CCR5

Summary

Gene Symbol: CCR5
Description: C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (gene/pseudogene)
Alias: CC-CKR-5, CCCKR5, CCR-5, CD195, CKR-5, CKR5, CMKBR5, IDDM22, C-C chemokine receptor type 5, C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 A159A, HIV-1 fusion coreceptor, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5, chemokine receptor CCR5, chemokine recptor CCR5 Delta32, chemr13
Species: human
Products:     CCR5

Top Publications

  1. Loftin L, Kienzle M, Yi Y, Lee B, Lee F, Gray L, et al. Constrained use of CCR5 on CD4+ lymphocytes by R5X4 HIV-1: efficiency of Env-CCR5 interactions and low CCR5 expression determine a range of restricted CCR5-mediated entry. Virology. 2010;402:135-48 pubmed publisher
    R5X4 HIV-1 has impaired utilization of CCR5 on primary CD4+ lymphocytes but the mechanisms responsible are not well defined. Using a panel of diverse R5X4 Envs we identified a spectrum of CCR5 use on CD4+ lymphocytes...
  2. Lim J, McDermott D, Lisco A, Foster G, Krysztof D, Follmann D, et al. CCR5 deficiency is a risk factor for early clinical manifestations of West Nile virus infection but not for viral transmission. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Homozygosity for CCR5Delta32, a complete loss-of-function mutation in CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), has been previously associated with severe symptomatic WNV infection in patients who present with clinical ..
  3. Agrawal Gamse C, Lee F, Haggarty B, Jordan A, Yi Y, Lee B, et al. Adaptive mutations in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein with a truncated V3 loop restore function by improving interactions with CD4. J Virol. 2009;83:11005-15 pubmed publisher
    ..sensitive to neutralization by the CD4 binding site monoclonal antibody b12 and by HIV-positive human sera, used CCR5 to enter cells, and was completely resistant to small molecule CCR5 antagonists...
  4. Napier K, Wang Z, Peiper S, Trent J. CCR5 interactions with the variable 3 loop of gp120. J Mol Model. 2007;13:29-41 pubmed
    The G-protein coupled receptor CCR5 functions pathologically as the primary co-receptor for macrophage tropic (R5) strains of HIV-1. The interactions responsible for co-receptor activity are unknown...
  5. Singh A, Page T, Moore P, Allgaier R, Hiramen K, Coovadia H, et al. Functional and genetic analysis of coreceptor usage by dualtropic HIV-1 subtype C isolates. Virology. 2009;393:56-67 pubmed publisher
    It is widely documented that a complete switch from the predominant CCR5 (R5) to CXCR4 (X4) phenotype is less common for HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) compared to other major subtypes...
  6. Catano G, Chykarenko Z, Mangano A, Anaya J, He W, Smith A, et al. Concordance of CCR5 genotypes that influence cell-mediated immunity and HIV-1 disease progression rates. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..of cell-mediated immunity, to evaluate the relationships among cell-mediated immunity, AIDS, and polymorphisms in CCR5, the HIV-1 coreceptor...
  7. Mirandola L, Chiriva Internati M, Montagna D, Locatelli F, Zecca M, Ranzani M, et al. Notch1 regulates chemotaxis and proliferation by controlling the CC-chemokine receptors 5 and 9 in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. J Pathol. 2012;226:713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We have investigated the possible regulative role of Notch1 on the expression and function of chemokine receptors CCR5, CCR9 and CXCR4 that play a role in determining blast malignant properties and localization of extramedullary ..
  8. Dimonte S, Mercurio F, Svicher V, D Arrigo R, Perno C, Ceccherini Silberstein F. Selected amino acid mutations in HIV-1 B subtype gp41 are associated with specific gp120v? signatures in the regulation of co-receptor usage. Retrovirology. 2011;8:33 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, specific changes in gp41 are likely to be responsible for of damage in gp120-CCR5 interactions, resulting in potential resistance to CCR5 inhibitors...
  9. Cashin K, Roche M, Sterjovski J, Ellett A, Gray L, Cunningham A, et al. Alternative coreceptor requirements for efficient CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated HIV-1 entry into macrophages. J Virol. 2011;85:10699-709 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterized a panel of HIV-1 Envs that use CCR5 (n = 14) or CXCR4 (n = 6) to enter monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) with various degrees of efficiency...

