EIF2S3

Summary

Gene Symbol: EIF2S3
Description: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit gamma
Alias: EIF2, EIF2G, EIF2gamma, MEHMO, MRXSBRK, eIF-2gA, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 3, eIF-2-gamma X, eIF-2gX, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit gamma X, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2G
Species: human
Products:     EIF2S3

Top Publications

  1. Ehrmann I, Ellis P, Mazeyrat S, Duthie S, Brockdorff N, Mattei M, et al. Characterization of genes encoding translation initiation factor eIF-2gamma in mouse and human: sex chromosome localization, escape from X-inactivation and evolution. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7:1725-37 pubmed
    ..These results shed light on the evolution of X-Y homologous genes. ..
  2. Zhao Y, Gao Y, Wu X, Wang J, Duan L. [Protective effect of earthworm active ingredients against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced acute liver injury in mice]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2017;42:1183-1188 pubmed publisher
    ..regulated protein 78(GRP78), protein kinase R-like ER kinase(PERK), eukaryotic transcription initiation factor 2?(eIF2?), active transcription factor-4(ATF4) and CCAAT/enhancer binding homologous protein(CHOP), were measured by ..
  3. Thierry M, Pasquis B, Buteau B, Fourgeux C, Dembele D, Leclère L, et al. Early adaptive response of the retina to a pro-diabetogenic diet: Impairment of cone response and gene expression changes in high-fructose fed rats. Exp Eye Res. 2015;135:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Affymetrix analysis of gene expression highlighted significant modulation of the pathways of eIF2 signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress, regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling, as well as mTOR signaling and ..
  4. Kim C, Song H, Park H, Kim B. Activation of ER Stress-Dependent miR-216b Has a Critical Role in Salviamiltiorrhiza Ethanol-Extract-Induced Apoptosis in U266 and U937 Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..of phosphorylated activating transcription factor 4 (p-ATF4), phosphorylated eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (p-eIF2), and phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK) expression...
  5. Koh S, Kim J, Kim B, Lee K, Chun J, Kim J. Fexofenadine regulates nuclear factor-κB signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress in intestinal epithelial cells and ameliorates acute and chronic colitis in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015;352:455-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the induction of ER stress markers caspase-12 and p-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-α was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment of fexofenadine...
  6. Intuyod K, Priprem A, Pairojkul C, Hahnvajanawong C, Vaeteewoottacharn K, Pinlaor P, et al. Anthocyanin complex exerts anti-cholangiocarcinoma activities and improves the efficacy of drug treatment in a gemcitabine-resistant cell line. Int J Oncol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response proteins, including protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase, phosphorylated eIF2?, eukaryotic initiation factor 2? and activating transcription factor 4, also decreased following AC treatment...
  7. Dhivya Bharathi M, Justin Thenmozhi A, Manivasagam T, Ahmad Rather M, Saravana Babu C, Mohamed Essa M, et al. Amelioration of Aluminum Maltolate-Induced Inflammation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptosis by Tannoid Principles of Emblica officinalis in Neuronal Cellular Model. Neurotox Res. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..by regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress (PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2-?), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1))...
  8. Ayuso M, Martínez Alonso E, Regidor I, Alcazar A. Stress Granule Induction after Brain Ischemia Is Independent of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor (eIF) 2? Phosphorylation and Is Correlated with a Decrease in eIF4B and eIF4E Proteins. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:27252-27264 pubmed publisher
    ..of granule-associated protein T-cell internal antigen-1 with eIF3b, eIF4E, and ribosomal protein S6 and studied eIF2 and eIF4F complex...
  9. Chesnokova E, Bal N, Kolosov P. Kinases of eIF2a Switch Translation of mRNA Subset during Neuronal Plasticity. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2), and heme-reguated eIF2? kinase (HRI), the substrate for which is ?-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2?)...

More Information

Publications119 found, 100 shown here

  1. Yu H, Zheng L, Xu L, Yin L, Lin Y, Li H, et al. Potent effects of the total saponins from Dioscorea nipponica Makino against streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Phytother Res. 2015;29:228-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation showed that TSDN down-regulated the protein expressions of NF-κB, GRP78, ATF6, eIF2 and the levels of MAPK phosphorylation and up-regulated the protein expressions of IRS-1, GLUT-4, p-Akt and p-AMPK...
  2. Hurem S, Martín L, Brede D, Skjerve E, Nourizadeh Lillabadi R, Lind O, et al. Dose-dependent effects of gamma radiation on the early zebrafish development and gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179259 pubmed publisher
    ..54 mGy/h), while eif2 and mTOR, i.e., involved in the modulation of angiogenesis, were most affected in higher dose rates (5.4 and 10...
