Gene Symbol: FGG
Description: fibrinogen gamma chain
Alias: fibrinogen gamma chain, fibrinogen, gamma polypeptide, testicular tissue protein Li 70
Species: human
Products:     FGG

Top Publications

  1. Mosesson M. Fibrinogen gamma chain functions. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:231-8 pubmed
  2. Uitte de Willige S, de Visser M, Houwing Duistermaat J, Rosendaal F, Vos H, Bertina R. Genetic variation in the fibrinogen gamma gene increases the risk for deep venous thrombosis by reducing plasma fibrinogen gamma' levels. Blood. 2005;106:4176-83 pubmed
    We investigated the association between haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha (FGA), beta (FGB), and gamma (FGG), total fibrinogen levels, fibrinogen gamma' (gammaA/gamma' plus gamma'/gamma') levels, and risk for deep venous thrombosis...
  3. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Ericsson C, Hamsten A, Silveira A. Epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms in the fibrinogen and coagulation factor XIII genes on plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin gel structure and risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2006;95:420-7 pubmed
    An intricate interplay between the genes encoding fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB), coagulation factor XIII (F13A1) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and environmental factors is likely to influence plasma fibrinogen ..
  4. Koch W, Hoppmann P, Biele J, Mueller J, Schomig A, Kastrati A. Fibrinogen genes and myocardial infarction: a haplotype analysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:758-63 pubmed publisher
    ..12). A haplotype analysis did not reveal a link between genetic variations in the fibrinogen gene region and myocardial infarction. ..
  5. Carty C, Cushman M, Jones D, Lange L, Hindorff L, Rice K, et al. Associations between common fibrinogen gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease in older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether common (> or = 5% minor allele frequency) variation in the fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, FGG) is associated with fibrinogen concentration, carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) and risk of incident ..
  6. Roy S, Yu S, Banerjee D, Overton O, Mukhopadhyay G, Oddoux C, et al. Assembly and secretion of fibrinogen. Degradation of individual chains. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:23151-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together these studies indicate that B beta and gamma chains are degraded in the endoplasmic reticulum, but only B beta is bound to BiP. By contrast A alpha chains and the A alpha-gamma complex undergo lysosomal degradation. ..
  7. Chung D, Davie E. gamma and gamma' chains of human fibrinogen are produced by alternative mRNA processing. Biochemistry. 1984;23:4232-6 pubmed
    ..These mRNAs code for polypeptide chains with different carboxyl-terminal sequences. Both of these polypeptides are incorporated into the fibrinogen molecule present in plasma. ..
  8. Huang S, Cao Z, Chung D, Davie E. The role of betagamma and alphagamma complexes in the assembly of human fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27942-7 pubmed
    ..These data strongly support the role of alphagamma and betagamma complexes as functional intermediates in the assembly of fibrinogen. ..
  9. Boekholdt S, Bijsterveld N, Moons A, Levi M, Buller H, Peters R. Genetic variation in coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins and their relation with acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review. Circulation. 2001;104:3063-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of clinical implications, our results indicate that screening of patients with myocardial infarction for these genetic variations is not warranted. ..

More Information

Publications216 found, 100 shown here

  1. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Lundman P, Samnegard A, Boquist S, Ericsson C, et al. Contribution of haplotypes across the fibrinogen gene cluster to variation in risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2005;93:570-7 pubmed
    ..Candidate regions in the fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB) genes were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
  2. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Leander K, Wiman B, de Faire U, Hamsten A, et al. The association between fibrinogen haplotypes and myocardial infarction in men is partly mediated through pleiotropic effects on the serum IL-6 concentration. J Intern Med. 2007;261:138-47 pubmed
    ..case-control study (a substudy to the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program), the effects of the fibrinogen gamma (FGG) 9340T>C [rs1049636], fibrinogen alpha (FGA) 2224G>A [rs2070011] and F13A1 Val34Leu [rs5985] htSNPs on ..
