FAT1

Summary

Gene Symbol: FAT1
Description: FAT atypical cadherin 1
Alias: CDHF7, CDHR8, FAT, ME5, hFat1, protocadherin Fat 1, FAT tumor suppressor 1, cadherin ME5, cadherin family member 7, cadherin-related family member 8, cadherin-related tumor suppressor homolog, protein fat homolog
Species: human
Products:     FAT1

Top Publications

  1. Dikshit B, Irshad K, Madan E, Aggarwal N, Sarkar C, Chandra P, et al. FAT1 acts as an upstream regulator of oncogenic and inflammatory pathways, via PDCD4, in glioma cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:3798-808 pubmed
    ..Here we have studied the FAT1 (Homo sapiens FAT tumor-suppressor homolog 1 (Drosophila)) gene to identify its role in the tumorigenecity of the ..
  2. Braun G, Kretzler M, Heider T, Floege J, Holzman L, Kriz W, et al. Differentially spliced isoforms of FAT1 are asymmetrically distributed within migrating cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22823-33 pubmed
    Cadherin FAT1 is localized along the leading edge of mammalian cells and is necessary for polarization and directed migration...
  3. Kalveram B, Schmidtke G, Groettrup M. The ubiquitin-like modifier FAT10 interacts with HDAC6 and localizes to aggresomes under proteasome inhibition. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:4079-88 pubmed publisher
    ....
  4. Hou R, Sibinga N. Atrophin proteins interact with the Fat1 cadherin and regulate migration and orientation in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6955-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Fat1, an atypical cadherin induced robustly after arterial injury, has significant effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and migration...
  5. Tanoue T, Takeichi M. Mammalian Fat1 cadherin regulates actin dynamics and cell-cell contact. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:517-28 pubmed
    ..In this work, we investigated the function of a mammalian Fat cadherin. Fat1 was localized at filopodial tips, lamellipodial edges, and cell-cell boundaries, overlapping with dynamic actin ..
  6. Rudyk O, Eaton P. Examining a role for PKG Iα oxidation in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction during diet-induced obesity. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;110:390-398 pubmed publisher
    ..WT or KI mice were then subjected to a diet-induced obesity protocol by feeding them with a high fat Western-type diet (RM 60% AFE) for 27 weeks, which increased body mass, adiposity, plasma leptin, resistin and ..
  7. Loiselle D, Barclay C. The Ineluctable Constraints of Thermodynamics in the Aetiology of Obesity. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Quantification of the energy expended, in the form of fat metabolised, during selected endurance events, reveals the inherent limitation of over-reliance on exercise as a ..
  8. Ma H, Sales V, Wolf A, Subramanian S, Matthews T, Chen M, et al. Attenuated Effects of Bile Acids on Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in a Male Mouse Model of Prenatal Undernutrition. Endocrinology. 2017;158:2441-2452 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 18.5. Offspring of both undernourished (UN) and control (C) dams given unrestricted diets were weaned to high-fat diets with or without supplementation with 0...
  9. Wei W, Sun W, Han H, Chu W, Zhang L, Chen J. miR-130a regulates differential lipid accumulation between intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues of pigs via suppressing PPARG expression. Gene. 2017;636:23-29 pubmed publisher
    ..the molecular mechanism underlying differential lipid deposition between intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat tissues of pigs, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) expression levels were compared in these ..
  10. Kamitakahara A, Bouyer K, Wang C, Simerly R. A critical period for the trophic actions of leptin on AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2018;526:133-145 pubmed publisher
    In the developing hypothalamus, the fat-derived hormone leptin stimulates the growth of axons from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) to other regions that control energy balance...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Dikshit B, Irshad K, Madan E, Aggarwal N, Sarkar C, Chandra P, et al. FAT1 acts as an upstream regulator of oncogenic and inflammatory pathways, via PDCD4, in glioma cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:3798-808 pubmed
    ..Here we have studied the FAT1 (Homo sapiens FAT tumor-suppressor homolog 1 (Drosophila)) gene to identify its role in the tumorigenecity of the ..
  2. Braun G, Kretzler M, Heider T, Floege J, Holzman L, Kriz W, et al. Differentially spliced isoforms of FAT1 are asymmetrically distributed within migrating cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22823-33 pubmed
    Cadherin FAT1 is localized along the leading edge of mammalian cells and is necessary for polarization and directed migration...
  3. Kalveram B, Schmidtke G, Groettrup M. The ubiquitin-like modifier FAT10 interacts with HDAC6 and localizes to aggresomes under proteasome inhibition. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:4079-88 pubmed publisher
    ....