  3. Park H, Lee D, Seong J, Lee H, Kwon O, Kang B, et al. Peroxiredoxin I maintains luteal function by regulating unfolded protein response. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018;16:79 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of UPR signaling pathway markers (GRP78/BIP, P50ATF6, and phosphorylated (p)-eIF2) and ER-stress associated apoptotic factors (CHOP, p-JNK, and cleaved caspase-3) were dramatically increased in the ..
  4. Kulalert W, Sadeeshkumar H, Zhang Y, Schroeder F, Kim D. Molecular Determinants of the Regulation of Development and Metabolism by Neuronal eIF2α Phosphorylation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2017;206:251-263 pubmed publisher
    ..previously showed that phosphorylation of Ser49 of the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) in two chemosensory neurons by PEK-1/PERK promotes entry of Caenorhabditis elegans into dauer diapause...
  5. Breaux M, Lewis K, Valanejad L, Iakova P, Chen F, Mo Q, et al. p300 Regulates Liver Functions by Controlling p53 and C/EBP Family Proteins through Multiple Signaling Pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:3005-16 pubmed publisher
    ..of C/EBPα and translational repression of the p53 protein by the CUGBP1-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) repressor complex...
  6. Rajesh K, Krishnamoorthy J, Gupta J, Kazimierczak U, Papadakis A, Deng Z, et al. The eIF2? serine 51 phosphorylation-ATF4 arm promotes HIPPO signaling and cell death under oxidative stress. Oncotarget. 2016;7:51044-51058 pubmed publisher
    ..to oxidative stress induce the phosphorylation of the alpha (?) subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 at serine 51 (eIF2?P), a modification that leads to the general inhibition of mRNA translation initiation...
  7. Sugiyama H, Takahashi K, Yamamoto T, Iwasaki M, Narita M, Nakamura M, et al. Nat1 promotes translation of specific proteins that induce differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:340-345 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, compared with eIF4G1, NAT1 preferentially interacted with eIF2, fragile X mental retardation proteins (FMR), and related proteins and especially with members of the proline-rich ..
  8. Duggimpudi S, Kloetgen A, Maney S, Münch P, Hezaveh K, Shaykhalishahi H, et al. Transcriptome-wide analysis uncovers the targets of the RNA-binding protein MSI2 and effects of MSI2's RNA-binding activity on IL-6 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:15359-15369 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, MSI2 knockdown altered the expression of several genes with roles in eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathways...
  9. Wang J, Wang Z. Senescence may mediate conversion of tau phosphorylation-induced apoptotic escape to neurodegeneration. Exp Gerontol. 2015;68:82-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e., up-regulating phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2 and IRE1 with an increased cleavage of ATF6 and ATF4...
  10. Lu X, Li C, Li C, Li P, Fu E, Xie Y, et al. Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced PERK-CHOP Pathway Activation Causes Intestinal Epithelial Cell Apoptosis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:244 pubmed publisher
    ..essential for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-triggered apoptosis, and our RNAi experiments showed that the PERK-eIF2-CHOP pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also main participants in this process...
  11. Woodworth Hobbs M, Perry B, Rahnert J, Hudson M, Zheng B, Russ Price S. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in C2C12 myotubes: Impact on muscle atrophy. Physiol Rep. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..the phosphorylation of protein kinase R (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?)...
  12. Paul M, Kemparaju K, Girish K. Inhibition of constitutive NF-?B activity induces platelet apoptosis via ER stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1471-1477 pubmed publisher
    ..and increased cytosolic Ca2+ level causing ER stress which was determined by the phosphorylation of eIF2-?...
  13. Starck S, Tsai J, Chen K, Shodiya M, Wang L, Yahiro K, et al. Translation from the 5' untranslated region shapes the integrated stress response. Science. 2016;351:aad3867 pubmed publisher
    ..despite inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 2-guanosine triphosphate-initiator methionyl transfer RNA (eIF2·GTP·Met-tRNA(i )(Met))...
  14. Chen Y, Pandiri I, Joe Y, Kim H, Kim S, Park J, et al. Synergistic Effects of Cilostazol and Probucol on ER Stress-Induced Hepatic Steatosis via Heme Oxygenase-1-Dependent Activation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:3949813 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of HO-1 and mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes and proteins, whereas it downregulated serum ALT, eIF2 phosphorylation, and CHOP expression, as well as the lipogenesis-related genes SREBP-1c and FAS...
  15. Vieira F, Ping Q, Moreno A, Kidd J, Thompson K, Jiang B, et al. Guanabenz Treatment Accelerates Disease in a Mutant SOD1 Mouse Model of ALS. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0135570 pubmed publisher
    ..Stress induced phosphorylation of the eIF2 alpha subunit by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 Perk activates the UPR...