More Information

Publications82

  1. Roche M, Jakobsen M, Sterjovski J, Ellett A, Posta F, Lee B, et al. HIV-1 escape from the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc associated with an altered and less-efficient mechanism of gp120-CCR5 engagement that attenuates macrophage tropism. J Virol. 2011;85:4330-42 pubmed publisher
    ..the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by binding to and modifying the conformation of the CCR5 extracellular loops (ECLs)...
  2. Swenson L, Mo T, Dong W, Zhong X, Woods C, Jensen M, et al. Deep sequencing to infer HIV-1 co-receptor usage: application to three clinical trials of maraviroc in treatment-experienced patients. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients (MOTIVATE) studies compared maraviroc versus placebo in treatment-experienced patients with CCR5-using (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), screened using the original Trofile assay...
  3. Lin S, Wan S, Sun L, Hu J, Fang D, Zhao R, et al. Chemokine C-C motif receptor 5 and C-C motif ligand 5 promote cancer cell migration under hypoxia. Cancer Sci. 2012;103:904-12 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine CC motif receptor 5 (CCR5) and its ligands have been reported to be associated with cancer progression and metastasis...
  4. Maeda K, Das D, Yin P, Tsuchiya K, Ogata Aoki H, Nakata H, et al. Involvement of the second extracellular loop and transmembrane residues of CCR5 in inhibitor binding and HIV-1 fusion: insights into the mechanism of allosteric inhibition. J Mol Biol. 2008;381:956-74 pubmed publisher
    C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), a member of G-protein-coupled receptors, serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  5. Dogo Isonagie C, Lam S, Gustchina E, Acharya P, Yang Y, Shahzad ul Hussan S, et al. Peptides from second extracellular loop of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) inhibit diverse strains of HIV-1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:15076-86 pubmed publisher
    To initiate HIV entry, the HIV envelope protein gp120 must engage its primary receptor CD4 and a coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4...
  6. Choi W, Nedellec R, Coetzer M, Colin P, Lagane B, Offord R, et al. CCR5 mutations distinguish N-terminal modifications of RANTES (CCL5) with agonist versus antagonist activity. J Virol. 2012;86:10218-20 pubmed publisher
    b>CCR5 is the major HIV-1 entry coreceptor...
  7. Salimi H, Roche M, Webb N, Gray L, Chikere K, Sterjovski J, et al. Macrophage-tropic HIV-1 variants from brain demonstrate alterations in the way gp120 engages both CD4 and CCR5. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;93:113-26 pubmed publisher
    ..and mathematical modeling to generate quantitative VERSA metrics that simultaneously measure Env-CD4 and Env-CCR5 interactions...
  8. Bunnik E, Swenson L, Edo Matas D, Huang W, Dong W, Frantzell A, et al. Detection of inferred CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 variants and evolutionary intermediates using ultra-deep pyrosequencing. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002106 pubmed publisher
    ..CXCR4-using variants are believed to evolve from CCR5-using variants, but due to the extremely low frequency at which transitional intermediate variants are often ..
  9. Colin P, Benureau Y, Staropoli I, Wang Y, González N, Alcami J, et al. HIV-1 exploits CCR5 conformational heterogeneity to escape inhibition by chemokines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9475-80 pubmed publisher
    CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) T lymphocytes...
  10. Zhang H, Tully D, Zhang T, Moriyama H, Thompson J, Wood C. Molecular determinants of HIV-1 subtype C coreceptor transition from R5 to R5X4. Virology. 2010;407:68-79 pubmed publisher
    The molecular mechanism(s) underlying transition from CCR5 to CXCR4 usage of subtype C viruses remain largely unknown...
  11. Blumenthal R, Durell S, Viard M. HIV entry and envelope glycoprotein-mediated fusion. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40841-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the coupling between the lipid and protein pathways that give rise to fusion has not been resolved. Here, we discuss the known and unknown about the overall HIV Env-mediated fusion process. ..
  12. Xiang S, Pacheco B, Bowder D, Yuan W, Sodroski J. Characterization of a dual-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) strain derived from the prototypical X4 isolate HXBc2. Virology. 2013;438:5-13 pubmed publisher
    ..For coreceptors, R5 viruses use CCR5, X4 viruses use CXCR4, and dual-tropic (R5X4) viruses use either CCR5 or CXCR4...
