CYP2D6

Summary

Gene Symbol: CYP2D6
Description: cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily D member 6
Alias: CPD6, CYP2D, CYP2D7AP, CYP2D7BP, CYP2D7P2, CYP2D8P2, CYP2DL1, CYPIID6, P450-DB1, P450C2D, P450DB1, cytochrome P450 2D6, cholesterol 25-hydroxylase, cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6, cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 7 pseudogene 2, cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 8 pseudogene 2, cytochrome P450, subfamily II (debrisoquine, sparteine, etc., -metabolising), polypeptide 7 pseudogene 2, cytochrome P450, subfamily IID (debrisoquine, sparteine, etc., -metabolising), polypeptide 8 pseudogene 2, cytochrome P450, subfamily IID (debrisoquine, sparteine, etc., -metabolizing), polypeptide 6, cytochrome P450, subfamily IID (debrisoquine, sparteine, etc., -metabolizing)-like 1, cytochrome P450-DB1, debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase, flavoprotein-linked monooxygenase, microsomal monooxygenase, nonfunctional cytochrome P450 2D6, xenobiotic monooxygenase
Species: human
Products:     CYP2D6

Top Publications

  1. Seruga B, Amir E. Cytochrome P450 2D6 and outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy: results of a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;122:609-17 pubmed publisher
    Pharmacological evidence shows that cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) function is important in the conversion of tamoxifen to its active metabolites...
  2. Friedrich D, Genro J, Sortica V, Suarez Kurtz G, de Moraes M, Pena S, et al. Distribution of CYP2D6 alleles and phenotypes in the Brazilian population. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e110691 pubmed publisher
    The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications...
  3. Ramon Y Cajal T, Altes A, Pare L, del Rio E, Alonso C, Barnadas A, et al. Impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in tamoxifen adjuvant breast cancer treatment. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;119:33-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of CYP2D6 genotyping in predicting disease-free survival and toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen...
  4. Bijl M, van Schaik R, Lammers L, Hofman A, Vulto A, van Gelder T, et al. The CYP2D6*4 polymorphism affects breast cancer survival in tamoxifen users. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;118:125-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) plays an important role in the formation of endoxifen, the active metabolite of tamoxifen...
  5. Kouhi H, Hamzeiy H, Barar J, Asadi M, Omidi Y. Frequency of five important CYP2D6 alleles within an Iranian population (Eastern Azerbaijan). Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2009;13:665-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Human CYP2D6 enzyme is claimed to be polymorphically expressed among different ethnic groups...
  6. Serrano D, Lazzeroni M, Zambon C, Macis D, Maisonneuve P, Johansson H, et al. Efficacy of tamoxifen based on cytochrome P450 2D6, CYP2C19 and SULT1A1 genotype in the Italian Tamoxifen Prevention Trial. Pharmacogenomics J. 2011;11:100-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the AmpliChip CYP450 Test to screen 33 alleles of CYP2D6 and 3 of CYP2C19...
  7. Singh M, Khanna V, Shukla R, Parmar D. Association of polymorphism in cytochrome P450 2D6 and N-acetyltransferase-2 with Parkinson's disease. Dis Markers. 2010;28:87-93 pubmed publisher
    The present case-control study was carried out to investigate the association of polymorphism in cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and N-acteyltransferase-2 (NAT2}, that are involved in the metabolism and detoxification of chemicals causing ..
  8. Thompson A, Johnson A, Quinlan P, Hillman G, Fontecha M, Bray S, et al. Comprehensive CYP2D6 genotype and adherence affect outcome in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen monotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;125:279-87 pubmed publisher
    The association between CYP2D6 genotype and outcome in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen remains controversial...
  9. Stingl J, Parmar S, Huber Wechselberger A, Kainz A, Renner W, Seeringer A, et al. Impact of CYP2D6*4 genotype on progression free survival in tamoxifen breast cancer treatment. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26:2535-42 pubmed publisher
    The cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) polymorphism was reported to have a significant impact on outcome of tamoxifen treatment in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Rideg O, Háber A, Botz L, Szücs F, Várnai R, Miseta A, et al. Pilot study for the characterization of pharmacogenetically relevant CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms in the Hungarian population. Cell Biochem Funct. 2011;29:562-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to predict the frequency of functional variants of CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genes in the Hungarian population...