  16. Cardoso V, Gonçalves G, Costa Pessoa J, Thieme K, Lins B, Casare F, et al. Angiotensin II-induced podocyte apoptosis is mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress/PKC-?/p38 MAPK pathway activation and trough increased Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 activity. BMC Nephrol. 2018;19:179 pubmed publisher
    ..001) as well as in podocyte culture (p?<?0.01); increased phosphorylated eIf2-? (p?<?0.05), PKC-delta (p?<?0.01) and p38 MAPK (p?<?0.001) protein expression...
  17. Seabra C, Szoko N, Erdin S, Ragavendran A, Stortchevoi A, Maciel P, et al. A novel microduplication of ARID1B: Clinical, genetic, and proteomic findings. Am J Med Genet A. 2017;173:2478-2484 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Pathway analysis revealed highly significant enrichment for canonical pathways of EIF2 and EIF4 signaling, protein ubiquitination, tRNA charging and chromosomal replication, among others...
  18. Zhao Y, Zheng D, Cvekl A. A comprehensive spatial-temporal transcriptomic analysis of differentiating nascent mouse lens epithelial and fiber cells. Exp Eye Res. 2018;175:56-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt/?-catenin, PI3K/AKT, TGF-?, and BMP signaling pathways and revealed significant novel contributions of mTOR, EIF2, EIF4, and p70S6K signaling in lens formation...
  19. Krokowski D, Jobava R, Guan B, Farabaugh K, Wu J, Majumder M, et al. Coordinated Regulation of the Neutral Amino Acid Transporter SNAT2 and the Protein Phosphatase Subunit GADD34 Promotes Adaptation to Increased Extracellular Osmolarity. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:17822-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, stress-induced phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 (eIF2α) can promote apoptosis...
  20. Faus I, Niñoles R, Kesari V, Llabata P, Tam E, Nebauer S, et al. Arabidopsis ILITHYIA protein is necessary for proper chloroplast biogenesis and root development independent of eIF2? phosphorylation. J Plant Physiol. 2018;224-225:173-182 pubmed publisher
    ..after stress situations is mediated by phosphorylation of the ?-subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), performed in Arabidopsis by the protein kinase GCN2 which interacts and is activated by ILITHYIA(ILA)...
  21. Faustino R, Wyles S, Groenendyk J, Michalak M, Terzic A, Perez Terzic C. Systems biology surveillance decrypts pathological transcriptome remodeling. BMC Syst Biol. 2015;9:36 pubmed publisher
    ..12 discrete gene expression meta-profiles which were enriched for regulation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (EIF2) signaling...
  22. Yu S, Choi Y, Kim S. PEP-1-glutaredoxin-1 induces dedifferentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes by the endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent ERK-1/2 pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum stress-independent p38 kinase and PI-3 kinase pathways. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;111:1059-1066 pubmed publisher
    ..e., glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, GRP 94, and phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) ?. These effects were inhibited by ER stress inhibitors...
  23. Carrasco L, Sanz M, González Almela E. The Regulation of Translation in Alphavirus-Infected Cells. Viruses. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..through a variety of different mechanisms, including the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2? and the redistribution of cellular proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm...
  24. Knight J, Bastide A, Roobol A, Roobol J, Jackson T, Utami W, et al. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase regulates the cold stress response by slowing translation elongation. Biochem J. 2015;465:227-38 pubmed publisher
    ..to the factors that control initiation, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) on the α-subunit, the reduction in the global translation rate is mediated by regulation of elongation via ..
  25. Maryam A, Mehmood T, Yan Q, Li Y, Khan M, Ma T. Proscillaridin A Promotes Oxidative Stress and ER Stress, Inhibits STAT3 Activation, and Induces Apoptosis in A549 Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:3853409 pubmed publisher
    ..PSD-A-mediated ER stress was verified by increased phosphorylation of eIF2? and expression of its downstream effector proteins ATF4, CHOP, and caspases-4...
  26. Chukwurah E, Patel R. Stress-induced TRBP phosphorylation enhances its interaction with PKR to regulate cellular survival. Sci Rep. 2018;8:1020 pubmed publisher
    ..During cellular stress, PKR is activated and phosphorylates the α subunit of the eukaryotic translation factor eIF2, leading to the cessation of general protein synthesis...
  27. Shukla Dave A, Castillo Martin M, Chen M, Lobo J, Gladoun N, Collazo Lorduy A, et al. Ornithine Decarboxylase Is Sufficient for Prostate Tumorigenesis via Androgen Receptor Signaling. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:3131-3145 pubmed publisher
    ..This oncogenic capacity was acquired through alteration of critical signaling networks, including AR, EIF2, and mTOR/MAPK. RNA silencing experiments revealed the link between AR signaling and polyamine metabolism...
  28. Lehman S, Ryeom S, Koumenis C. Signaling through alternative Integrated Stress Response pathways compensates for GCN2 loss in a mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma. Sci Rep. 2015;5:11781 pubmed publisher
    ..GCN2 phosphorylates the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2, leading to global downregulation of translation to conserve amino acids and initiation of a transcriptional ..