  4. Hou R, Sibinga N. Atrophin proteins interact with the Fat1 cadherin and regulate migration and orientation in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6955-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Fat1, an atypical cadherin induced robustly after arterial injury, has significant effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and migration...
  5. Tanoue T, Takeichi M. Mammalian Fat1 cadherin regulates actin dynamics and cell-cell contact. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:517-28 pubmed
    ..In this work, we investigated the function of a mammalian Fat cadherin. Fat1 was localized at filopodial tips, lamellipodial edges, and cell-cell boundaries, overlapping with dynamic actin ..
  6. Rudyk O, Eaton P. Examining a role for PKG Iα oxidation in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction during diet-induced obesity. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;110:390-398 pubmed publisher
    ..WT or KI mice were then subjected to a diet-induced obesity protocol by feeding them with a high fat Western-type diet (RM 60% AFE) for 27 weeks, which increased body mass, adiposity, plasma leptin, resistin and ..
  7. Loiselle D, Barclay C. The Ineluctable Constraints of Thermodynamics in the Aetiology of Obesity. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Quantification of the energy expended, in the form of fat metabolised, during selected endurance events, reveals the inherent limitation of over-reliance on exercise as a ..
  8. Ma H, Sales V, Wolf A, Subramanian S, Matthews T, Chen M, et al. Attenuated Effects of Bile Acids on Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in a Male Mouse Model of Prenatal Undernutrition. Endocrinology. 2017;158:2441-2452 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 18.5. Offspring of both undernourished (UN) and control (C) dams given unrestricted diets were weaned to high-fat diets with or without supplementation with 0...
  9. Wei W, Sun W, Han H, Chu W, Zhang L, Chen J. miR-130a regulates differential lipid accumulation between intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues of pigs via suppressing PPARG expression. Gene. 2017;636:23-29 pubmed publisher
    ..the molecular mechanism underlying differential lipid deposition between intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat tissues of pigs, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) expression levels were compared in these ..
  10. Kamitakahara A, Bouyer K, Wang C, Simerly R. A critical period for the trophic actions of leptin on AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2018;526:133-145 pubmed publisher
    In the developing hypothalamus, the fat-derived hormone leptin stimulates the growth of axons from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) to other regions that control energy balance...
  11. Iwasa T, Matsuzaki T, Yiliyasi M, Yano K, Irahara M. The effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight, food intake, and fat weight were age-dependent. Steroids. 2017;127:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that chronic testosterone administration increased body weight (BW) and food intake (FI), but did not alter fat weight, in young female rats...
  12. Woller A, Duez H, Staels B, Lefranc M. A Mathematical Model of the Liver Circadian Clock Linking Feeding and Fasting Cycles to Clock Function. Cell Rep. 2016;17:1087-1097 pubmed publisher
    ..patterns of AMPK activation was simulated numerically, mimicking the effects of a normal diet, fasting, and a high-fat diet...
  13. Bang H, Seo D, Chung Y, Kim D, Lee S, Lee S, et al. Ursolic acid supplementation decreases markers of skeletal muscle damage during resistance training in resistance-trained men: a pilot study. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2017;21:651-656 pubmed publisher
    ..and markers of skeletal muscle damage, whereas RT+UA group showed slightly decreased body weight and body fat percentage and slightly increased lean body mass, but without statistical significance...
  14. Kim D, Cho J, Lee I, Jin Y, Kang H. Exercise Attenuates High-Fat Diet-induced Disease Progression in 3xTg-AD Mice. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49:676-686 pubmed publisher
    Little is known regarding the therapeutic role of exercise against the risk of a high-fat diet (HFD) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD-like cognitive deficits...
  15. Jolly Y, Iqbal S, Rahman M, Kabir J, Akter S, Ahmad I. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence detection of heavy metals in Bangladesh cows' milk. Heliyon. 2017;3:e00403 pubmed publisher
    ..The main compositions of cow's milk are protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals which are well defined...
  16. Majumder S, Philip N, Takahashi N, Levy M, Singh V, Chari S. Fatty Pancreas: Should We Be Concerned?. Pancreas. 2017;46:1251-1258 pubmed publisher
    The metabolic consequences of visceral fat deposition are well known, and the presence of intrapancreatic fat (IPF) has been recognized for decades...