  2. Park H, Choi J, Lee M, Park S, Yeo C, Lee S, et al. Association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and outcomes in breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:1007-13 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and outcomes in breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment. We evaluated the CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms in 766 breast cancer patients...
  3. Barańska M, Dziankowska Bartkowiak B, Waszczykowska E, Rychlik Sych M, Skrętkowicz J. Significance of genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6 in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. Pharmacol Rep. 2012;64:336-42 pubmed
    ..The genetically polymorphic CYP2D6 is one of the most important phase I drug metabolizing enzymes...
  4. Salazar Flores J, Torres Reyes L, Martínez Cortés G, Rubi Castellanos R, Sosa Macias M, Muñoz Valle J, et al. Distribution of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms associated with poor metabolizer phenotype in five Amerindian groups and western Mestizos from Mexico. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2012;16:1098-104 pubmed publisher
    The distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes allows inferring the potential risk for specific adverse drug reactions and lack of therapeutic effects in humans...
  5. Stamer U, Lee E, Rauers N, Zhang L, Kleine Brueggeney M, Fimmers R, et al. CYP2D6- and CYP3A-dependent enantioselective plasma concentrations of ondansetron in postanesthesia care. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that genotype-dependent CYP2D6 and CYP3A activity selectively influences plasma concentrations of ondansetron enantiomers...
  6. Dezentjé V, van Blijderveen N, Gelderblom H, Putter H, van Herk Sukel M, Casparie M, et al. Effect of concomitant CYP2D6 inhibitor use and tamoxifen adherence on breast cancer recurrence in early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:2423-9 pubmed publisher
    The use of cytochrome P450 2D6-inhibiting drugs (CYP2D6 inhibitors) during tamoxifen treatment leads to a decrease in plasma concentration of endoxifen, the major active tamoxifen metabolite...
  7. Shukla P, Gupta D, Pant M, Parmar D. CYP 2D6 polymorphism: a predictor of susceptibility and response to chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer. J Cancer Res Ther. 2012;8:40-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Genomic DNA isolated from blood samples collected from controls and patients was studied by PCR-RFLP technique for CYP2D6 polymorphism. All patients received three cycles of cisplatinum-based sequential chemoradiotherapy...
  8. Kiyotani K, Mushiroda T, Imamura C, Hosono N, Tsunoda T, Kubo M, et al. Significant effect of polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and ABCC2 on clinical outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1287-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated relationships of polymorphisms in transporter genes and CYP2D6 to clinical outcome of patients receiving tamoxifen.
  9. Kohlrausch F, Gama C, Lobato M, Belmonte de Abreu P, Gesteira A, Barros F, et al. Molecular diversity at the CYP2D6 locus in healthy and schizophrenic southern Brazilians. Pharmacogenomics. 2009;10:1457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..and frequency is required to effectively translate pharmacogenetics to the clinic and given the paucity of CYP2D6 data in the Brazilian population, the purpose of this research was to characterize CYP2D6 alleles and genotype ..
  10. Montané Jaime L, Lalla A, Steimer W, Gaedigk A. Characterization of the CYP2D6 gene locus and metabolic activity in Indo- and Afro-Trinidadians: discovery of novel allelic variants. Pharmacogenomics. 2013;14:261-76 pubmed publisher
    The highly polymorphic CYP2D6 gene has extensively been studied in many populations, but there is a void of knowledge regarding CYP2D6 pharmacogenetics and activity in populations with unique ancestries and admixture, such as those ..
  11. Zhou S. Polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 2D6 and its clinical significance: part II. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2009;48:761-804 pubmed publisher
    ..of this article discussed the potential functional importance of genetic mutations and alleles of the human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene...
  12. Henry N, Rae J, Li L, Azzouz F, Skaar T, Desta Z, et al. Association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen-induced hot flashes in a prospective cohort. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;117:571-5 pubmed publisher
    Women with reduced CYP2D6 activity have low endoxifen concentrations and likely worse long term benefits from tamoxifen. We investigated the association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen-induced hot flashes in a prospective cohort...
  13. Qin S, Shen L, Zhang A, Xie J, Shen W, Chen L, et al. Systematic polymorphism analysis of the CYP2D6 gene in four different geographical Han populations in mainland China. Genomics. 2008;92:152-8 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we systematically screened the polymorphisms of the whole CYP2D6 gene in the populations of four different geographical locations in China, namely, Shanghai, Shantou, Shenyang, and Xi'an, using a sample of 100 subjects from ..