  29. Melas P, Qvist J, Deidda M, Upreti C, Wei Y, Sanna F, et al. Cannabinoid Modulation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factors (eIF2α and eIF2B1) and Behavioral Cross-Sensitization to Cocaine in Adolescent Rats. Cell Rep. 2018;22:2909-2923 pubmed publisher
    Reduced eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2)α phosphorylation (p-eIF2α) enhances protein synthesis, memory formation, and addiction-like behaviors...
  30. Cursino L, Lima N, Murillo R, Nuñez C, Merfort I, Humar M. Isolation of Flavonoids from Deguelia duckeana and Their Effect on Cellular Viability, AMPK, eEF2, eIF2 and eIF4E. Molecules. 2016;21: pubmed publisher
    ..The initiation factor eIF2alpha was not affected. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of the observed effects on protein synthesis and potential therapeutic perspectives. ..
  31. Wilson G, Lennox B, She P, Mirek E, Al Baghdadi R, Fusakio M, et al. GCN2 is required to increase fibroblast growth factor 21 and maintain hepatic triglyceride homeostasis during asparaginase treatment. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015;308:E283-93 pubmed publisher
    ..asparaginase triggers the amino acid response (AAR) in the liver by activating the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) kinase general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2)...
  32. Kashiwagi K, Takahashi M, Nishimoto M, Hiyama T, Higo T, Umehara T, et al. Crystal structure of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B. Nature. 2016;531:122-5 pubmed publisher
    ..eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, a heterotrimeric G protein consisting of α-, β- and γ-subunits...
  33. Tan G, Lim H, Yeow T, Movahed E, Looi C, Gupta R, et al. Temporal proteomic profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 human cervical epithelial cells. Proteomics. 2016;16:1347-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Through pathway analysis, we suggested the involvement of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in host cells upon C. trachomatis infection...
  34. Chen H, Song R, Wang G, Ding Z, Yang C, Zhang J, et al. OLA1 regulates protein synthesis and integrated stress response by inhibiting eIF2 ternary complex formation. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13241 pubmed publisher
    ..During translation initiation the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) forms a ternary complex (TC) with GTP and the initiator methionyl-tRNA (tRNAi), mediating ribosomal recruitment of ..
  35. Phillipson Weiner L, Mirek E, Wang Y, McAuliffe W, Wek R, Anthony T. General control nonderepressible 2 deletion predisposes to asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G1061-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the liver of mice, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) kinase general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) is essential for mitigating metabolic stress caused by ..
  36. Silva R, Dautel M, Di Genova B, Amberg D, Castilho B, Sattlegger E. The Gcn2 Regulator Yih1 Interacts with the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Cdc28 and Promotes Cell Cycle Progression through G2/M in Budding Yeast. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0131070 pubmed publisher
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Yih1, when overexpressed, inhibits the eIF2 alpha kinase Gcn2 by competing for Gcn1 binding...
  37. Hearn B, Jaishankar P, Sidrauski C, Tsai J, Vedantham P, Fontaine S, et al. Structure-Activity Studies of Bis-O-Arylglycolamides: Inhibitors of the Integrated Stress Response. ChemMedChem. 2016;11:870-80 pubmed publisher
    ..single event-the phosphorylation of Ser51 on the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α)...
  38. Kernohan K, Tétreault M, Liwak Muir U, Geraghty M, Qin W, Venkateswaran S, et al. Homozygous mutation in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha phosphatase gene, PPP1R15B, is associated with severe microcephaly, short stature and intellectual disability. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..essential cellular process initiated by the association of a methionyl-tRNA with the translation initiation factor eIF2. The Met-tRNA/eIF2 complex then associates with the small ribosomal subunit, other translation factors and mRNA, ..
  39. Stanik J, Skopková M, Staníková D, Brennerova K, Barak L, Tichá L, et al. Neonatal hypoglycemia, early-onset diabetes and hypopituitarism due to the mutation in EIF2S3 gene causing MEHMO syndrome. Physiol Res. 2018;67:331-337 pubmed
    ..One of them, MEHMO syndrome, is a rare X-linked syndrome recently linked to the EIF2S3 gene mutations...
  40. Chen P, Reiter T, Huang B, Kong N, Weimer B. Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Potentiate Host Protective Responses against L. Monocytogenes Infection. Pathogens. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..HMO pretreatment led to bacterial clearance in Caco-2 cells via induction of the unfolded protein response and eIF2 signaling, while Biomos pretreatment resulted in the induction of host autophagy and L...