  17. Rolls B, Bell E. Dietary approaches to the treatment of obesity. Med Clin North Am. 2000;84:401-18, vi pubmed
    ..Reducing the fat content of the diet and increasing physical activity without restricting energy intake are relatively inefficient ..
  18. Kim I, Choi J, Lee M, Kwon C, Nam T. Anti-obesity effects of pectinase and cellulase enzyme‑treated Ecklonia cava extract in high‑fat diet‑fed C57BL/6N mice. Int J Mol Med. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..the anti‑obesity effects of enzyme‑treated Ecklonia cava extract (EEc) in C57BL/6N mice with high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity...
  19. Beretta E, Franzini A, Cordella R, Nazzi V, Valentini L, Franzini A. Surgical "Fat Patch" Improves Secondary Intracranial Hypotension Orthostatic Headache Associated with Lumbosacral Dural Ectasia. World Neurosurg. 2017;107:1053.e7-1053.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..Altered compliance of the dural spinal sac was suspected. Therefore thecal sac remodeling by placing autologous fat at the level of the dural ectasia was performed, improving the symptoms for 2 years...
  20. Lin T, Peng C, Hung S, Tarng D. Body composition is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unclear whether increased muscle mass or body fat confers the survival advantage...
  21. Lee J, Narayan V, Hong E, Whang W, Park T. Artemisia Iwayomogi Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Mice: Potential Involvement of the Adiponectin-AMPK Pathway and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Assembly in the Liver. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..the protective effect of Artemisia iwayomogi extract (AI) against hypertriglyceridemia induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6N mice were fed chow, HFD, HFD + 0...
  22. Khabaz M, Abdelrahman A, Butt N, Damnhory L, Elshal M, Aldahlawi A, et al. Immunohistochemical staining of leptin is associated with grade, stage, lymph node involvement, recurrence, and hormone receptor phenotypes in breast cancer. BMC Womens Health. 2017;17:105 pubmed publisher
    Obesity is part of the established risk factors for breast cancer (BC) in postmenopausal females. Circulating leptin increases in parallel with the increase of body weight and fat reservoir.
  23. Cheng S, Ge J, Zhao C, Le S, Yang Y, Ke D, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise and diet on liver fat in pre-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease: A randomized controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2017;7:15952 pubmed publisher
    The study aimed to assess whether aerobic exercise (AEx) training and a fibre-enriched diet can reduce hepatic fat content (HFC) and increase glycaemic control in pre-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
  24. Smith B, Volaufova J, West D. Increased flavor preference and lick activity for sucrose and corn oil in SWR/J vs. AKR/J mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R596-606 pubmed
    ..vehicle; ascending concentrations), the effects of strain and chow type (12 or 26% fat) on preference thresholds for sucrose and corn oil were compared in AKR/J and SWR/J mice...
  25. Mo F, An T, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Liu H, Pan Y, et al. Jiang Tang Xiao Ke Granule Play an Anti-diabetic Role in Diabetic Mice Pancreatic Tissue by Regulating the mRNAs and MicroRNAs Associated with PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:795 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Methods: We used high fat diet (HFD) to induce the KKAy diabetic mice and screened the differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) between JTXK-..
  26. Roth J, Koch M. Metabolic and Nutritional Consequences of Urinary Diversion Using Intestinal Segments to Reconstruct the Urinary Tract. Urol Clin North Am. 2018;45:19-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of ileum or colon can cause a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, vitamin B12 deficiency, osteoporosis, fat malabsorption, urinary calculi, and ammoniagenic encephalopathy...
  27. Kurhe Y, Mahesh R, Devadoss T. Novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist QCM-4 attenuates depressive-like phenotype associated with obesity in high-fat-diet-fed mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017;234:1165-1179 pubmed publisher
    ..Depression associated with obesity remains an interesting area to study the biological mechanisms and novel therapeutic intervention...
  28. Zhu R, Cheng M, Lu T, Yang N, Ye S, Pan Y, et al. ADAMTS18 Deficiency Leads to Visceral Adiposity and Associated Metabolic Syndrome in Mice. Am J Pathol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Adamts18 knockout (KO) mice showed increased body fat percentage and larger adipocyte size in vWAT relative to WT littermates, which may be partly attributed to ECM ..
  29. von Hardenberg S, Gnewuch C, Schmitz G, Borlak J. ApoE is a major determinant of hepatic bile acid homeostasis in mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2017;52:82-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, BAs are of critical importance in fat absorption by forming intestinal lipid-bile salt mixed micelles...