  13. Muntinghe F, Carrero J, Navis G, Stenvinkel P. TNF-? levels are not increased in inflamed patients carrying the CCR5 deletion 32. Cytokine. 2011;53:16-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CRP) related mortality in dialysis patients carrying the functional CC-chemokine receptor 5 deletion 32 allele (CCR5?32) mutation...
  14. Bozek K, Eckhardt M, Sierra S, Anders M, Kaiser R, Kräusslich H, et al. An expanded model of HIV cell entry phenotype based on multi-parameter single-cell data. Retrovirology. 2012;9:60 pubmed publisher
    ..viral envelope glycoproteins (Env) and the cellular receptor CD4 as well as a coreceptor molecule (most importantly CCR5 or CXCR4)...
  15. Oldham K, Parsonage G, Bhatt R, Wallace D, Deshmukh N, Chaudhri S, et al. T lymphocyte recruitment into renal cell carcinoma tissue: a role for chemokine receptors CXCR3, CXCR6, CCR5, and CCR6. Eur Urol. 2012;61:385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Three chemokine receptors-CCR5, CXCR3, and CXCR6-were significantly overexpressed on TILs compared with matched PBLs (n=16 cases) and were capable ..
  16. Tan Q, Zhu Y, Li J, Chen Z, Han G, Kufareva I, et al. Structure of the CCR5 chemokine receptor-HIV entry inhibitor maraviroc complex. Science. 2013;341:1387-90 pubmed publisher
    The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a co-receptor for HIV-1 viral entry. Here we report the 2.7 angstrom-resolution crystal structure of human CCR5 bound to the marketed HIV drug maraviroc...
  17. Flórez O, Martin J, Gonzalez C. Genetic variants in the chemokines and chemokine receptors in Chagas disease. Hum Immunol. 2012;73:852-8 pubmed publisher
    ..determine their influence, we investigated the possible role of CCL5/RANTES and CXCL8/IL8 chemokines, and CCR2 and CCR5 chemokines receptors cluster gene polymorphisms with the development of chagasic cardiomyopathy...
  18. Velasco Velázquez M, Jiao X, de la Fuente M, Pestell T, Ertel A, Lisanti M, et al. CCR5 antagonist blocks metastasis of basal breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2012;72:3839-50 pubmed publisher
    The roles of the chemokine CCL5 and its receptor CCR5 in breast cancer progression remain unclear...
  19. Recordon Pinson P, Soulie C, Flandre P, Descamps D, Lazrek M, Charpentier C, et al. Evaluation of the genotypic prediction of HIV-1 coreceptor use versus a phenotypic assay and correlation with the virological response to maraviroc: the ANRS GenoTropism study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The baseline weighted genotypic sensitivity score was associated with VR at month 6. There were strong arguments in favor of using genotypic coreceptor use assays for determining which patients would respond to CCR5 antagonist.
  20. Cashin K, Gray L, Jakobsen M, Sterjovski J, Churchill M, Gorry P. CoRSeqV3-C: a novel HIV-1 subtype C specific V3 sequence based coreceptor usage prediction algorithm. Retrovirology. 2013;10:24 pubmed publisher
    ..and health care systems, whose populations are more likely to have access to wider treatment options, including the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC)...
  21. Hammad M, Kuang Y, Yan R, Allen H, Dupre D. Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 is involved in chemokine receptor homodimer CCR5 internalization and signal transduction but does not affect CXCR4 homodimer or CXCR4-CCR5 heterodimer. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34653-64 pubmed publisher
    Chemokine receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. CCR5 is also the principal co-receptor for macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), and efforts have been made to develop ..
  22. Chandramouli B, Chillemi G, Abbate I, Capobianchi M, Rozera G, Desideri A. Importance of V3 loop flexibility and net charge in the context of co-receptor recognition. A molecular dynamics study on HIV gp120. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2012;29:879-91 pubmed
    ..the interaction of envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CD4 receptor as well as a co-receptor, which can be either CCR5 or CXCR4...