  41. Kashiwagi K, Ito T, Yokoyama S. Crystal structure of eIF2B and insights into eIF2-eIF2B interactions. FEBS J. 2017;284:868-874 pubmed publisher
    ..complex of two sets of the ?, ?, ?, ?, and ? subunits, is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) specific for eIF2, a heterotrimeric G protein consisting of the ?, ?, and ? subunits...
  42. Myung J, Yeo S, Kim K, Baek K, Shin D, Kim J, et al. Proteins that interact with calgranulin B in the human colon cancer cell line HCT-116. Oncotarget. 2017;8:6819-6832 pubmed publisher
    ..B, and most identified proteins were associated with RNA processing, post-transcriptional modifications and the EIF2 signaling pathway...
  43. González Almela E, Williams H, Sanz M, Carrasco L. The Initiation Factors eIF2, eIF2A, eIF2D, eIF4A, and eIF4G Are Not Involved in Translation Driven by Hepatitis C Virus IRES in Human Cells. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:207 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with previous findings, several inhibitors of eIF2 activity, including sodium arsenite, thapsigargin, tunicamycin, and salubrinal, had no inhibitory effect on the ..
  44. Jagadish S, Rajeev N, NaveenKumar S, Sharath Kumar K, Paul M, Hegde M, et al. Platelet protective efficacy of 3,4,5 trisubstituted isoxazole analogue by inhibiting ROS-mediated apoptosis and platelet aggregation. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;414:137-51 pubmed publisher
    ..platelet apoptosis by restoring various apoptotic markers such as ROS content, cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, eIF2-α phosphorylation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, PS ..
  45. Wu F, Qiu J, Fan Y, Zhang Q, Cheng B, Wu Y, et al. Apelin-13 attenuates ER stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis by activating Gαi/Gαq-CK2 signaling in ischemic stroke. Exp Neurol. 2018;302:136-144 pubmed publisher
    ..rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model neurons, which was associated with the activation of eIF2-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway, leading to neuronal apoptosis...
  46. Bryant J, Brown M, Dobrikov M, Dobrikova E, Gemberling S, Zhang Q, et al. Regulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1? during Hypoxia by DAP5-Induced Translation of PHD2. Mol Cell Biol. 2018;38: pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike eIF4GI/II, DAP5 binds eIF2?, a subunit of the eIF2 complex that delivers methionyl-tRNA to ribosomes...
  47. Sendoel A, Dunn J, Rodriguez E, Naik S, Gomez N, Hurwitz B, et al. Translation from unconventional 5' start sites drives tumour initiation. Nature. 2017;541:494-499 pubmed publisher
    ..An in vivo RNA interference screen of translational regulators revealed that depletion of conventional eIF2 complexes has adverse effects on normal but not oncogenic growth...
  48. Jennings M, Kershaw C, Adomavicius T, Pavitt G. Fail-safe control of translation initiation by dissociation of eIF2? phosphorylated ternary complexes. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    Phosphorylation of eIF2? controls translation initiation by restricting the levels of active eIF2-GTP/Met-tRNAi ternary complexes (TC)...
  49. Zhang Y, Kong F, Crofton E, Dragosljvich S, Sinha M, Li D, et al. Transcriptomics of Environmental Enrichment Reveals a Role for Retinoic Acid Signaling in Addiction. Front Mol Neurosci. 2016;9:119 pubmed
    ..g., Rho GTPase signaling) and environmental enrichment (e.g., signaling of EIF2, mTOR, ephrin). However, one novel pathway stood out above the others, the retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway...
  50. Sharma S, Sourirajan A, Dev K. Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAN1 (tRNA acetyltransferase) in eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B)-mediated translation control and stress response. 3 Biotech. 2017;7:223 pubmed publisher
    ..controls the first step of translation by catalyzing guanine nucleotide exchange on eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)...
  51. Luna Coronell J, Sergelen K, Höfer P, Gyurján I, Brezina S, Hettegger P, et al. The Immunome of Colon Cancer: Functional In Silico Analysis of Antigenic Proteins Deduced from IgG Microarray Profiling. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2018;16:73-84 pubmed publisher
    ..samples is mainly associated with cell death, survival, and proliferation pathways, especially proteins involved in EIF2 and mTOR signaling. Ribosomal proteins (e.g...
  52. Suganuma T, Swanson S, Florens L, Washburn M, Workman J. Moco biosynthesis and the ATAC acetyltransferase engage translation initiation by inhibiting latent PKR activity. J Mol Cell Biol. 2016;8:44-50 pubmed publisher
    ..latent autophosphorylation of PKR and its downstream phosphorylation of JNK and eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?)...
  53. Llácer J, Hussain T, Marler L, Aitken C, Thakur A, Lorsch J, et al. Conformational Differences between Open and Closed States of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Complex. Mol Cell. 2015;59:399-412 pubmed publisher
    ..of a pre-initiation complex (PIC) containing the 40S ribosomal subunit, eIF1, eIF1A, eIF3, ternary complex (eIF2-GTP-Met-tRNAi), and eIF5...