  14. Sakuyama K, Sasaki T, Ujiie S, Obata K, Mizugaki M, Ishikawa M, et al. Functional characterization of 17 CYP2D6 allelic variants (CYP2D6.2, 10, 14A-B, 18, 27, 36, 39, 47-51, 53-55, and 57). Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:2460-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme of potential importance for the metabolism of drugs used clinically, and it exhibits genetic polymorphism with interindividual differences in metabolic activity...
  15. Toyama T, Yamashita H, Sugiura H, Kondo N, Iwase H, Fujii Y. No association between CYP2D6*10 genotype and survival of node-negative Japanese breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2009;39:651-6 pubmed publisher
    The CYP2D6 enzyme plays a major role in converting tamoxifen to its active metabolites. We investigated whether there is an association between the CYP2D6*10 allele and clinical outcome in node-negative Japanese breast cancer patients...
  16. Kiyotani K, Shimizu M, Kumai T, Kamataki T, Kobayashi S, Yamazaki H. Limited effects of frequent CYP2D6*36-*10 tandem duplication allele on in vivo dextromethorphan metabolism in a Japanese population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:1065-8 pubmed publisher
    although CYP2D6*36 was thought to be one of the alleles causing the poor metabolizer phenotype, several in vitro studies clarified that the enzyme produced by CYP2D6*36 showed enzymatic activities...
  17. Park I, Ro J, Park S, Lim H, Lee K, Kang H, et al. Lack of any association between functionally significant CYP2D6 polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;131:455-61 pubmed publisher
    Active metabolites of tamoxifen are formed mainly by the action of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6)...
  18. Morrow P, Serna R, Broglio K, Pusztai L, Nikoloff D, Hillman G, et al. Effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on breast cancer recurrence. Cancer. 2012;118:1221-7 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies evaluating the effect of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) polymorphisms on outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy have been conflicting due to differences in study design, concomitant medications that alter CYP2D6 metabolism,..
  19. Peñas LLedó E, Blasco Fontecilla H, Dorado P, Vaquero Lorenzo C, Baca Garcia E, Llerena A. CYP2D6 and the severity of suicide attempts. Pharmacogenomics. 2012;13:179-84 pubmed publisher
    Among people who die by suicide, an increased frequency of CYP2D6 active gene multiplication has been described...
  20. Fernández Santander A, del Saz Sánchez M, Tejerina Gómez A, Bandrés Moya F. CYP2D6*4 allele and breast cancer risk: is there any association?. Clin Transl Oncol. 2012;14:157-9 pubmed publisher
    b>CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme. These enzymes catalyse the oxidative biotransformation of about 25% of clinically important drugs as well as the metabolism of numerous environmental chemical carcinogens...
  21. Lee S, Lee S, Jung H, Kim H, Park S, Yeo C, et al. Discovery of novel functional variants and extensive evaluation of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms in Koreans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:1464-70 pubmed publisher
    Our objectives were to identify CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms in a Korean population, to compare the allele frequencies with those of other ethnic groups, and to evaluate variant-induced functional variations in dextromethorphan (DM) ..
  22. Silveira V, Canalle R, Scrideli C, Queiroz R, Tone L. Polymorphisms in genes encoding drugs and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in a Brazilian population. Biomarkers. 2009;14:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..enzyme activity has been associated with polymorphic alleles, we evaluated the frequency of the polymorphisms of CYP2D6, EPHX1 and NQO1 genes in 361 Brazilian individuals separated by ethnicity (European and African ancestry), using ..
  23. Sistonen J, Fuselli S, Palo J, Chauhan N, Padh H, Sajantila A. Pharmacogenetic variation at CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 at global and microgeographic scales. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:170-9 pubmed publisher
    CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 belong to a subfamily of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, associated mainly with the metabolism of exogenous compounds in the human body...
  24. de Leon J, Susce M, Johnson M, Hardin M, Maw L, Shao A, et al. DNA microarray technology in the clinical environment: the AmpliChip CYP450 test for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping. CNS Spectr. 2009;14:19-34 pubmed
    ..The objectives of this study were to identify CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 alleles and phenotypes in a psychiatric patient population in Kentucky, and to describe practical ..
  25. Gaedigk A. Complexities of CYP2D6 gene analysis and interpretation. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2013;25:534-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) plays an important role in the metabolism and bioactivation of about 25% of clinically used drugs including many antidepressants, antipsychotics and opioids...