  23. Keynan Y, Juno J, Meyers A, Ball T, Kumar A, Rubinstein E, et al. Chemokine receptor 5 ?32 allele in patients with severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1621-2 pubmed publisher
    Because chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) may have a role in pulmonary immune response, we explored whether patients with severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were more likely to carry the CCR5?32 allele than were members of the general population...
  24. Hinks A, Martin P, Flynn E, Eyre S, Packham J, Barton A, et al. Association of the CCR5 gene with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Genes Immun. 2010;11:584-9 pubmed publisher
    The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been shown to be important in the recruitment of T-helper cells to the synovium, where they accumulate, drive the inflammatory process and the consequent synovitis and joint destruction...
  25. Garcia Perez J, Rueda P, Alcami J, Rognan D, Arenzana Seisdedos F, Lagane B, et al. Allosteric model of maraviroc binding to CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33409-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently demonstrated that maraviroc binding to the HIV-1 coreceptor, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), prevents it from binding the chemokine CCL3 and the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 by an allosteric mechanism...
  26. Schnur E, Noah E, Ayzenshtat I, Sargsyan H, Inui T, Ding F, et al. The conformation and orientation of a 27-residue CCR5 peptide in a ternary complex with HIV-1 gp120 and a CD4-mimic peptide. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:778-97 pubmed publisher
    Interaction of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120/CD4 complex involves its amino-terminal domain (Nt-CCR5) and requires sulfation of two to four tyrosine residues in Nt-CCR5...
  27. Parker Z, Iyer S, Wilen C, Parrish N, Chikere K, Lee F, et al. Transmitted/founder and chronic HIV-1 envelope proteins are distinguished by differential utilization of CCR5. J Virol. 2013;87:2401-11 pubmed publisher
    ..by single genome amplification, we found that 52% of clade C and B CC Envs exhibited partial resistance to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) on cells expressing high levels of CCR5, while only 15% of T/F Envs exhibited this same ..
  28. Sterjovski J, Roche M, Churchill M, Ellett A, Farrugia W, Gray L, et al. An altered and more efficient mechanism of CCR5 engagement contributes to macrophage tropism of CCR5-using HIV-1 envelopes. Virology. 2010;404:269-78 pubmed publisher
    While CCR5 is the principal coreceptor used by macrophage (M)-tropic HIV-1, not all primary CCR5-using (R5) viruses enter macrophages efficiently...
  29. Kumar R, Raghava G. Hybrid approach for predicting coreceptor used by HIV-1 from its V3 loop amino acid sequence. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61437 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 infects the host cell by interacting with the primary receptor CD4 and a coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4. Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist binds to CCR5 receptor...
  30. Coetzer M, Nedellec R, Cilliers T, Meyers T, Morris L, Mosier D. Extreme genetic divergence is required for coreceptor switching in HIV-1 subtype C. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56:9-15 pubmed publisher
    Coreceptor switching from CCR5 to CXCR4 is less common in subtype C HIV-1 infection than in subtype B for reasons that are unclear...
  31. Mamtani M, Mummidi S, Ramsuran V, Pham M, Maldonado R, Begum K, et al. Influence of variations in CCL3L1 and CCR5 on tuberculosis in a northwestern Colombian population. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:1590-4 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the association of polymorphisms in CCR5, the major human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 coreceptor, and copy number of its potent ligand CCL3L1 with tuberculosis in 298 individuals from Colombia...
  32. Lobritz M, Ratcliff A, Arts E. HIV-1 Entry, Inhibitors, and Resistance. Viruses. 2010;2:1069-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Several potential mechanisms have been proposed: tropism switching (utilization of CXCR4 instead of CCR5 for entry), increased affinity for the coreceptor, increased rate of virus entry into host cells, and utilization ..
  33. Atzeni F, Boiardi L, Casali B, Farnetti E, Nicoli D, Sarzi Puttini P, et al. CC chemokine receptor 5 polymorphism in Italian patients with Behcet's disease. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012;51:2141-5 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the potential role of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)?32 polymorphism in the susceptibility to and clinical expression of Behçet's disease (BD) in a cohort of Italian patients...