  54. Pesonen M, Rysä J, Storvik M, Rilla K, Pasanen M, Vähäkangas K. Molecular targets of chloropicrin in human airway epithelial cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2017;42:247-254 pubmed publisher
    ..The main enriched top canonical pathways identified by IPA were associated with EIF2-signalling, protein ubiquitination pathway, glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction...
  55. Khan M, Spurgeon S, von der Haar T. Origins of robustness in translational control via eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 2. J Theor Biol. 2018;445:92-102 pubmed publisher
    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is one of the best studied and most widely used means for regulating protein synthesis activity in eukaryotic cells...
  56. Sullivan W, Smith A, Joyce B. Understanding mechanisms and the role of differentiation in pathogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii: a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:155-61 pubmed
    ..cis-elements, epigenetic modifications and protein translation control through eukaryotic initiation factor -2 (eIF2)...
  57. Tenkerian C, Krishnamoorthy J, Mounir Z, Kazimierczak U, Khoutorsky A, Staschke K, et al. mTORC2 Balances AKT Activation and eIF2α Serine 51 Phosphorylation to Promote Survival under Stress. Mol Cancer Res. 2015;13:1377-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of the α-subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2 at serine 51 (eIF2αS51P) is a key event of mRNA translation initiation and a master regulator of cell fate ..
  58. Hülsmann J, Kravic B, Weith M, Gstaiger M, Aebersold R, Collins B, et al. AP-SWATH Reveals Direct Involvement of VCP/p97 in Integrated Stress Response Signaling Through Facilitating CReP/PPP1R15B Degradation. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018;17:1295-1307 pubmed publisher
    ..various substrate proteins and candidates including the PP1 regulator CReP/PPP1R15B that dephosphorylates eIF2? and thus counteracts attenuation of translation by stress-kinases...
  59. Filippova G, Cheng M, Moore J, Truong J, Hu Y, Nguyen D, et al. Boundaries between chromosomal domains of X inactivation and escape bind CTCF and lack CpG methylation during early development. Dev Cell. 2005;8:31-42 pubmed
    ..CTCF binding sites were also present at the 5' end of two other escape genes, mouse Eif2s3x and human EIF2S3, each adjacent to an inactivated gene, but not at genes embedded within large escape domains...
  60. Lostalé Seijo I, Martinez Costas J, Benavente J. Response of Three Different Viruses to Interferon Priming and Dithiothreitol Treatment of Avian Cells. J Virol. 2016;90:8328-40 pubmed publisher
    ..translation of avian reovirus mRNAs is more resistant to phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of initiation factor eIF2 than translation of their cellular counterparts...
  61. Silva R, Sattlegger E, Castilho B. Perturbations in actin dynamics reconfigure protein complexes that modulate GCN2 activity and promote an eIF2 response. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:4521-4533 pubmed
    ..Regulation of the activity of the translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is a paramount mechanism for cells to rapidly adjust the rate of protein synthesis and to trigger reprogramming of ..
  62. Dorajoo R, Ali Y, Tay V, Kang J, Samydurai S, Liu J, et al. Single-cell transcriptomics of East-Asian pancreatic islets cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:5024 pubmed publisher
    ..implicated in nuclear receptor activations, acute phase response pathway, glutaryl-CoA/tryptophan degradations and EIF2/AMPK/mTOR signaling. Additionally, we identified protein ubiquitination to be associated among East-Asian ?-cells...
  63. Marton M, Vazquez de Aldana C, Qiu H, Chakraburtty K, Hinnebusch A. Evidence that GCN1 and GCN20, translational regulators of GCN4, function on elongating ribosomes in activation of eIF2alpha kinase GCN2. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:4474-89 pubmed
    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2 by protein kinase GCN2 leads to increased translation of the transcriptional activator GCN4 in amino acid-starved cells...
  64. Paytubi S, Morrice N, Boudeau J, Proud C. The N-terminal region of ABC50 interacts with eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 and is a target for regulatory phosphorylation by CK2. Biochem J. 2008;409:223-31 pubmed
    ..ABC50 interacts with eIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor 2), a protein that plays a key role in translation initiation and in its control, and ..
  65. Stewart J, Cowan J, Perry L, Coldwell M, Proud C. ABC50 mutants modify translation start codon selection. Biochem J. 2015;467:217-29 pubmed publisher
    ATP-binding cassette 50 (ABC50; also known as ABCF1) binds to eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and is required for efficient translation initiation...
  66. Wanders D, Stone K, Forney L, Cortez C, Dille K, Simon J, et al. Role of GCN2-Independent Signaling Through a Noncanonical PERK/NRF2 Pathway in the Physiological Responses to Dietary Methionine Restriction. Diabetes. 2016;65:1499-510 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated GCN2 phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), altering gene-specific translation and initiating a transcriptional program collectively described as the ..