  30. Moon Y, Lee S, Park B, Park H. Distinct hypoxic regulation of preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) in preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Short term (8weeks) high fat diet (HFD) increased HIF-1α protein in subcutaneous and epididymal adipose tissues, but did not increase Pref-1 ..
  31. Parashar N, Parashar G, Nayyar H, Sandhir R. N6-adenine DNA methylation demystified in eukaryotic genome: From biology to pathology. Biochimie. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Further, decreased levels of m6dA in diabetic patients has been correlated with expression of Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) which acts as m6A demethylase...
  32. Zeng H, Ishaq S, Liu Z, Bukowski M. Colonic aberrant crypt formation accompanies an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. J Nutr Biochem. 2017;54:18-27 pubmed publisher
    The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to obesity and consumption of a high-fat Western diet...
  33. Rocha D, Lopes L, da Silva A, Oliveira L, Bressan J, Hermsdorff H. Orange juice modulates proinflammatory cytokines after high-fat saturated meal consumption. Food Funct. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    We aimed to evaluate the postprandial secretion of inflammatory markers induced by SFA or MUFA high-fat meal consumption and whether orange juice intake could modulate this induction...
  34. Takahashi Y, Matsunaga Y, Tamura Y, Terada S, Hatta H. Pre-Exercise High-Fat Diet for 3 Days Affects Post-Exercise Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Repletion. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2017;63:323-330 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown that the short-term intake of a high-fat diet (HFD) impairs glucose metabolism...
  35. Ruschke S, Pokorney A, Baum T, Eggers H, Miller J, Hu H, et al. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow proton density fat fraction in children using quantitative water-fat MRI. MAGMA. 2017;30:449-460 pubmed publisher
    ..of employing a 3D time-interleaved multi-echo gradient-echo (TIMGRE) sequence to measure the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in the vertebral bone marrow (VBM) of children and to examine cross-sectional changes with age and ..
  36. Covasa M, Ritter R. Adaptation to high-fat diet reduces inhibition of gastric emptying by CCK and intestinal oleate. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000;278:R166-70 pubmed
    Rats maintained on low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diets were fitted with gastric cannulas and duodenal catheters. Intraperitoneal injection of 0.250-2...
  37. Le Moli R, Pluchino A, Muscia V, Regalbuto C, Luciani B, Squatrito S, et al. Graves' orbitopathy: extraocular muscle/total orbit area ratio is positively related to the Clinical Activity Score. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2012;22:301-8 pubmed publisher
    Both extraocular muscle (EOM) and orbital fat are involved in Graves' orbitopathy (GO) but their enlargement might occur with a different temporal pattern...
  38. Collins B, Hoffman J, Martinez K, Grace M, Lila M, Cockrell C, et al. A polyphenol-rich fraction obtained from table grapes decreases adiposity, insulin resistance and markers of inflammation and impacts gut microbiota in high-fat-fed mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;31:150-65 pubmed publisher
    ..an extractable or nonextractable fraction of table grapes reduced the metabolic consequences of consuming a high-fat, American-type diet...
  39. Lee S, Kuk J, Boesch C, Arslanian S. Waist circumference is associated with liver fat in black and white adolescents. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017;42:829-833 pubmed publisher
    We examined whether waist circumference (WC) is associated with liver fat in black and white adolescents...
  40. Yang T, Yao H, Chiang M. Red algae (Gelidium amansii) hot-water extract ameliorates lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a high-fat diet. J Food Drug Anal. 2017;25:931-938 pubmed publisher
    ..Hamsters were divided into four groups: (1) control diet group (CON); (2) high-fat diet group (HF); (3) HF with GHE diet group (HF + GHE); (4) HF with probucol diet group (HF + PO)...
  41. Li J, Li X, Li Z, Zhang L, Liu Y, Ding H, et al. Isofraxidin, a coumarin component improves high-fat diet induced hepatic lipid homeostasis disorder and macrophage inflammation in mice. Food Funct. 2017;8:2886-2896 pubmed publisher
    ..Next, a high-fat diet, which induced a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, was used to evaluate the therapeutic action of IF...
  42. Cushnie D, Urquhart J, Gurr K, Siddiqi F, Bailey C. Obesity and spinal epidural lipomatosis in cauda equina syndrome. Spine J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..with an acute disc herniation and CES have a greater body mass index (BMI) and greater quantity of epidural fat compared with control subjects with non-CES symptomatic lumbar herniated discs...