  34. Björkander S, Heidari Hamedani G, Bremme K, Gunnarsson I, Holmlund U. Peripheral monocyte expression of the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR3 is altered at parturition in healthy women and in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Scand J Immunol. 2013;77:200-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that peripheral monocytes are affected by pregnancy with reduced percentages of CCR2+, CCR5+ and CXCR3+ monocytes of both classical (CD16-) and inflammatory (CD16+) subsets and that the trophoblast-secreted ..
  35. Anastassopoulou C, Ketas T, Sanders R, Klasse P, Moore J. Effects of sequence changes in the HIV-1 gp41 fusion peptide on CCR5 inhibitor resistance. Virology. 2012;428:86-97 pubmed publisher
    A rare pathway of HIV-1 resistance to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors such as Vicriviroc (VCV) involves changes solely in the gp41 fusion peptide (FP)...
  36. Li H, Pauza C. HIV envelope-mediated, CCR5/?4?7-dependent killing of CD4-negative ?? T cells which are lost during progression to AIDS. Blood. 2011;118:5824-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Envelope binding requires integrin ?4?7 and chemokine receptor CCR5 which are at high levels and form a complex on the ?? T cell membrane...
  37. Lin N, Becerril C, Giguel F, Novitsky V, Moyo S, Makhema J, et al. Env sequence determinants in CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type-1 subtype C. Virology. 2012;433:296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 209 env clones derived from 10 samples with mixed CCR5-(R5), CXCR4-using (X4) or dual-tropic HIV-1C were phenotyped for coreceptor usage...
  38. Folefoc A, Fromme B, Katz A, Flanagan C. South African mutations of the CCR5 coreceptor for HIV modify interaction with chemokines and HIV Envelope protein. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;54:352-9 pubmed publisher
    The CCR5 chemokine receptor is the major coreceptor for HIV-1 and the receptor for CC-chemokines, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and regulated upon activation normal T-cell-expressed and secreted...
  39. Dobrowsky T, Daniels B, Siliciano R, Sun S, Wirtz D. Organization of cellular receptors into a nanoscale junction during HIV-1 adhesion. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1000855 pubmed publisher
    ..via viral surface protein gp120 which binds its primary cellular receptor CD4 and subsequently the coreceptor CCR5. However, whether and how these receptors become organized at the adhesive junction between cell and virion are ..
  40. Suppiah V, Armstrong N, O Connor K, Berg T, Weltman M, Abate M, et al. CCR5-?32 genotype does not improve predictive value of IL28B polymorphisms for treatment response in chronic HCV infection. Genes Immun. 2013;14:286-90 pubmed publisher
    ..A recent study proposed a 32-base pair deletion in the CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene (CCR5-?32) interacting with the IL28B polymorphisms to influence spontaneous HCV clearance...
  41. Berro R, Klasse P, Lascano D, Flegler A, Nagashima K, Sanders R, et al. Multiple CCR5 conformations on the cell surface are used differentially by human immunodeficiency viruses resistant or sensitive to CCR5 inhibitors. J Virol. 2011;85:8227-40 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to small-molecule CCR5 inhibitors arises when HIV-1 variants acquire the ability to use inhibitor-bound CCR5 while still recognizing free CCR5. Two isolates, CC101.19 and D1/85...
  42. Yang X, Jiao Y, Wang R, Ji Y, Zhang H, Zhang Y, et al. High CCR5 density on central memory CD4+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection is mostly associated with rapid disease progression. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49526 pubmed publisher
    ..central memory T cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of simian immunodeficiency virus disease, and the CCR5 density on the surface of CD4 T cells is an important factor in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease ..
  43. García Expósito L, Barroso González J, Puigdomènech I, Machado J, Blanco J, Valenzuela Fernandez A. HIV-1 requires Arf6-mediated membrane dynamics to efficiently enter and infect T lymphocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1148-66 pubmed publisher
    ..affect fusion, entry, and infection of vesicular stomatitis virus G-pseudotyped viruses or ligand-induced CXCR4 or CCR5 endocytosis, both clathrin-dependent processes...
  44. Thiele S, Steen A, Jensen P, Mokrosinski J, Frimurer T, Rosenkilde M. Allosteric and orthosteric sites in CC chemokine receptor (CCR5), a chimeric receptor approach. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:37543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the CCR5 chemokine receptor as a model system, we studied the molecular interaction and conformational interchange required ..
  45. Chandramouli B, Chillemi G, Giombini E, Capobianchi M, Rozera G, Desideri A. Structural dynamics of V3 loop with different electrostatics: implications on co-receptor recognition: a molecular dynamics study of HIV gp120. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2013;31:403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..virus into the host cell, through its successive interactions with the cell surface CD4 receptor and a co-receptor (CCR5 or CXCR4)...
  46. Sloan R, Donahue D, Kuhl B, Bar Magen T, Wainberg M. Expression of Nef from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA downregulates cell surface CXCR4 and CCR5 on T-lymphocytes. Retrovirology. 2010;7:44 pubmed publisher
    ..whether Nef expressed from unintegrated DNA was also able to downregulate the chemokine coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5.Viral integration was blocked through use of an inactive integrase or by using the integrase inhibitor raltegravir...
  47. Wilen C, Tilton J, Doms R. Molecular mechanisms of HIV entry. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;726:223-42 pubmed publisher
    ..entry to occur gp120 sequentially engages the host protein CD4 and then one of two chemokine coreceptors, either CCR5 or CXCR4...
  48. El Moamly A, El Sweify M, Rashad R, Abdalla E, Ragheb M, Awad M. Role of CCR5?32 mutation in protecting patients with Schistosoma mansoni infection against hepatitis C viral infection or progression. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:2745-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the CCR5?32 mutation may be involved in the high prevalence of HCV with schistosomiasis...
  49. Da L, Wu Y. Theoretical studies on the interactions and interferences of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 and its coreceptor CCR5. J Chem Inf Model. 2011;51:359-69 pubmed publisher
    The interaction between the HIV gp120 protein and coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4 of the host cell is critical in mediating the HIV entry process. A model for the CCR5-gp120 complex has been developed...
  50. Edo Matas D, van Dort K, Setiawan L, Schuitemaker H, Kootstra N. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro evolution of CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor use of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants. Virology. 2011;412:269-77 pubmed publisher
    During the course of at least 50% of HIV-1 subtype B infections, CCR5-using (R5) viruses evolve towards a CXCR4-using phenotype...
  51. Lin H, Chen W, Luo L, Wu C, Wang Q, Liu Y. Cytotoxic effect of HIV-1 gp120 on primary cultured human retinal capillary endothelial cells. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3450-7 pubmed
    ..cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4], C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 [CXCR4], and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 [CCR5])...
  52. García Expósito L, Ziglio S, Barroso González J, de Armas Rillo L, Valera M, Zipeto D, et al. Gelsolin activity controls efficient early HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2013;10:39 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations are necessary for the redistribution of CD4-CXCR4/CCR5 to one pole of the cell, a process that increases the probability of HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-CD4/co-receptor ..
  53. Malhotra R, Hu L, Song W, Brill I, Mulenga J, Allen S, et al. Association of chemokine receptor gene (CCR2-CCR5) haplotypes with acquisition and control of HIV-1 infection in Zambians. Retrovirology. 2011;8:22 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in chemokine (C-C motif) receptors 2 and 5 genes (CCR2 and CCR5) have been associated with HIV-1 infection and disease progression...
  54. Gorry P, Ancuta P. Coreceptors and HIV-1 pathogenesis. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2011;8:45-53 pubmed publisher
    The major HIV-1 coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, mediate virus entry into CD4+ cells and are therefore a critical component of the HIV-1 life cycle...
  55. Ksiaa Cheikh Rouhou L, Gorgi Y, Skhiri H, Aouadi H, Ayed S, Sfar I, et al. Chemokine and chemokine receptor gene polymorphism in Tunisian hemodialysis patients with HCV infection. Arab J Nephrol Transplant. 2011;4:117-24 pubmed
    ..The control group consisted of 170 healthy blood donors. All subjects were genotyped for CCR5 ?32, CCR5 (-59029) A/G, CCR2 (64Ile) and MCP-1(-2518) A/G gene polymorphisms...
  56. Garcia Perez J, Rueda P, Staropoli I, Kellenberger E, Alcami J, Arenzana Seisdedos F, et al. New insights into the mechanisms whereby low molecular weight CCR5 ligands inhibit HIV-1 infection. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4978-90 pubmed publisher
    CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for the chemokines CCL3, -4, and -5 and a coreceptor for entry of R5-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into CD4(+) T-cells...
  57. Berro R, Klasse P, Jakobsen M, Gorry P, Moore J, Sanders R. V3 determinants of HIV-1 escape from the CCR5 inhibitors Maraviroc and Vicriviroc. Virology. 2012;427:158-65 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 develops resistance to CCR5 antagonists such as Maraviroc (MVC) and Vicriviroc (VVC) both in vitro and in vivo, with most changes arising in the gp120 V3 region...
  58. Sterjovski J, Churchill M, Ellett A, Wesselingh S, Ramsland P, Gorry P. Structural elements of primary CCR5-using HIV-1 gp120 proteins influencing sensitivity and resistance to the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody b12. Virology. 2012;432:394-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our studies provide new mechanistic insights into the gp120 determinants influencing sensitivity and resistance to HIV-1 neutralization by b12. ..
  59. Flegler A, Cianci G, Hope T. CCR5 conformations are dynamic and modulated by localization, trafficking and G protein association. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89056 pubmed publisher
    b>CCR5 acts as the principal coreceptor during HIV-1 transmission and early stages of infection...
  60. Kalinina O, Pfeifer N, Lengauer T. Modelling binding between CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors and their ligands suggests the surface electrostatic potential of the co-receptor to be a key player in the HIV-1 tropism. Retrovirology. 2013;10:130 pubmed publisher
    b>CCR5 and CXCR4 are the two membrane-standing proteins that, along with CD4, facilitate entry of HIV particles into the host cell...
  61. Nattermann J, Timm J, Nischalke H, Olbrich A, Michalk M, Tillmann H, et al. The predictive value of IL28B gene polymorphism for spontaneous clearance in a single source outbreak cohort is limited in patients carrying the CCR5?32 mutation. J Hepatol. 2011;55:1201-6 pubmed publisher
    The CCR5?32 mutation has been suspected to adversely affect outcomes of HCV infection, although reports have remained controversial...
  62. Dimonte S, Babakir Mina M, Mercurio F, Di Pinto D, Ceccherini Silberstein F, Svicher V, et al. Selected amino acid changes in HIV-1 subtype-C gp41 are associated with specific gp120(V3) signatures in the regulation of co-receptor usage. Virus Res. 2012;168:73-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Among env sequences present in Los Alamos Database, 255 and 101 sequences predicted as CCR5 and CXCR4 were selected, respectively...
  63. Thielen A, Lengauer T, Swenson L, Dong W, McGovern R, Lewis M, et al. Mutations in gp41 are correlated with coreceptor tropism but do not improve prediction methods substantially. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..However, incorporating gp41 mutations into prediction models is not mandatory because they do not improve substantially on models trained on V3 sequences alone. ..
  64. Masso M, Vaisman I. Accurate and efficient gp120 V3 loop structure based models for the determination of HIV-1 co-receptor usage. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010;11:494 pubmed publisher
    ..cells expressing both the CD4 receptor, which binds the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, as well as either the CCR5 (R5) or CXCR4 (X4) co-receptors, which interact primarily with the third hypervariable loop (V3 loop) of gp120...
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    ..C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5)-using (R5) Env is the predominant phenotype associated with early transmission and acute infection...
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    CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the major HIV coreceptor, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in cell activation and migration in response to chemokines...
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    ..We built a model based on dual usage of CXCR4 and CCR5 co-receptors...
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    ..The coreceptor usage by HIV varies from CCR5 (R5) tropic early in infection to CXCR4 (X4) tropic in later infections...
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    Previously, we have shown that CCR5 transcription is regulated by CREB-1...
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    ..In addition to CCR5 and CXCR4, the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) may engage a variety of alternative coreceptors for entry into ..
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    ..mechanisms underlying HIV-1 tropism for macrophages are complex, involving enhanced and/or altered interactions with CD4, CCR5, and/or CXCR4, and that the nature of these interactions may depend on the anatomical location of the virus.
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    ..a multi-step process involving binding of the viral glycoprotein, Env, to its receptor CD4 and a coreceptor-either CCR5 or CXCR4...
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    ..Exposure of monocytes to S-CM blocked up-regulation of CD4 and CCR5 expression during monocyte differentiation into macrophages and inhibited productive HIV-1 infection in ..