  67. Golovko A, Kojukhov A, Guan B, Morpurgo B, Merrick W, Mazumder B, et al. The eIF2A knockout mouse. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:3115-3120 pubmed
    ..However, in contrast to the eIF2, which stimulates Met-tRNAMeti binding to 40S ribosomal subunits in a GTP-dependent manner, ..
  68. Visweswaraiah J, Hinnebusch A. Interface between 40S exit channel protein uS7/Rps5 and eIF2? modulates start codon recognition in vivo. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    The eukaryotic pre-initiation complex (PIC) bearing the eIF2·GTP·Met-tRNAiMet ternary complex (TC) scans the mRNA for an AUG codon in favorable context...
  69. Pettit A, Jonsson W, Bargoud A, Mirek E, Peelor F, Wang Y, et al. Dietary Methionine Restriction Regulates Liver Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression Independently of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Phosphorylation in Mice. J Nutr. 2017;147:1031-1040 pubmed publisher
    b>Background: The phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2) during dietary amino acid insufficiency reduces protein synthesis and alters gene expression via the integrated stress response (ISR)...
  70. Firdaus S, Dhasmana A, Wahid M, Jawed A, Mandal R, Dar S, et al. Fullerenes May Cause eIF Mediated Perturbation in Translational Machinery: Evidence from in-silico Analysis. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2017;47:409-415 pubmed
    ..when docked with their functional partners in the presence/absence of fullerenes display reduced activity of eIF2, eIF4A, eIF4H, eIF4G, eIF4B, eIF5B, and eEF1 with fullerenes of different molecular weights...
  71. Sogorin E, Selikhanov G, Agalarov S. Coupling of Translation Initiation and Termination Does Not Depend on the Mode of Initiation. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2017;82:816-820 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the effect persists in the absence of scanning and does not depend on initiator tRNA and eIF2. The results suggest that the initiation factors are not involved in the coupling mechanism.
  72. Ben Asouli Y, Banai Y, Hauser H, Kaempfer R. Recognition of 5'-terminal TAR structure in human immunodeficiency virus-1 mRNA by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:1011-8 pubmed
    ..We report that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) recognizes TAR...
  73. Dong J, Lai R, Nielsen K, Fekete C, Qiu H, Hinnebusch A. The essential ATP-binding cassette protein RLI1 functions in translation by promoting preinitiation complex assembly. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42157-68 pubmed
    ..We show that affinity-tagged RLI1 co-purifies with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3), eIF5, and eIF2, but not with other translation initiation factors or with translation elongation or termination factors...
  74. Suragani R, Kamindla R, Ehtesham N, Ramaiah K. Interaction of recombinant human eIF2 subunits with eIF2B and eIF2alpha kinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1766-72 pubmed
    The heterotrimeric eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) plays a critical role in the mechanics and regulation of protein synthesis...
  75. Skopková M, Hennig F, Shin B, Turner C, Stanikova D, Brennerova K, et al. EIF2S3 Mutations Associated with Severe X-Linked Intellectual Disability Syndrome MEHMO. Hum Mutat. 2017;38:409-425 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified a C-terminal frameshift mutation (Ile465Serfs) in the EIF2S3 gene in three families with MEHMO syndrome and a novel maternally inherited missense EIF2S3 variant (c...
  76. Rozpedek W, Pytel D, Dziki Ł, Nowak A, Dziki A, Diehl J, et al. Inhibition of PERK-dependent pro-adaptive signaling pathway as a promising approach for cancer treatment. Pol Przegl Chir. 2017;89:7-10 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the level of phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), which is the main substrate of PERK and a subsequent activator of UPR, which under long-term ER stress may evoke ..
  77. Vaidya A, Lomakin I, Joseph N, Dmitriev S, Steitz T. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Human eIF2D and Its Implications on Eukaryotic Translation Initiation. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:2765-2771 pubmed publisher
    Protein synthesis is a key process in all living organisms. In eukaryotes, initiation factor 2 (eIF2) plays an important role in translation initiation as it selects and delivers the initiator tRNA to the small ribosomal subunit...
  78. Shah F, Goossens E, Atallah N, Grimard M, Kelley M, Fishel M. APE1/Ref-1 knockdown in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma - characterizing gene expression changes and identifying novel pathways using single-cell RNA sequencing. Mol Oncol. 2017;11:1711-1732 pubmed publisher
    ..this gene expression profile, we identified multiple new pathways not previously linked to APE1, including the EIF2 signaling and mechanistic target of Rapamycin pathways and a number of mitochondrial-related pathways...