  3. Kardys I, Uitterlinden A, Hofman A, Witteman J, de Maat M. Fibrinogen gene haplotypes in relation to risk of coronary events and coronary and extracoronary atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study. Thromb Haemost. 2007;97:288-95 pubmed
    Fibrin network structure has been correlated with coronary disease. Fibrinogen gamma and alpha (FGG and FGA) gene haplotypes (chromosome 4q28) may be associated with fibrin network structure, and thereby with rigidity of the fibrin clot ..
  4. Jacquemin B, Antoniades C, Nyberg F, Plana E, Müller M, Greven S, et al. Common genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha, beta, and gamma chains affect fibrinogen levels and the response to proinflammatory stimulation in myocardial infarction survivors: the AIRGENE study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:941-52 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) and haplotypes of the fibrinogen gene-cluster (fibrinogen chains alpha [FGA], beta [FGB], and gamma [FGG]) could explain the inter- and intraindividual variability of fibrinogen levels in patients with atherosclerosis...
  5. Uitte de Willige S, Pyle M, Vos H, de Visser M, Lally C, Dowling N, et al. Fibrinogen gamma gene 3'-end polymorphisms and risk of venous thromboembolism in the African-American and Caucasian population. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101:1078-84 pubmed
    ..It was recently shown that fibrinogen gamma gene (FGG) polymorphisms 10034C>T and 9340T>C influence VTE risk in the Caucasian population...
  6. Tang W, Teichert M, Chasman D, Heit J, Morange P, Li G, et al. A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. Genet Epidemiol. 2013;37:512-521 pubmed publisher
    ..significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG; P < 5.0 × 10(-13) for both)...
  7. Zhmurov A, Brown A, Litvinov R, Dima R, Weisel J, Barsegov V. Mechanism of fibrin(ogen) forced unfolding. Structure. 2011;19:1615-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide important characteristics of the fibrin(ogen) nanomechanics necessary to understand the molecular origins of fibrin viscoelasticity at the fiber and whole clot levels. ..
  8. Gao J, Deng B, Qin Y, Wang H, Li X. Efficient Terahertz Wide-Angle NUFFT-Based Inverse Synthetic Aperture Imaging Considering Spherical Wavefront. Sensors (Basel). 2016;16: pubmed
    ..Then, to speed up the reconstruction procedure, the fast Gaussian gridding (FGG)-based nonuniform FFT (NUFFT) is employed to focus the image...
  9. Fornace A, Cummings D, Comeau C, Kant J, Crabtree G. Structure of the human gamma-fibrinogen gene. Alternate mRNA splicing near the 3' end of the gene produces gamma A and gamma B forms of gamma-fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:12826-30 pubmed
    ..The new carboxyl terminus is 16 amino acids longer than the gamma A protein, and although there is only minimal homology between the rat and human carboxyl termini they share a very high proportion of acidic amino acids. ..
  10. Olaisen B, Teisberg P, Gedde Dahl T. Fibrinogen gamma chain locus is on chromosome 4 in man. Hum Genet. 1982;61:24-6 pubmed
    ..in approximately 30 marker systems, and linkage studies have shown close linkage between the gamma-chain locus (FGG) and MNSs...
  11. Menegatti M, Asselta R, Duga S, Malcovati M, Bucciarelli P, Mannucci P, et al. Identification of four novel polymorphisms in the Aalpha and gamma fibrinogen genes and analysis of association with plasma levels of the protein. Thromb Res. 2001;103:299-307 pubmed
    ..In the multivariate linear regression analysis, no statistically significant association with plasma fibrinogen levels was found. ..
  12. Orr A, Ginsberg M, Shattil S, Deckmyn H, Schwartz M. Matrix-specific suppression of integrin activation in shear stress signaling. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4686-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, integrins actively cross-inhibit through specific kinase pathways. These mechanisms may determine cellular responses to complex extracellular matrices. ..
  13. Albrecht U, Yang X, Asselta R, Keitel V, Tenchini M, Ludwig S, et al. Activation of NF-kappaB by IL-1beta blocks IL-6-induced sustained STAT3 activation and STAT3-dependent gene expression of the human gamma-fibrinogen gene. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1866-78 pubmed
  14. Hou T, Ray S, Brasier A. The functional role of an interleukin 6-inducible CDK9.STAT3 complex in human gamma-fibrinogen gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37091-102 pubmed
    ..Therefore, disruption of IL-6 signaling by CDK9 inhibitors could be a potential therapeutic strategy for inflammatory disease. ..
  15. Bruzelius M, Bottai M, Sabater Lleal M, Strawbridge R, Bergendal A, Silveira A, et al. Predicting venous thrombosis in women using a combination of genetic markers and clinical risk factors. J Thromb Haemost. 2015;13:219-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven SNPs (F5 rs6025, F2 rs1799963, ABO rs514659, FGG rs2066865, F11 rs2289252, PROC rs1799810 and KNG1 rs710446) with four SNP-SNP interactions contributed to the ..
  16. Koopman J, Haverkate F, Briet E, Lord S. A congenitally abnormal fibrinogen (Vlissingen) with a 6-base deletion in the gamma-chain gene, causing defective calcium binding and impaired fibrin polymerization. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:13456-61 pubmed
  17. Terukina S, Yamazumi K, Okamoto K, Yamashita H, Ito Y, Matsuda M. Fibrinogen Kyoto III: a congenital dysfibrinogen with a gamma aspartic acid-330 to tyrosine substitution manifesting impaired fibrin monomer polymerization. Blood. 1989;74:2681-7 pubmed
    ..86) to a tyrosine (pK for the aromatic hydroxyl = 10.07) may have perturbed the folding gamma chain structure in the D domain of fibrinogen specifically required for polymerization. ..
  18. Yoshida N, Ota K, Moroi M, Matsuda M. An apparently higher molecular weight gamma-chain variant in a new congenital abnormal fibrinogen Tochigi characterized by the replacement of gamma arginine-275 by cysteine. Blood. 1988;71:480-7 pubmed
    ..The propositus' two daughters had the same abnormal fibrinogen. This unique inherited abnormal fibrinogen was designated as fibrinogen Tochigi, and the gamma-chain variant as gamma Tochigi. ..
  19. Henschen A, Lottspeich F, Kehl M, Southan C. Covalent structure of fibrinogen. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1983;408:28-43 pubmed
  20. Yakovlev S, Zhang L, Ugarova T, Medved L. Interaction of fibrin(ogen) with leukocyte receptor alpha M beta 2 (Mac-1): further characterization and identification of a novel binding region within the central domain of the fibrinogen gamma-module. Biochemistry. 2005;44:617-26 pubmed
    ..The only alpha(M)I-binding activity was associated with the gamma228-253 peptide, indicating that this region of the central domain contains a novel alpha(M)beta(2)-binding sequence. ..
  21. Ivaskevicius V, Jusciute E, Steffens M, Geisen C, Hanfland P, Wienker T, et al. gammaAla82Gly represents a common fibrinogen gamma-chain variant in Caucasians. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2005;16:205-8 pubmed
    Screening of 200 blood donors for the presence of polymorphisms in three fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, FGG), revealed two individuals with a heterozygous missense mutation (c.323C > G, gammaAla82Gly) in the FGG gene...
  22. Si C, Li J, Luo Q, Hou C, Pan T, Li H, et al. An ion signal responsive dynamic protein nano-spring constructed by high ordered host-guest recognition. Chem Commun (Camb). 2016;52:2924-7 pubmed publisher
    ..self-assembly nano-spring was developed through host-guest interactions between cucurbit[8]uril and tripeptide FGG tags of fusion protein FGG-recoverin-GST...