  26. Okishiro M, Taguchi T, Jin Kim S, Shimazu K, Tamaki Y, Noguchi S. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 10 and CYP2C19 2, 3 are not associated with prognosis, endometrial thickness, or bone mineral density in Japanese breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. Cancer. 2009;115:952-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the impact of the genetic polymorphisms cytochrome P450 (CYP) family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6, allele 10 (CYP2D6 10) and CYP family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19, allele 2, 3 (CYP2C19 2, 3) on disease recurrence in patients ..
  27. Wang A, Savas U, Hsu M, Stout C, Johnson E. Crystal structure of human cytochrome P450 2D6 with prinomastat bound. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:10834-43 pubmed publisher
    Human cytochrome P450 2D6 contributes to the metabolism of >15% of drugs used in clinical practice. This study determined the structure of P450 2D6 complexed with a substrate and potent inhibitor, prinomastat, to 2...
  28. Zeng Z, Liu Y, Liu Z, You J, Chen Z, Wang J, et al. CYP2D6 polymorphisms influence tamoxifen treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013;72:287-303 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate whether breast cancer (BC) patients with CYP2D6 gene variation have different clinical tamoxifen (TAM) treatment outcomes to those with normal function of CYP2D6...
  29. Seripa D, Bizzarro A, Pilotto A, D Onofrio G, Vecchione G, Gallo A, et al. Role of cytochrome P4502D6 functional polymorphisms in the efficacy of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may affect enzyme activity and thus, the metabolism of donepezil...
  30. Lazalde Ramos B, Martínez Fierro M, Galaviz Hernandez C, Garza Veloz I, Naranjo M, Sosa Macias M, et al. CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms and predicted phenotypes in eight indigenous groups from northwestern Mexico. Pharmacogenomics. 2014;15:339-48 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in CYP2D6 impact the interindividual and interethnic variability of drug efficiency; therefore, we determined the CYP2D6 allele distribution in eight Amerindian groups from northwestern Mexico and compared them with the ..
  31. Samer C, Daali Y, Wagner M, Hopfgartner G, Eap C, Rebsamen M, et al. The effects of CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities on the pharmacokinetics of immediate release oxycodone. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:907-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A activity modulation on the pharmacokinetics of oxycodone remains poorly explored...
  32. Zwisler S, Enggaard T, Mikkelsen S, Brosen K, Sindrup S. Impact of the CYP2D6 genotype on post-operative intravenous oxycodone analgesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54:232-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxycodone is metabolized to its active metabolite oxymorphone by O-demethylation via the polymorphic CYP2D6. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) yield the same analgesia post-..
  33. Schroth W, Goetz M, Hamann U, Fasching P, Schmidt M, Winter S, et al. Association between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and outcomes among women with early stage breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. JAMA. 2009;302:1429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of active metabolites is catalyzed by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme...
  34. Newman W, Hadfield K, Latif A, Roberts S, Shenton A, McHague C, et al. Impaired tamoxifen metabolism reduces survival in familial breast cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:5913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of tamoxifen to its active metabolite, endoxifen, is reduced by low activity of the cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2D6. We examined the effect of reduced CYP2D6 activity on the response to tamoxifen in patients with familial early-..
  35. Matimba A, Del Favero J, Van Broeckhoven C, Masimirembwa C. Novel variants of major drug-metabolising enzyme genes in diverse African populations and their predicted functional effects. Hum Genomics. 2009;3:169-90 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to search for novel variants of CYP2C9 , CYP2C19 , CYP2D6 and NAT2 genes in Africans, with a particular focus on their prevalence in different populations, their relevance ..
  36. da Silva Silveira V, Canalle R, Scrideli C, Queiroz R, Bettiol H, Valera E, et al. Polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and DNA repair genes and outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Res. 2009;33:898-901 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether ALL outcome was related to polymorphisms in genes CYP2D6, MPO, EPHX1, NQO1, TS, XPD and XRCC1 in 95 consecutive ALL children by PCR or PCR-FRLP techniques...
  37. Antunes M, Linden R, Santos T, Wallemacq P, Haufroid V, Classen J, et al. Endoxifen levels and its association with CYP2D6 genotype and phenotype: evaluation of a southern Brazilian population under tamoxifen pharmacotherapy. Ther Drug Monit. 2012;34:422-31 pubmed publisher
    An association between CYP2D6 variation and clinical outcomes among women with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen (TAM) has been demonstrated, such that the presence of 2 functional CYP2D6 alleles was associated with better clinical ..