  79. Tang L, Morris J, Wan J, Moore C, Fujita Y, Gillaspie S, et al. Competition between translation initiation factor eIF5 and its mimic protein 5MP determines non-AUG initiation rate genome-wide. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:11941-11953 pubmed publisher
    ..5MP represses non-AUG translation by competing with eIF5 for the Met-tRNAi-binding factor eIF2. Consistently, eIF5 increases, whereas 5MP decreases translation of NAT1/EIF4G2/DAP5, whose sole start codon is GUG...
  80. Ji C, Yang B, Huang S, Huang J, Cheng B. Salubrinal protects human skin fibroblasts against UVB-induced cell death by blocking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and regulating calcium homeostasis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1371-1376 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we tested the potential activity of salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2) -alpha phosphatase, against UV-induced skin cell damages...
  81. Kim H, Lee S, Lee J, Kim W, Choi S, Son C. Artemisia iwayomogi plus Curcuma longa Synergistically Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in HepG2 Cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;2017:4390636 pubmed publisher
    ..induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis and attenuated the related key molecules including GRP78, eIF2, and CHOP, respectively. In conclusion, we found synergic effects of A. iwayomogi and C...
  82. Mikami S, Masutani M, Sonenberg N, Yokoyama S, Imataka H. An efficient mammalian cell-free translation system supplemented with translation factors. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;46:348-57 pubmed
    ..b>eIF2 (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2) and eIF2B augmented translation of capped, uncapped and ..
  83. Li Y, Collins M, An J, Geiser R, Tegeler T, Tsantilas K, et al. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry defines an extensive RBM45 protein-protein interaction network. Brain Res. 2016;1647:79-93 pubmed publisher
    ..for nuclear RNA processing/splicing via association with hnRNP proteins and cytoplasmic RNA translation via eiF2 and eiF4 pathways...
  84. Sheldon R, Kanosky K, Wells K, Miles L, Perfield J, Xanthakos S, et al. Transcriptomic differences in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in extremely obese adolescents with different stages of NAFLD. Physiol Genomics. 2016;48:897-911 pubmed publisher
    ..Normal, with suppression of "EIF2 signaling, P = 1.79E-27" being the top regulated pathway indicating increased cellular stress...
  85. Bogorad A, Lin K, Marintchev A. Novel mechanisms of eIF2B action and regulation by eIF2? phosphorylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:11962-11979 pubmed publisher
    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is a heterotrimeric GTPase, which plays a critical role in protein synthesis regulation...
  86. Burwick N, Aktas B. The eIF2-alpha kinase HRI: a potential target beyond the red blood cell. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2017;21:1171-1177 pubmed publisher
    The eIF2? kinase heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI) is one of four well-described kinases that phosphorylate eIF2? in response to various cell stressors, resulting in reduced ternary complex formation and attenuation of mRNA translation...
  87. Niu M, Han Y, Li Q, Zhang J. Endogenous sulfur dioxide regulates hippocampal neuron apoptosis in developing epileptic rats and is associated with the PERK signaling pathway. Neurosci Lett. 2018;665:22-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein expression levels of AAT2, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), pancreatic eIF2 kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) and phospho-PERK (p-PERK) were remarkably elevated in the hippocampi of the epileptic ..
  88. Gaspar N, Kinzy T, Scherer B, Hümbelin M, Hershey J, Merrick W. Translation initiation factor eIF-2. Cloning and expression of the human cDNA encoding the gamma-subunit. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:3415-22 pubmed
    ..Possession of the eIF-2 gamma cDNA will facilitate future investigations of the interactions of GTP and methionyl-tRNAi with eIF-2. ..
  89. Tyzack J, Wang X, Belsham G, Proud C. ABC50 interacts with eukaryotic initiation factor 2 and associates with the ribosome in an ATP-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:34131-9 pubmed
    Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) plays a key role in the process of translation initiation and in its control...
  90. Marques A, Dupanloup I, Vinckenbosch N, Reymond A, Kaessmann H. Emergence of young human genes after a burst of retroposition in primates. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e357 pubmed
  91. Toribio R, Díaz López I, Boskovic J, Ventoso I. An RNA trapping mechanism in Alphavirus mRNA promotes ribosome stalling and translation initiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:4368-80 pubmed publisher
    During translation initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) delivers the Met-tRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit to locate the initiation codon (AUGi) of mRNA during the scanning process...
  92. Moortgat S, Desir J, Benoit V, Boulanger S, Pendeville H, Nassogne M, et al. Two novel EIF2S3 mutations associated with syndromic intellectual disability with severe microcephaly, growth retardation, and epilepsy. Am J Med Genet A. 2016;170:2927-2933 pubmed publisher
    ..777T>G p.(Ile259Met)) and a frameshift mutation (c.1394_1397del p.(Ile465Serfs*4)) were identified in the EIF2S3 gene in the hemizygous state in affected patients, and in the heterozygous states female obligate carriers...