  23. Arora D, Siddiqui M, Sharma P, Singh S, Tripathi A, Mandal P, et al. Evaluation and physiological correlation of plasma proteomic fingerprints for deltamethrin-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Life Sci. 2016;160:72-83 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins (Apolipoprotein-AIV, Apolipoprotein E, Haptoglobin, Hemopexin, Vitamin D Binding protein, and Fibrinogen gamma chain) were significantly (p<0.05) modulated in DLM treated groups in a dose-dependent manner...
  24. Paraboschi E, Duga S, Asselta R. Fibrinogen as a Pleiotropic Protein Causing Human Diseases: The Mutational Burden of A?, B?, and ? Chains. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Heterozygous mutations in A?, B?, or ? fibrinogen-chain genes (FGA, FGB, FGG) have been described as being responsible for fibrinogen deficiencies (hypofibrinogenemia, hypo-..
  25. Altieri D, Duperray A, Plescia J, Thornton G, Languino L. Structural recognition of a novel fibrinogen gamma chain sequence (117-133) by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mediates leukocyte-endothelium interaction. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:696-9 pubmed
    ..of the novel ICAM-1 recognition of fibrinogen was carried out by synthetic peptidyl mimicry of the fibrinogen gamma chain. A novel peptide sequence, N117NQ-KIVNLKEKVAQLEA133, designated gamma 3, dose-dependently inhibited (IC50 ..
  26. Stephen J, Nampoothiri S, Vinayan K, Yesodharan D, Remesh P, Gahl W, et al. Cortical atrophy and hypofibrinogenemia due to FGG and TBCD mutations in a single family: a case report. BMC Med Genet. 2018;19:80 pubmed publisher
    ..Hereditary fibrinogen deficiencies result from mutations in the genes FGA, FGB, and FGG, encoding the three different polypeptide chains that comprise fibrinogen...
  27. Araújo J, Lopez Fernandez H, Diniz M, Baltazar P, Pinheiro L, Da Silva F, et al. Dithiothreitol-based protein equalization technology to unravel biomarkers for bladder cancer. Talanta. 2018;180:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Six proteins, namely serum albumin, gelsolin, fibrinogen gamma chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, Ig alpha-2 chain C region and haptoglobin, were found dysregulated in at least ..
  28. Casini A, Sokollik C, Lukowski S, Lurz E, Rieubland C, de Moerloose P, et al. Hypofibrinogenemia and liver disease: a new case of Aguadilla fibrinogen and review of the literature. Haemophilia. 2015;21:820-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The proband was found to be heterozygous for fibrinogen Aguadilla: FGG Arg375Trp...
  29. Uitte de Willige S, Rietveld I, De Visser M, Vos H, Bertina R. Polymorphism 10034C>T is located in a region regulating polyadenylation of FGG transcripts and influences the fibrinogen gamma'/gammaA mRNA ratio. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:1243-9 pubmed
    Fibrinogen gamma haplotype 2 (FGG-H2) is associated with reduced fibrinogen gamma' levels and fibrinogen gamma'/total fibrinogen ratios and with an increased deep-venous thrombosis (DVT) risk...
  30. Bosmans R, Briels J, Milroy L, de Greef T, Merkx M, Brunsveld L. Supramolecular Control over Split-Luciferase Complementation. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2016;55:8899-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Split-luciferase fragment pairs were provided with an N-terminal FGG sequence and screened for complementation through host-guest binding to cucurbit[8]uril (Q8)...
  31. Fredenburgh J, Leslie B, Stafford A, Lim T, Chan H, Weitz J. Zn2+ mediates high affinity binding of heparin to the ?C domain of fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:29394-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal the mechanism by which Zn(2+) augments the capacity of fibrinogen to impair the anticoagulant activity of heparin. ..
  32. Schmitt C, Moest T, Lutz R, Wehrhan F, Neukam F, Schlegel K. Long-term outcomes after vestibuloplasty with a porcine collagen matrix (Mucograft® ) versus the free gingival graft: a comparative prospective clinical trial. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016;27:e125-e133 pubmed publisher
    Porcine collagen matrices are proclaimed being a sufficient alternative to autologous free gingival grafts (FGG) in terms of augmenting the keratinized mucosa...
  33. Heidari M, Paknejad M, Jamali R, Nokhbatolfoghahaei H, Fekrazad R, Moslemi N. Effect of laser photobiomodulation on wound healing and postoperative pain following free gingival graft: A split-mouth triple-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017;172:109-114 pubmed publisher
    Free gingival graft (FGG) is one of the most predictable techniques for gingival augmentation. However, patient's discomfort and pain during healing period are significant concerns...
  34. Cheng S, Xu Z, Yi T, Sun H, Yang C, Yu Z, et al. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Reveals the New Evidence Base for Traumatic Brain Injury Treated with Targeted Temperature Management. Neurotherapeutics. 2018;15:216-232 pubmed publisher
    ..changes in four candidate molecules (plasminogen [PLG], antithrombin III [AT III], fibrinogen gamma chain [FGG], transthyretin [TTR]) were verified using TBI rat brain tissues and TBI human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples...
  35. Kani S, Terasawa F, Lord S, Tozuka M, Ota H, Okumura N, et al. In vitro expression demonstrates impaired secretion of the gammaAsn319, Asp320 deletion variant fibrinogen. Thromb Haemost. 2005;94:53-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the reduced level of gammaDelta319,320 fibrinogen in the plasma of the Otsu patient arises from modestly impaired secretion of this variant fibrinogen. ..
  36. Akakura N, Hoogland C, Takada Y, Saegusa J, Ye X, Liu F, et al. The COOH-terminal globular domain of fibrinogen gamma chain suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9691-7 pubmed
    ..Fibrin(ogen) degradation products generated during fibrinolysis are implicated in tissue injury. The fibrinogen gamma chain has a COOH-terminal globular domain (gamma C, residues 151-411 of the gamma chain, 30 kDa) to which ..
  37. Sahni A, Simpson Haidaris P, Sahni S, Vaday G, Francis C. Fibrinogen synthesized by cancer cells augments the proliferative effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:176-83 pubmed
    ..of FGF-2-fibrinogen interactions was measured using wild-type and mutant FGF-2s, fibrinogen gamma-chain (FGG) RNAi and co-immunoprecipitation...
  38. Posner M, Upadhyay A, Abubaker A, Fortunato T, Vara D, Canobbio I, et al. Extracellular Fibrinogen-binding Protein (Efb) from Staphylococcus aureus Inhibits the Formation of Platelet-Leukocyte Complexes. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:2764-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we present evidence that in addition to its documented antithrombotic activity, Efb can play an immunoregulatory role via inhibition of P-selectin-PSGL-1-dependent formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes. ..
  39. Madi M, Kassem A. Topical simvastatin gel as a novel therapeutic modality for palatal donor site wound healing following free gingival graft procedure. Acta Odontol Scand. 2017;:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate intra-oral topical application of simvastatin/chitosan gel (10?mg/mL) over the palatal donor site following free gingival graft (FGG) procedure.
  40. Shapiro S, Phillips E, Manning R, Morse C, Murden S, Laffan M, et al. Clinical phenotype, laboratory features and genotype of 35 patients with heritable dysfibrinogenaemia. Br J Haematol. 2013;160:220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Selection of coagulometer and PT activator may markedly affect the detection of new HD cases using coagulation screening tests. ..
  41. Yoshida N, Terukina S, Okuma M, Moroi M, Aoki N, Matsuda M. Characterization of an apparently lower molecular weight gamma-chain variant in fibrinogen Kyoto I. The replacement of gamma-asparagine 308 by lysine which causes accelerated cleavage of fragment D1 by plasmin and the generation of a new plasmin clea. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:13848-56 pubmed
    ..During these studies, we found that part of the gamma Lys212-Glu213 bond in fragment D1 is cleaved by plasmin in the presence of EGTA. ..
  42. Keenan J, Solum N. Quantitative studies on the release of platelet fibrinogen by thrombin. Br J Haematol. 1972;23:461-6 pubmed
  43. Mizuguchi J, Hu C, Cao Z, Loeb K, Chung D, Davie E. Characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the gene for the gamma chain of human fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:28350-6 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the regulatory elements in the genes coding for all three chains in fibrinogen is also presented. ..
  44. Lancellotti S, Rutella S, De Filippis V, Pozzi N, Rocca B, De Cristofaro R. Fibrinogen-elongated gamma chain inhibits thrombin-induced platelet response, hindering the interaction with different receptors. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30193-204 pubmed publisher
    The expression of the elongated fibrinogen gamma chain, termed gamma', derives from alternative splicing of mRNA and causes an insertion sequence of 20 amino acids...
  45. Appiah D, Heckbert S, Cushman M, Psaty B, Folsom A. Lack of association of plasma gamma prime (?') fibrinogen with incident cardiovascular disease. Thromb Res. 2016;143:50-2 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that among the elderly, ?' fibrinogen does not add much to CVD prediction beyond traditional risk factors and total fibrinogen level. ..
  46. Orchekowski R, Plescia J, Altieri D, Bajt M. AlphaMbeta2 (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1) integrin activation by a unique monoclonal antibody to alphaM I domain that is divalent cation-sensitive. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:641-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, these studies have identified a novel alphaM I domain activation epitope of alphaMbeta2 and support the idea that the I domain modulates the activational state of the beta2 integrins. ..
  47. Zeng L, Dai J, Ying K, Zhao E, Jin W, Ye Y, et al. Identification of a novel human angiopoietin-like gene expressed mainly in heart. J Hum Genet. 2003;48:159-62 pubmed
    ..The search against the human genome database indicated that ANGPTL5 maps to 11q22. Expression analysis of ANGPTL5 shows that it is mainly expressed in adult human heart. ..
  48. Danik J, Pare G, Chasman D, Zee R, Kwiatkowski D, Parker A, et al. Novel loci, including those related to Crohn disease, psoriasis, and inflammation, identified in a genome-wide association study of fibrinogen in 17 686 women: the Women's Genome Health Study. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2:134-41 pubmed publisher
  49. Hoeprich P, Doolittle R. Dimeric half-molecules of human fibrinogen are joined through disulfide bonds in an antiparallel orientation. Biochemistry. 1983;22:2049-55 pubmed
    ..The parallel-oriented synthetic peptide differed from the native material by both criteria. ..
  50. Doolittle R, Pandi L. Probing the beta-chain hole of fibrinogen with synthetic peptides that differ at their amino termini. Biochemistry. 2007;46:10033-8 pubmed
    ..In lampreys, GPRPYam is a significantly better inhibitor, but in humans, it is less effective than GPRPam, indicating that in the lamprey system the same tyrosine-arginine interaction can also occur in the gamma-chain setting. ..
  51. Wang Y, Ding H, Hao X, Zhu L, Yang L, Jin Y, et al. [Congenital hypofibrinogenemia associated with a novel mutation in FGG gene]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2015;32:331-4 pubmed publisher
    ..All exons and exon-intron boundaries of the fibrinogen Aα-, Bβ-, and γ-chain genes (FGA, FGB and FGG) were amplified by PCR followed by direct sequencing...
  52. Beaulieu L, Clancy L, Tanriverdi K, Benjamin E, Kramer C, Weinberg E, et al. Specific Inflammatory Stimuli Lead to Distinct Platelet Responses in Mice and Humans. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0131688 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes, such as Serpina1a, Ttr, Fgg, Rpl21, and Alb, were uniquely affected by infection and diet...
  53. Yee V, Pratt K, Côté H, Trong I, Chung D, Davie E, et al. Crystal structure of a 30 kDa C-terminal fragment from the gamma chain of human fibrinogen. Structure. 1997;5:125-38 pubmed
    ..The flexibility of the C-terminal residues, which contain one of the factor XIIIa crosslinking sites and the platelet receptor recognition site, may be important in the function of this domain. ..
  54. Lominadze D, Tsakadze N, Sen U, Falcone J, D Souza S. Fibrinogen and fragment D-induced vascular constriction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H1257-64 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that binding of Fg and fragment D to the vascular wall through ICAM-1 may contribute to the increased vascular tone and resistance that compromise circulation...
  55. van Oijen M, Cheung E, Geluk C, Hofman A, Koudstaal P, Breteler M, et al. Haplotypes of the fibrinogen gene and cerebral small vessel disease: the Rotterdam scan study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:799-803 pubmed
    ..We examined fibrinogen levels and variation in fibrinogen genes (fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB)), which have been associated with fibrin clot structure and fibrinogen levels, in ..
  56. Riedelová Reicheltová Z, Riedel T, Májek P, Kotlin R, Geierova V, Suttnar J, et al. Abnormal fibrinogen Zlín (?Thr21Ile) with missense mutation causing hypofibrinogenemia. Acta Haematol. 2014;132:140-3 pubmed
  57. Rixon M, Chung D, Davie E. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for the gamma chain of human fibrinogen. Biochemistry. 1985;24:2077-86 pubmed
    ..The DNA sequence of the gene for the gamma chain of human fibrinogen showed considerable sequence homology with a partial sequence reported for the gene for the gamma chain of rat fibrinogen. ..
  58. Imam A, Eaton M, Williamson R, Humphries S. Isolation and characterisation of cDNA clones for the A alpha- and gamma-chains of human fibrinogen. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983;11:7427-34 pubmed
    ..Each cDNA hybridises to a unique sequence in the human genome. In adult human liver, Northern blots give an estimated messenger RNA size of 2.6kb for A alpha-fibrinogen and 1.8kb for gamma-fibrinogen. ..
  59. Wilhelm S, Lounes K, Lord S. Investigation of residues in the fibrin(ogen) gamma chain involved in tissue plasminogen activator binding and plasminogen activation. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2004;15:451-61 pubmed
  60. Honda K, Asada R, Kageyama K, Fukuda T, Terada H, Yasui T, et al. Protein Complex of Fibrinogen Gamma Chain and Complement Factor H in Ovarian Cancer Patient Plasma. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:2861-2866 pubmed
    ..The-high molecular weight protein was immunoractive to an antibody against fibrinogen gamma chain but not to an antibody against alpha or beta chain...
  61. Bruzelius M, Ljungqvist M, Bottai M, Bergendal A, Strawbridge R, Holmström M, et al. F11 is associated with recurrent VTE in women. A prospective cohort study. Thromb Haemost. 2016;115:406-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic variants in F5 rs6025, F2 rs1799963, ABO rs514659, FGG rs2066865, F11 rs2289252, PROC rs1799810 and KNG1 rs710446 were assessed together with clinical variables...
  62. Duval C, Ariëns R. Fibrinogen splice variation and cross-linking: Effects on fibrin structure/function and role of fibrinogen γ' as thrombomobulin II. Matrix Biol. 2017;60-61:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Splice variation and cross-linking are major determinants of the structure and function of fibrin and may therefore impact on diseases affecting bleeding, thrombosis and tissue repair. ..
  63. Lallukka S, Luukkonen P, Zhou Y, Isokuortti E, Leivonen M, Juuti A, et al. Obesity/insulin resistance rather than liver fat increases coagulation factor activities and expression in humans. Thromb Haemost. 2017;117:286-294 pubmed publisher
    ..and entirely lacking the I148M variant, insulin-resistant subjects had higher hepatic expression of F8, F9 and FGG than equally obese insulin-sensitive subjects...
  64. Yamazumi K, Terukina S, Onohara S, Matsuda M. Normal plasmic cleavage of the gamma-chain variant of "fibrinogen Saga" with an Arg-275 to His substitution. Thromb Haemost. 1988;60:476-80 pubmed
  65. Kolz M, Baumert J, Gohlke H, Grallert H, Doring A, Peters A, et al. Association study between variants in the fibrinogen gene cluster, fibrinogen levels and hypertension: results from the MONICA/KORA study. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101:317-24 pubmed
    ..In addition, a FGG haplotype, tagged by rs1049636, was associated with lower concentrations of fibrinogen in women, but not in men...
  66. Demarche S, Schleich F, Henket M, Paulus V, Van Hees T, Louis R. Detailed analysis of sputum and systemic inflammation in asthma phenotypes: are paucigranulocytic asthmatics really non-inflammatory?. BMC Pulm Med. 2016;16:46 pubmed publisher
    ..005). This study demonstrates that a significant eosinophilic inflammation is present across all categories of asthma, and that paucigranulocytic asthma may be seen as a low grade inflammatory disease. ..
  67. Huo M, Wang Z, Wu D, Zhang Y, Qiao Y. Using Coexpression Protein Interaction Network Analysis to Identify Mechanisms of Danshensu Affecting Patients with Coronary Heart Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..3 (SLC9A3), Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PTGS2), Oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), and fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG) may be potential therapeutic targets for CHD...
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    ..fibrinogen in plasma, generally due to heterozygous mutations in one of the three fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, and FGG, coding for Aalpha, Bbeta, and gamma chain, respectively)...
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    Haplotypes of the fibrinogen gamma and alpha (FGG and FGA) genes are associated with the structure of the fibrin network and may therefore influence the risk of stroke...
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    ..Our data indicate that fibrinogen residue ?Ala341 is important for the proper conformation of the ?-module, maintaining calcium-binding site and 'A-a' interactions. ..
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    ..All exons and exon-intron boundaries of the fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB and FGG) were amplified by PCR followed by direct sequencing...
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    ..High CRP but not high serum fibrinogen is a risk factor for non-fatal cardiovascular events. These results suggest that high CRP and high serum fibrinogen provide prognostic information in CKD patients. ..
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    ..Free gingival graft (FGG) donor sites were treated with T-PRF and compared with an untreated control group...
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    ..It is concluded that the Aalpha-chain substitution is mainly responsible for the coagulation abnormalities, whereas the substitution in the gamma-chain induced a conformational change in the D3 fragment. ..
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    ..These results suggest that the defective fibrinolysis is due to increased proteolytic resistance, most likely reflecting changes in clot structure. ..
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    ..Enhancing FI activity may be therapeutic and measuring FI provides a screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from complement inhibitory therapy. ..
  86. Asselta R, Robusto M, Braidotti P, Peyvandi F, Nastasio S, D Antiga L, et al. Hepatic fibrinogen storage disease: identification of two novel mutations (p.Asp316Asn, fibrinogen Pisa and p.Gly366Ser, fibrinogen Beograd) impacting on the fibrinogen γ-module. J Thromb Haemost. 2015;13:1459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Their genetic basis is invariably represented by mutations within the fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB and FGG coding for the Aα, Bβ and γ chains). Currently, only four mutations (p.Gly284Arg, p...
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    ..In gene-level analyses, the strongest findings (P < or = .001) were for CREB1, FGG, MAP3K5, RIPK3, LSP1, TRAF1, DUSP2, and ITGB3. In nsSNP analyses, the strongest findings (P < or = ...
  89. Smith N, Huffman J, Strachan D, Huang J, Dehghan A, Trompet S, et al. Genetic predictors of fibrin D-dimer levels in healthy adults. Circulation. 2011;123:1864-72 pubmed publisher
    ..At 4q32, rs13109457 (P=2.9×10(-18)) was located between 2 fibrinogen genes: 10.4 kb downstream from FGG and 3.0 kb upstream from FGA. Variants were associated with a 0.099-, 0.096-, and 0...