, Fu Y, Cui Y, He Y, Zeng X, Ploplis V, et al. Fibrinogen has chaperone-like activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:662-7 pubmed publisher
  67. Sie M, Isaacs A, de Maat M, Mattace Raso F, Uitterlinden A, Kardys I, et al. Genetic variation in the fibrinogen-alpha and fibrinogen-gamma genes in relation to arterial stiffness: the Rotterdam Study. J Hypertens. 2009;27:1392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied genetic variation in the fibrinogen-alpha (FGA) and fibrinogen-gamma (FGG) genes, by means of single nucleotide polymorphisms (FGA: -58 G/A, 1374 G/A, 1526 T/C, 312 Thr/Ala, and FGG: 4288 G/..
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    ..We propose that the higher frequency of prolonged PT than aPTT, in ours and in other reported studies, reflects the polymerization delay, which in aPTT is attenuated owing to contact activation prior to calcium addition. ..
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    ..of the present study was to investigate the effect of fibrinogen A (FGA), fibrinogen B (FGB) and fibrinogen G (FGG) gene SNPs and haplotypes on susceptibility to CAD in a homogeneous Greek population...
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    ..We describe only the fourth mutation to be identified, ?314Thr?Pro (fibrinogen AI duPont), giving rise to hypofibrinogenaemia and hepatic fibrinogen storage disease. ..
  71. Brennan S, Mangos H, Faed J. Benign FGB (148Lys?Asn, and 448Arg?Lys), and novel causative ?211Tyr?His mutation distinguished by time of flight mass spectrometry in a family with hypofibrinogenaemia. Thromb Haemost. 2014;111:679-84 pubmed publisher
    ..TOF analysis also identified a variant B? chain (54,186 Da) that was coequally expressed with normal B? chains (54,213 Da) in the unaffected mother. ..
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    ..Significant associations were observed between rs1049636 (FGG gene), with total fibrinogen levels and between rs2070011 (FGA promoter area) and fibrinogen ?' levels...
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    ..This is suggestive of different mechanisms regulating human fibrinogen gamma-chain gene expression in hepatocytes v megakaryocytes that may operate in a tissue-specific manner at the level of 3' RNA processing events. ..
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    ..Accordingly, a new model can be proposed, in which fibrinogen binding to a variety of vascular cell receptors mediates a specific pathway of cell to cell adhesion by bridging together leukocytes and endothelial cells. ..
  75. Achyuthan K, Rowland T, Birckbichler P, Lee K, Bishop P, Achyuthan A. Hierarchies in the binding of human factor XIII, factor XIIIa, and endothelial cell transglutaminase to human plasma fibrinogen, fibrin, and fibronectin. Mol Cell Biochem. 1996;162:43-9 pubmed
    ..Such hierarchies could regulate the cross-linkings by FXIIIa and Tg during hemostasis, wound healing, and cell adhesion. ..
  76. Pratt K, Côté H, Chung D, Stenkamp R, Davie E. The primary fibrin polymerization pocket: three-dimensional structure of a 30-kDa C-terminal gamma chain fragment complexed with the peptide Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:7176-81 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with biophysical experiments carried out over the last 50 years on this fundamental polymerization reaction. ..
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    ..These observations show that double-D structures are linked in a way that is sufficiently flexible to accommodate different D-D interfaces under different circumstances. ..
  79. Defilippi P, Di Stefano P, Cabodi S. p130Cas: a versatile scaffold in signaling networks. Trends Cell Biol. 2006;16:257-63 pubmed
    ..Here, we discuss recent developments that highlight a fundamental role in cell transformation and microbial pathogenesis and the implications of these developments on p130Cas function under normal and pathological conditions. ..
  80. Lee J, Namkoong H, Kim H, Kim S, Hwang D, Na H, et al. Fibrinogen gamma-A chain precursor in CSF: a candidate biomarker for Alzheimer's disease. BMC Neurol. 2007;7:14 pubmed
    ..In contrast, fibrinogen gamma-A chain precursor protein was detected very low in the age-matched normal group. These findings suggest that the CSF level of fibrinogen gamma-A chain precursor may be a candidate biomarker for AD. ..
  81. Lange L, Reiner A, Carty C, Jenny N, Cushman M, Lange E. Common genetic variants associated with plasma fibrin D-dimer concentration in older European- and African-American adults. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:654-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Several fibrinogen gene polymorphisms, including the Thr312Ala Aalpha chain variant and the FGG-10034 C/T variant, were associated with approximately 20% higher plasma D-dimer levels in EA (false discovery rate &..
  82. Robert Ebadi H, Le Querrec A, de Moerloose P, Gandon Laloum S, Borel Derlon A, Neerman Arbez M. A novel Asp344Val substitution in the fibrinogen gamma chain (fibrinogen Caen) causes dysfibrinogenemia associated with thrombosis. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2008;19:697-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Asp344Val (p.Asp318Val in the mature chain) in heterozygosity. Interestingly, this same residue in the fibrinogen gamma chain was previously found to be mutated to a glycine (fibrinogen Giessen IV) in another young dysfibrinogenemia ..
  83. Sen U, Tyagi N, Patibandla P, Dean W, Tyagi S, Roberts A, et al. Fibrinogen-induced endothelin-1 production from endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C840-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, an increased content of Fg may enhance vasoconstriction through increased production of ET-1. ..
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    ..IL-6) is a main regulator of fibrinogen synthesis, though its interaction with fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, FGG) and subsequent impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is not well-studied...
  85. Lovely R, Yang Q, Massaro J, Wang J, D Agostino R, O Donnell C, et al. Assessment of genetic determinants of the association of ?' fibrinogen in relation to cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The top-signal SNP was rs7681423 (P=9.97×10(-110)) in the fibrinogen gene locus near FGG, which encodes the ? chain...
  86. Alberio T, Bucci E, Natale M, Bonino D, Di Giovanni M, Bottacchi E, et al. Parkinson's disease plasma biomarkers: an automated literature analysis followed by experimental validation. J Proteomics. 2013;90:107-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Eventually, we compared the collected literature data to experimental gels from 90 subjects (45 PD patients, 45 non-neurodegenerative control subjects) to experimentally verify their potential as plasma biomarkers of PD. ..
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    ..05 showed an association of optimism with SNPs in MAOA, IL10, and FGG genes, and an association of resilience with a SNP in MAOA gene...