  38. Wang H, Liao Y, Chiang H, Wu J, Chen Y. Novel DNA sequence variations of cytochrome P450 genes in the Han Chinese population. Pharmacogenomics. 2009;10:359-74 pubmed publisher
    ..1299T>A in CYP2C18 and c.-498C>A in CYP2D6 reached a frequency of 4.9%...
  39. Ho M, Kelly E, Bodor M, Bui T, Kowdley K, Ho R. Novel cytochrome P450-2D6 promoter sequence variations in hepatitis C positive and negative subjects. Ann Hepatol. 2011;10:327-32 pubmed
    ..The promoter sequences of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene could impact metabolic activity...
  40. Noetzli M, Guidi M, Ebbing K, Eyer S, Zumbach S, Giannakopoulos P, et al. Relationship of CYP2D6, CYP3A, POR, and ABCB1 genotypes with galantamine plasma concentrations. Ther Drug Monit. 2013;35:270-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in CYP2D6, CYP3A4/5, POR, and ABCB1, and galantamine steady state plasma concentrations were determined...
  41. Kohlrausch F, Gama C, Lobato M, Belmonte de Abreu P, Callegari Jacques S, Gesteira A, et al. Naturalistic pharmacogenetic study of treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in European-Brazilian schizophrenics. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:599-609 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to explore the influence of variation in DRD2, DRD3, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 genes on treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in a Brazilian sample of patients with schizophrenia...
  42. Cuyàs E, Olano Martin E, Khymenets O, Hernandez L, Jofre Monseny L, Grandoso L, et al. Errors and reproducibility of DNA array-based detection of allelic variants in ADME genes: PHARMAchip. Pharmacogenomics. 2010;11:257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the discrepancies between tests were related to allelic variants not monitored in a particular microarray and the quality of the genomic DNA used. ..
  43. Abraham J, Maranian M, Driver K, Platte R, Kalmyrzaev B, Baynes C, et al. CYP2D6 gene variants: association with breast cancer specific survival in a cohort of breast cancer patients from the United Kingdom treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12:R64 pubmed publisher
    ..Its metabolism involves the phase I enzyme, cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6), encoded by the highly polymorphic CYP2D6 gene...
  44. Fernández Santander A, Luna F, Santiago C, Rodríguez M, Bandres F, Ruiz J, et al. CYP2D6 polymorphism screening in a selected population of Spain (La Alpujarra): no effect of geographical isolation. Ann Hum Biol. 2010;37:267-73 pubmed publisher
    There is growing interest in the CYP2D6 gene because of its key role in the metabolism of numerous commonly used drugs...
  45. Samer C, Daali Y, Wagner M, Hopfgartner G, Eap C, Rebsamen M, et al. Genetic polymorphisms and drug interactions modulating CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities have a major effect on oxycodone analgesic efficacy and safety. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:919-30 pubmed publisher
    The major drug-metabolizing enzymes for the oxidation of oxycodone are CYP2D6 and CYP3A...
  46. Damodaran S, Pradhan S, Umamaheswaran G, Kadambari D, Reddy K, Adithan C. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 increase the risk for recurrence of breast cancer in patients receiving tamoxifen as an adjuvant therapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;70:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..It is converted to its active metabolite endoxifen by CYP2D6 enzyme...
  47. Wegman P, Elingarami S, Carstensen J, Stal O, Nordenskjold B, Wingren S. Genetic variants of CYP3A5, CYP2D6, SULT1A1, UGT2B15 and tamoxifen response in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9:R7 pubmed
    ..the prognostic and/or predictive value of functional polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 3A5 CYP3A5 (*3), CYP2D6 (*4), sulphotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1; *2) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 (UGT2B15; *2) in tamoxifen-treated ..
  48. Gaedigk A, Simon S, Pearce R, Bradford L, Kennedy M, Leeder J. The CYP2D6 activity score: translating genotype information into a qualitative measure of phenotype. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;83:234-42 pubmed
    Inferring CYP2D6 phenotype from genotype is increasingly challenging, considering the growing number of alleles and their range of activity...
  49. Myrand S, Sekiguchi K, Man M, Lin X, Tzeng R, Teng C, et al. Pharmacokinetics/genotype associations for major cytochrome P450 enzymes in native and first- and third-generation Japanese populations: comparison with Korean, Chinese, and Caucasian populations. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;84:347-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean metabolic ratios (MRs) for the four ethnic groups were similar except for a lower activity of CYP2D6 in Caucasians and CYP2C19 in Asians...
  50. Isaza C, Henao J, Lopez A, Cacabelos R. Isolation, sequence and genotyping of the drug metabolizer CYP2D6 gene in the Colombian population. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2000;22:695-705 pubmed
    b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 monooxygenase metabolizes several commonly used drugs, particularly psychotropics and cardiovascular agents...
  51. Murphy G, Kremer C, Rodrigues H, Schatzberg A. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant medication intolerance. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:1830-5 pubmed
    ..Genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) has been postulated to underlie antidepressant intolerance (pharmacokinetic effect)...
  52. Suzuki Y, Sawamura K, Someya T. Polymorphisms in the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor and CytochromeP4502D6 genes synergistically predict fluvoxamine-induced side effects in japanese depressed patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:825-31 pubmed
    ..associated with the side effects induced by fluvoxamine, since the plasma fluvoxamine concentration depends on a CYP2D6 gene polymorphism...
  53. Lim H, Ju Lee H, Seok Lee K, Sook Lee E, Jang I, Ro J. Clinical implications of CYP2D6 genotypes predictive of tamoxifen pharmacokinetics in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:3837-45 pubmed
    The CYP3A and CYP2D6 enzymes play a major role in converting tamoxifen to its active metabolites. CYP3A is a highly inducible enzyme, regulated mainly by pregnane X receptor (PXR)...
  54. Gaedigk A, Bhathena A, Ndjountche L, Pearce R, Abdel Rahman S, Alander S, et al. Identification and characterization of novel sequence variations in the cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) gene in African Americans. Pharmacogenomics J. 2005;5:173-82 pubmed
    Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) genotyping reliably predicts poor metabolizer phenotype in Caucasians, but is less accurate in African Americans...
  55. Wang J, Devane C. Involvement of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and CYP2D6 in the metabolism of (R)- and (S)-methadone in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003;31:742-7 pubmed
    ..But for the metabolism of (S)-methadone, the roles of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 appeared equal. Although CYP2D6 is involved in the metabolism of (R)- and (S)-methadone, its role was smaller compared with CYP3A4 and CYP2C8...
  56. Yokota H, Tamura S, Furuya H, Kimura S, Watanabe M, Kanazawa I, et al. Evidence for a new variant CYP2D6 allele CYP2D6J in a Japanese population associated with lower in vivo rates of sparteine metabolism. Pharmacogenetics. 1993;3:256-63 pubmed
    A group of Japanese subjects were phenotyped for CYP2D6 activity by administration of sparteine and determination of urine metabolic ratios (MR)...
  57. Wegman P, Vainikka L, Stal O, Nordenskjold B, Skoog L, Rutqvist L, et al. Genotype of metabolic enzymes and the benefit of tamoxifen in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7:R284-90 pubmed
    ..b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) are polymorphic and are involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen...
  58. Tyndale R, Aoyama T, Broly F, Matsunaga T, Inaba T, Kalow W, et al. Identification of a new variant CYP2D6 allele lacking the codon encoding Lys-281: possible association with the poor metabolizer phenotype. Pharmacogenetics. 1991;1:26-32 pubmed
    A variant CYP2D6(C) P450 protein was found in a liver characterized by deficient microsomal metabolism of bufuralol and sparteine, prototypical substrates for the debrisoquine-sparteine drug oxidation polymorphism...
  59. Goetz M, Rae J, Suman V, Safgren S, Ames M, Visscher D, et al. Pharmacogenetics of tamoxifen biotransformation is associated with clinical outcomes of efficacy and hot flashes. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:9312-8 pubmed
    ..b>CYP2D6 (*4 and *6) and CYP3A5 (*3) genotypes were determined from 190, 194, and 205 patient samples and in 17 living ..
  60. Manns M, Johnson E, Griffin K, Tan E, Sullivan K. Major antigen of liver kidney microsomal autoantibodies in idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis is cytochrome P450db1. J Clin Invest. 1989;83:1066-72 pubmed
    ..Determination of the sequence of HLD8.2 revealed that it encodes a recently described cytochrome P450db1. A bacterial fusion protein constructed from HLD8.2 proved to be a specific and sensitive diagnostic reagent...