  43. Ozil J, Sainte Beuve T, Banrezes B. [Mg2+]o/[Ca2+]o determines Ca2+ response at fertilization: tuning of adult phenotype?. Reproduction. 2017;154:675-693 pubmed publisher
    ..The rate of female's growth was impacted with the 'KSOM' females having only half the fat deposit of 'M16' females...
  44. Buler J, Lyon R, Smolinsky J, Zenzal T, Moore F. Body mass and wing shape explain variability in broad-scale bird species distributions of migratory passerines along an ecological barrier during stopover. Oecologia. 2017;185:205-212 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that species-mean fat-free body mass and wing tip pointedness independently explained variability among species distributions within ~50 ..
  45. Xu M, Sun B, Li D, Mao R, Li H, Li Y, et al. Beneficial Effects of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Panax ginseng Meyer on Pancreatic Beta-Cell Dysfunction and Death in Diabetic Rats. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..GOPs) could modulate hyperglycemia related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rats induced by high-fat diet and low doses of alloxan, type 2 diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by injecting them once ..
  46. Vargas V, Gurung S, Grant B, Hyatt K, Singleton K, Myers S, et al. Gestational hypoxia disrupts the neonatal leptin surge and programs hyperphagia and obesity in male offspring in the Sprague-Dawley rat. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185272 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of 12% O2 from gestational days 15-19 in the Sprague-Dawley rat on post-weaning appetite, fat deposition by MRI, adipose tissue cytokine expression, the neonatal leptin surge, ARH response to exogenous leptin, ..
  47. Kong S, Choe M, Kim H, Kim Y, Binas B, Kim H. An ApoB100-mimetic vaccine prevents obesity and liver steatosis in ApoE-/- mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2017;69:1140-1144 pubmed publisher
    Recently, a peptide vaccine (B4T) was developed that prevents high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and liver steatosis in wild type mice and appears to target an epitope present in ApoB100 but not ApoB48...
  48. Mustafa A, Tyagi N, Gautam M, Chaudhari A, Sediqi J. Assessment of feeding varying levels of Metabolizable energy and protein on performance of transition Murrah buffaloes. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017;49:1637-1644 pubmed publisher
    ..Milk yield (kg/kg DMI) was similar among treatment groups whereas 6% fat corrected milk (FCM) was lower in LMEMP group as compared to HMEMP and control...
  49. Shih H, Huang C, Lin J, Kao M, Fan Y, Tsai P. Hyperlipidemia is associated with an increased risk of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    A high fat diet is associated with risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, whether hyperlipidemia is associated with BPH remains unclear...
  50. Gonzalez Hurtado E, Lee J, Choi J, Selen Alpergin E, Collins S, Horton M, et al. Loss of macrophage fatty acid oxidation does not potentiate systemic metabolic dysfunction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;312:E381-E393 pubmed publisher
    Fatty acid oxidation in macrophages has been suggested to play a causative role in high-fat diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, particularly in the etiology of adipose-driven insulin resistance...
  51. Obadina A, Arogbokun C, Soares A, de Carvalho C, Barboza H, Adekoya I. Changes in nutritional and physico-chemical properties of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) Ex-Borno variety flour as a result of malting. J Food Sci Technol. 2017;54:4442-4451 pubmed publisher
    ..The carbohydrate, fat and total phenolic contents of the pearl millet flour samples decreased while protein content increased with ..
  52. Simonacci F, Grieco M, Bertozzi N, Raposio E. Autologous fat transplantation for secondary breast reconstruction: our experience. G Chir. 2017;38:117-123 pubmed
    Autologous fat transplantation is used after breast reconstruction to improve the breast profile. There are a variety of different methods used for fat harvesting, preparation, and reinjection...
  53. Nindl B, Kraemer W, Marx J, Arciero P, Dohi K, Kellogg M, et al. Overnight responses of the circulating IGF-I system after acute, heavy-resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;90:1319-26 pubmed
    ..subunit (ALS)] in 10 young, healthy men (age: 22 +/- 1 yr, height: 177 +/- 2 cm, weight: 79 +/- 3 kg, body fat: 11 +/- 1%) overnight for 13 h after two conditions: a resting control (Con) and an acute, heavy-resistance ..
  54. Romijn J, Coyle E, Sidossis L, Rosenblatt J, Wolfe R. Substrate metabolism during different exercise intensities in endurance-trained women. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;88:1707-14 pubmed
    ..The rate of appearance (R(a)) of free fatty acids (FFA) was determined by infusion of [(2)H(2)]palmitate, and fat oxidation rates were determined by indirect calorimetry. Glucose kinetics were assessed with [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose...