AXIN1

Summary

Gene Symbol: AXIN1
Description: axin 1
Alias: AXIN, PPP1R49, axin-1, axis inhibition protein 1, axis inhibitor 1, fused, mouse, homolog of, protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 49
Species: human
Products:     AXIN1

Top Publications

  1. Luo W, Zou H, Jin L, Lin S, Li Q, Ye Z, et al. Axin contains three separable domains that confer intramolecular, homodimeric, and heterodimeric interactions involved in distinct functions. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5054-60 pubmed
    b>Axin is a major scaffold protein, interacting with diverse molecules involved in a number of signaling pathways. Axin can undergo dimer/oligomerization via its DIX domain...
  2. Rui Y, Xu Z, Lin S, Li Q, Rui H, Luo W, et al. Axin stimulates p53 functions by activation of HIPK2 kinase through multimeric complex formation. EMBO J. 2004;23:4583-94 pubmed
    b>Axin and p53 are tumor suppressors, controlling cell growth, apoptosis, and development...
  3. Dajani R, Fraser E, Roe S, Yeo M, Good V, Thompson V, et al. Structural basis for recruitment of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta to the axin-APC scaffold complex. EMBO J. 2003;22:494-501 pubmed
    ..In Wnt signalling, GSK3beta is recruited to a multiprotein complex via interaction with axin, where it hyperphosphorylates beta-catenin, marking it for ubiquitylation and destruction...
  4. Major M, Camp N, Berndt J, Yi X, Goldenberg S, Hubbert C, et al. Wilms tumor suppressor WTX negatively regulates WNT/beta-catenin signaling. Science. 2007;316:1043-6 pubmed
    ..assay revealed that WTX, a protein encoded by a gene mutated in Wilms tumors, forms a complex with beta-catenin, AXIN1, beta-TrCP2 (beta-transducin repeat-containing protein 2), and APC (adenomatous polyposis coli)...
  5. Jho E, Zhang T, Domon C, Joo C, Freund J, Costantini F. Wnt/beta-catenin/Tcf signaling induces the transcription of Axin2, a negative regulator of the signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1172-83 pubmed
    Axin2/Conductin/Axil and its ortholog Axin are negative regulators of the Wnt signaling pathway, which promote the phosphorylation and degradation of beta-catenin...
  6. Fagotto F, Jho E, Zeng L, Kurth T, Joos T, Kaufmann C, et al. Domains of axin involved in protein-protein interactions, Wnt pathway inhibition, and intracellular localization. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:741-56 pubmed
    b>Axin was identified as a regulator of embryonic axis induction in vertebrates that inhibits the Wnt signal transduction pathway...
  7. Wu R, Zhai Y, Fearon E, Cho K. Diverse mechanisms of beta-catenin deregulation in ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res. 2001;61:8247-55 pubmed
    ..29 primary OEAs, unequivocal nuclear beta-catenin immunoreactivity was not observed, though a nonsense mutation in AXIN1 was observed in one tumor and a truncating frameshift mutation in AXIN2 was seen in another case...
  8. Furuhashi M, Yagi K, Yamamoto H, Furukawa Y, Shimada S, Nakamura Y, et al. Axin facilitates Smad3 activation in the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5132-41 pubmed
    b>Axin acts as a negative regulator in Wnt signaling through interaction with various molecules involved in this pathway, including beta-catenin, adenomatous polyposis coli, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta...
  9. Zhang Y, Liu S, Mickanin C, Feng Y, Charlat O, Michaud G, et al. RNF146 is a poly(ADP-ribose)-directed E3 ligase that regulates axin degradation and Wnt signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:623-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Axin is a concentration-limiting component of the ?-catenin destruction complex, and its stability is regulated by ..

More Information

Publications78

  1. Li Q, Lin S, Wang X, Lian G, Lu Z, Guo H, et al. Axin determines cell fate by controlling the p53 activation threshold after DNA damage. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1128-34 pubmed
    ..Here we show that cellular fate commitment depends on Axin forming distinct complexes with Pirh2, Tip60, HIPK2 and p53...
  2. Hart M, de los Santos R, Albert I, Rubinfeld B, Polakis P. Downregulation of beta-catenin by human Axin and its association with the APC tumor suppressor, beta-catenin and GSK3 beta. Curr Biol. 1998;8:573-81 pubmed
    ..In a Xenopus developmental system, Wnt-1 signaling was inhibited by Axin, the product of the murine fused gene...
  3. Ikeda S, Kishida M, Matsuura Y, Usui H, Kikuchi A. GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product can be modulated by beta-catenin and protein phosphatase 2A complexed with Axin. Oncogene. 2000;19:537-45 pubmed
    b>Axin forms a complex with adenomatous polyposis coli gene product (APC), glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), and beta-catenin through different binding sites and downregulates beta-catenin...
  4. Zhang Y, Neo S, Han J, Lin S. Dimerization choices control the ability of axin and dishevelled to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:25008-14 pubmed
    b>Axin and Dishevelled are two downstream components of the Wnt signaling pathway...
  5. Levina E, Oren M, Ben Ze ev A. Downregulation of beta-catenin by p53 involves changes in the rate of beta-catenin phosphorylation and Axin dynamics. Oncogene. 2004;23:4444-53 pubmed
    ..p53 also induced a shift in the distribution of the scaffold molecule Axin to a Triton X-100-soluble fraction, and led to depletion of beta-catenin from this Triton-soluble fraction...
  6. Satoh S, Daigo Y, Furukawa Y, Kato T, Miwa N, Nishiwaki T, et al. AXIN1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinomas, and growth suppression in cancer cells by virus-mediated transfer of AXIN1. Nat Genet. 2000;24:245-50 pubmed
    ..HCC5 tend to show accumulation of beta-catenin more often than mutations in CTNNB1, we looked for mutations in AXIN1, encoding a key factor for Wnt signaling, in 6 HCC cell lines and 100 primary HCC5...
  7. Liu J, Xing Y, Hinds T, Zheng J, Xu W. The third 20 amino acid repeat is the tightest binding site of APC for beta-catenin. J Mol Biol. 2006;360:133-44 pubmed
    ..In addition, our CD and NMR studies demonstrate that the central region of APC is unstructured in the absence of beta-catenin and Axin, and suggest that beta-catenin may interact with each of the APC 15aa and 20aa repeats independently.
  8. Spink K, Polakis P, Weis W. Structural basis of the Axin-adenomatous polyposis coli interaction. EMBO J. 2000;19:2270-9 pubmed
    b>Axin and the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein are components of the Wnt/Wingless growth factor signaling pathway...
  9. Rui H, Fan E, Zhou H, Xu Z, Zhang Y, Lin S. SUMO-1 modification of the C-terminal KVEKVD of Axin is required for JNK activation but has no effect on Wnt signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42981-6 pubmed
    b>Axin is a multifunctional protein, regulating Wnt signaling and the c-Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway as well as tumorigenesis...
  10. Zeng L, Fagotto F, Zhang T, Hsu W, Vasicek T, Perry W, et al. The mouse Fused locus encodes Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway that regulates embryonic axis formation. Cell. 1997;90:181-92 pubmed
    ..The product of the Fused locus, Axin, displays similarities to RGS (Regulators of G-Protein Signaling) and Dishevelled proteins...
  11. Kim M, Chia I, Costantini F. SUMOylation target sites at the C terminus protect Axin from ubiquitination and confer protein stability. FASEB J. 2008;22:3785-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Axin is a scaffold protein for the beta-catenin destruction complex, and a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling...
  12. Hsu W, Zeng L, Costantini F. Identification of a domain of Axin that binds to the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A and a self-binding domain. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:3439-45 pubmed
    b>Axin is a negative regulator of embryonic axis formation in vertebrates, which acts through a Wnt signal transduction pathway involving the serine/threonine kinase GSK-3 and beta-catenin...
  13. Nakamura T, Hamada F, Ishidate T, Anai K, Kawahara K, Toyoshima K, et al. Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway, interacts with beta-catenin, GSK-3beta and APC and reduces the beta-catenin level. Genes Cells. 1998;3:395-403 pubmed
    ..Beta-catenin and Axin are positive and negative effectors of the Wnt signalling pathway, respectively...
  14. Thomas G, Frame S, Goedert M, Nathke I, Polakis P, Cohen P. A GSK3-binding peptide from FRAT1 selectively inhibits the GSK3-catalysed phosphorylation of axin and beta-catenin. FEBS Lett. 1999;458:247-51 pubmed
    The Axin-dependent phosphorylation of beta-catenin catalysed by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is inhibited during embryogenesis...
  15. Xu H, Wei Q, Liu Y, Yang L, Dai S, Han Y, et al. Overexpression of axin downregulates TCF-4 and inhibits the development of lung cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:3251-9 pubmed
    ..Axis inhibition protein (axin) is an important negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway...
  16. Segditsas S, Tomlinson I. Colorectal cancer and genetic alterations in the Wnt pathway. Oncogene. 2006;25:7531-7 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the Wnt components AXIN1, AXIN2 and TCF4 have been found in microsatellite-unstable colon cancers, but it is not clear in every case ..
  17. Ikeda S, Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Murai H, Koyama S, Kikuchi A. Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, forms a complex with GSK-3beta and beta-catenin and promotes GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of beta-catenin. EMBO J. 1998;17:1371-84 pubmed
    ..The predicted amino acid sequence of this GSK-3beta-interacting protein shows 94% identity with mouse Axin, which recently has been identified as a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway; therefore, we termed this ..
  18. Kim S, Jho E. The protein stability of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, is regulated by Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:36420-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Axin is a negative regulator of Wnt/?-catenin signaling via regulating the level of ?-catenin, which is a key effector molecule. Therefore, controlling the level of Axin is a critical step for the regulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling...
  19. Yamamoto H, Komekado H, Kikuchi A. Caveolin is necessary for Wnt-3a-dependent internalization of LRP6 and accumulation of beta-catenin. Dev Cell. 2006;11:213-23 pubmed
    ..single-span transmembrane Wnt receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), interacts with Axin to promote the Wnt-dependent accumulation of beta-catenin...
  20. Xing Y, Clements W, Le Trong I, Hinds T, Stenkamp R, Kimelman D, et al. Crystal structure of a beta-catenin/APC complex reveals a critical role for APC phosphorylation in APC function. Mol Cell. 2004;15:523-33 pubmed
    ..Our work suggests that the phosphorylation of the APC 20 aa repeats could be a critical switch for APC function. ..
  21. Taniguchi K, Roberts L, Aderca I, Dong X, Qian C, Murphy L, et al. Mutational spectrum of beta-catenin, AXIN1, and AXIN2 in hepatocellular carcinomas and hepatoblastomas. Oncogene. 2002;21:4863-71 pubmed
    ..To explore the contribution of additional Wnt pathway molecules to hepatocarcinogenesis, we examined beta-catenin, AXIN1 and AXIN2 mutations in 73 HCCs and 27 HBs. beta-catenin mutations were detected in 19...
  22. Tran H, Bustos D, Yeh R, Rubinfeld B, Lam C, Shriver S, et al. HectD1 E3 ligase modifies adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with polyubiquitin to promote the APC-axin interaction. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:3753-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In this capacity, APC forms a "destruction complex" with Axin, CK1?, and GSK3? to foster phosphorylation of the Wnt effector ?-catenin earmarking it for Lys-48-linked ..
  23. Yang L, Xu H, Han Y, Li Q, Liu Y, Zhao Y, et al. Axin downregulates TCF-4 transcription via beta-catenin, but not p53, and inhibits the proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:25 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that overexpression of Axin downregulates T cell factor-4 (TCF-4) transcription. However, the mechanism(s) by which Axin downregulates the transcription and expression of TCF-4 is not clear...
  24. Yokota N, Nishizawa S, Ohta S, Date H, Sugimura H, Namba H, et al. Role of Wnt pathway in medulloblastoma oncogenesis. Int J Cancer. 2002;101:198-201 pubmed
    ..immunohistochemical staining of beta-catenin and Wnt-1 and genomic analyses of CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) and AXIN1 (axin 1) were examined in 23 sporadic cases...
  25. Li V, Ng S, Boersema P, Low T, Karthaus W, Gerlach J, et al. Wnt signaling through inhibition of ?-catenin degradation in an intact Axin1 complex. Cell. 2012;149:1245-56 pubmed publisher
    Degradation of cytosolic ?-catenin by the APC/Axin1 destruction complex represents the key regulated step of the Wnt pathway. It is incompletely understood how the Axin1 complex exerts its Wnt-regulated function...
  26. Bilic J, Huang Y, Davidson G, Zimmermann T, Cruciat C, Bienz M, et al. Wnt induces LRP6 signalosomes and promotes dishevelled-dependent LRP6 phosphorylation. Science. 2007;316:1619-22 pubmed
    ..We propose that Wnts induce coclustering of receptors and Dvl in LRP6-signalosomes, which in turn triggers LRP6 phosphorylation to promote Axin recruitment and beta-catenin stabilization.
  27. Huang S, Mishina Y, Liu S, Cheung A, Stegmeier F, Michaud G, et al. Tankyrase inhibition stabilizes axin and antagonizes Wnt signalling. Nature. 2009;461:614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..XAV939 stimulates beta-catenin degradation by stabilizing axin, the concentration-limiting component of the destruction complex...
  28. Baeza N, Masuoka J, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H. AXIN1 mutations but not deletions in cerebellar medulloblastomas. Oncogene. 2003;22:632-6 pubmed
    ..In 39 sporadic cerebellar medulloblastomas screeened for alterations in the AXIN1 gene, another component of the Wnt pathway, we found missense AXIN1 mutations in two tumours, CCC-->TCC at ..
  29. Liu W, Rui H, Wang J, Lin S, He Y, Chen M, et al. Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia. EMBO J. 2006;25:1646-58 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Axin activates TGF-beta signaling by forming a multimeric complex consisting of Smad7 and ubiquitin E3 ligase Arkadia...
  30. Nakajima M, Fukuchi M, Miyazaki T, Masuda N, Kato H, Kuwano H. Reduced expression of Axin correlates with tumour progression of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:1734-9 pubmed
    Axin is a negative regulator of the Wnt signalling pathway, and genetic alterations of AXIN1 have been suggested to be an important factor of carcinogenesis in some tumours...
  31. Mao J, Wang J, Liu B, Pan W, Farr G, Flynn C, et al. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Mol Cell. 2001;7:801-9 pubmed
    To understand how the Wnt coreceptor LRP-5 is involved in transducing the canonical Wnt signals, we identified Axin as a protein that interacts with the intracellular domain of LRP-5...
  32. Jho E, Lomvardas S, Costantini F. A GSK3beta phosphorylation site in axin modulates interaction with beta-catenin and Tcf-mediated gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;266:28-35 pubmed
    ..b>Axin is a scaffold protein which binds beta-catenin and GSK3beta (as well as several other proteins) and thus promotes ..
  33. Fiedler M, Mendoza Topaz C, Rutherford T, Mieszczanek J, Bienz M. Dishevelled interacts with the DIX domain polymerization interface of Axin to interfere with its function in down-regulating ?-catenin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1937-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of Wnt, ?-catenin is targeted continuously for proteasomal degradation by the Axin destruction complex, whose activity is blocked upon Wnt stimulation by Dishevelled, which recruits Axin to the ..
  34. Yang L, Xu H, Li Q, Jiang G, Zhang X, Zhao H, et al. Abnormal hypermethylation and clinicopathological significance of Axin gene in lung cancer. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:749-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Axin is an important negative regulator of Wnt pathway. We have reported that reduced expression of Axin could be detected in lung cancer tissues, but the mechanism is not clear...
  35. Wiechens N, Heinle K, Englmeier L, Schohl A, Fagotto F. Nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt-beta-catenin Pathway. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5263-7 pubmed
    b>Axin is a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway essential for down-regulation of beta-catenin. Axin has been considered so far as a cytoplasmic protein...
  36. Jin L, Shao Q, Luo W, Ye Z, Li Q, Lin S. Detection of point mutations of the Axin1 gene in colorectal cancers. Int J Cancer. 2003;107:696-9 pubmed
    ..and function of Axin in controlling cell growth, we analyzed 54 colorectal cancer tissues for mutations in AXIN1 gene...
  37. Wong C, Luo W, Deng Y, Zou H, Ye Z, Lin S. The DIX domain protein coiled-coil-DIX1 inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation by Axin and dishevelled through distinct mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:39366-73 pubmed
    b>Axin, Ccd1 (coiled-coil-DIX1), and dishevelled (Dvl or Dsh) are three known DIX domain proteins that play important roles in Wnt signaling...
  38. Amit S, Hatzubai A, Birman Y, Andersen J, Ben Shushan E, Mann M, et al. Axin-mediated CKI phosphorylation of beta-catenin at Ser 45: a molecular switch for the Wnt pathway. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1066-76 pubmed
    ..Normally, cytoplasmic beta-catenin associates with APC and axin and is continuously phosphorylated by GSK-3beta, marking it for proteasomal degradation...
  39. Zhu X, Zhang Z, Han G, Han J, Qiu D. Overexpression of miR?214 promotes the progression of human osteosarcoma by regulating the Wnt/??catenin signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:1884-1892 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, infection with the miR?214 lentivirus did not affect the levels of Wnt1, Wnt2, Wnt4, Axin or glycogen synthase kinase ? in the U2OS cells, whereas the expression levels of ??catenin in the MG63 cells and ..
  40. Quan J, Qu J, Zhou L. MicroRNA-539 inhibits glioma cell proliferation and invasion by targeting DIXDC1. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;93:746-753 pubmed publisher
    ..and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-539 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region of Disheveled-axin domain containing 1 (DIXDC1). DIXDC1 expression was negatively regualted by miR-539 overexpression...
  41. Zhang L, Ye J, Zhang F, Li F, Li H, Gu Y, et al. Axin induces cell death and reduces cell proliferation in astrocytoma by activating the p53 pathway. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:25-32 pubmed
    Astrocytic tumors are the most common brain tumors with various genetic defects. As a tumor suppressor gene, Axin could control cell death and growth...
  42. Korkmaz G, Horozoglu C, Arıkan S, Gural Z, Sağlam E, Turan S, et al. LGALS3 and AXIN1 gene variants playing role in the Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway are associated with mucinous component and tumor size in colorectal cancer. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2016;16:108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>AXIN1 is mainly responsible for the assembly of the β-catenin destruction complex in the Wnt pathway...
  43. Zhang T, Hsu F, Xie X, Li X, Liu M, Gao X, et al. Reversal of hyperactive Wnt signaling-dependent adipocyte defects by peptide boronic acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E7469-E7478 pubmed publisher
    ..We have established a Drosophila model with hyperactivated Wnt signaling caused by partial loss of axin, a key component of the Wnt cascade...
  44. Yamamoto H, Hinoi T, Michiue T, Fukui A, Usui H, Janssens V, et al. Inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway by the PR61 subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26875-82 pubmed
    b>Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, forms a complex with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), beta-catenin, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene product, and Dvl, and it regulates GSK-3beta-dependent ..
  45. Xia S, Ji R, Zhan W. Long noncoding RNA papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility candidate 3 (PTCSC3) inhibits proliferation and invasion of glioma cells by suppressing the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. BMC Neurol. 2017;17:30 pubmed publisher
    ..By evaluating the expression levels of Axin1, active ?-catenin, c-myc, and cyclin D1, the study indicated that lncRNA PTCSC3 inhibited the activation of the ..
  46. Dema A, Schröter M, Perets E, Skroblin P, Moutty M, Deák V, et al. The A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? Interaction Protein (GSKIP) Regulates ?-Catenin through Its Interactions with Both Protein Kinase A (PKA) and GSK3?. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:19618-30 pubmed publisher
  47. McGonigle S, Chen Z, Wu J, Chang P, Kolber Simonds D, Ackermann K, et al. E7449: A dual inhibitor of PARP1/2 and tankyrase1/2 inhibits growth of DNA repair deficient tumors and antagonizes Wnt signaling. Oncotarget. 2015;6:41307-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this possibility, E7449 stabilized axin and TNKS proteins resulting in β-catenin de-stabilization and significantly altered expression of Wnt target ..
  48. Fernández Rozadilla C, de Castro L, Clofent J, Brea Fernández A, Bessa X, Abuli A, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Wnt and BMP pathways and colorectal cancer risk in a Spanish cohort. PLoS ONE. 2010;5: pubmed publisher
  49. Jang J, Kim W, Kim K, Chung S, Shim Y, Kim S, et al. Lipoteichoic acid upregulates NF-?B and proinflammatory cytokines by modulating ?-catenin in bronchial epithelial cells. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:4720-4726 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of ??catenin were significantly upregulated, whereas ??catenin phosphorylation and the expression levels of AXIN were significantly downregulated...
  50. Ou F, Su K, Sun J, Liao W, Yao Y, Zheng Y, et al. The LncRNA ZBED3-AS1 induces chondrogenesis of human synovial fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;487:457-463 pubmed publisher
    ..the divergent lncRNA ZBED3-AS1, which binds locally to chromatin, could promote the expression of zbed3, a novel Axin-interacting protein that activates Wnt/?-catenin signaling, involved in chondrogenesis...
  51. Yang L, Han Y, Li G, Xu H, Jiang G, Miao Y, et al. Axin gene methylation status correlates with radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:368 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that Axin1 (Axin) is down-regulated in many cases of lung cancer, and X-ray irradiation increased Axin expression and inhibited lung cancer cells. The mechanisms, however, were not clear...
  52. Zucman Rossi J, Villanueva A, Nault J, Llovet J. Genetic Landscape and Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2015;149:1226-1239.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..most prevalent mutations, affecting 25%-30% of HCC patients, that, in addition to low-frequency mutated genes (eg, AXIN1, ARID2, ARID1A, TSC1/TSC2, RPS6KA3, KEAP1, MLL2), help define some of the core deregulated pathways in HCC...
  53. Huang S, Ng K, Yeh T, Chang H, Su C, Chen T. Clinicopathological analysis of ?-catenin and Axin-1 in solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012;19 Suppl 3:S438-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The CTNNB1 and AXIN1 gene mutations were analyzed by DNA sequencing...
  54. Zhong J, Liu Y, Xu Q, Yu J, Zhang M. Inhibition of DIXDC1 by microRNA-1271 suppresses the proliferation and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;484:794-800 pubmed publisher
    Disheveled-Axin domain containing 1 (DIXDC1) is involved in the development and progression of multiple cancers. However, the function significance of DIXDC1 in prostate cancer remains unclear...
  55. Mao Y, Ge X, Frank C, Madison J, Koehler A, Doud M, et al. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 regulates neuronal progenitor proliferation via modulation of GSK3beta/beta-catenin signaling. Cell. 2009;136:1017-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results implicate DISC1 in GSK3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathways and provide a framework for understanding how alterations in this pathway may contribute to the etiology of psychiatric disorders. ..
  56. Anvarian Z, Nojima H, Van Kappel E, Madl T, Spit M, Viertler M, et al. Axin cancer mutants form nanoaggregates to rewire the Wnt signaling network. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2016;23:324-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that cancer point mutations in the scaffold protein Axin derail Wnt signaling and promote tumor growth in vivo through a gain-of-function mechanism...
  57. Flint J, Thomas K, Micklem G, Raynham H, Clark K, Doggett N, et al. The relationship between chromosome structure and function at a human telomeric region. Nat Genet. 1997;15:252-7 pubmed
    ..Together with previous data these studies describe in detail the structural and functional organization of a human telomeric region. ..
  58. Lin X, Zhang D, Zhang Y, Fan C, Dai S, Wang E. In pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma expression of ?-catenin, Axin, and C-myc differs between the two cell types. Virchows Arch. 2012;461:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..To further study this question, we examined the expression of ?-catenin, Axin, and C-myc by immunostaining in 45 primary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) specimens...
  59. Irini T, Paraskevi A, Ioanna G, Christos P, Lydia N. Preserved Axin expression is associated with an aggressive phenotype in invasive breast carcinomas. APMIS. 2013;121:797-805 pubmed publisher
    Reduced Axin expression has been associated with an aggressive behavior in lung and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Its role in breast cancer has not been defined...
  60. DeBruine Z, Xu H, Melcher K. Assembly and architecture of the Wnt/?-catenin signalosome at the membrane. Br J Pharmacol. 2017;174:4564-4574 pubmed publisher
    ..in the FZD and LRP5/6 receptors promote the assembly of an intracellular signalosome driven by Dishevelled and Axin co-polymerization...
  61. Yardy G, Bicknell D, Wilding J, Bartlett S, Liu Y, Winney B, et al. Mutations in the AXIN1 gene in advanced prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2009;56:486-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Of particular interest, we identified three new potentially functionally relevant AXIN1 mutations.
  62. Zheng Y, Zhang L, Wang Y, Chen S, Lei L, Tang N, et al. Thyroid cancer 1 (C8orf4) shows high expression, no mutation and reduced methylation level in lung cancers, and its expression correlates with ?-catenin and DNMT1 expression and poor prognosis. Oncotarget. 2017;8:62880-62890 pubmed publisher
    ..TC1 expression levels were assessed via immunohistochemical staining in 179 cases of lung cancer. ?-catenin, TCF4, Axin, Disabled-2, Chibby, and DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) expressions were also examined...
  63. Berwick D, Harvey K. LRRK2 functions as a Wnt signaling scaffold, bridging cytosolic proteins and membrane-localized LRP6. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:4966-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a newly developed LRRK2 kinase inhibitor disrupted Wnt signaling to a similar extent as pathogenic LRRK2 mutations. The use of LRRK2 kinase inhibition to treat PD may therefore need reconsideration. ..
  64. Merenda A, Andersson Rolf A, Mustata R, Li T, Kim H, Koo B. A Protocol for Multiple Gene Knockout in Mouse Small Intestinal Organoids Using a CRISPR-concatemer. J Vis Exp. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..As an example, we show that simultaneous knockout of two pairs of genes encoding negative regulators of the Wnt signaling pathway (Axin1/2 and Rnf43/Znrf3) renders intestinal organoids resistant to the withdrawal of key growth factors.
  65. Azzolin L, Panciera T, Soligo S, Enzo E, Bicciato S, Dupont S, et al. YAP/TAZ incorporation in the ?-catenin destruction complex orchestrates the Wnt response. Cell. 2014;158:157-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This work reveals an unprecedented signaling framework relevant for organ size control, regeneration, and tumor suppression. ..
  66. Kim W, Kim H, Katanaev V, Joon Lee S, Ishitani T, Cha B, et al. Dual functions of DP1 promote biphasic Wnt-on and Wnt-off states during anteroposterior neural patterning. EMBO J. 2012;31:3384-97 pubmed publisher
    ..DP1 negatively regulates Wnt/?-catenin signalling by inhibiting Dvl-Axin interaction and by enhancing poly-ubiquitination of ?-catenin...
  67. Yan D, Avtanski D, Saxena N, Sharma D. Leptin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells requires ?-catenin activation via Akt/GSK3- and MTA1/Wnt1 protein-dependent pathways. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:8598-612 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase 3? (GSK3?) via Akt activation resulting in a substantial decrease in the formation of the GSK3?-LKB1-Axin complex that leads to increased accumulation of ?-catenin...
  68. Zhang X, Farrell A, Daniel C, Arnold H, Scanlan C, Laraway B, et al. Mechanistic insight into Myc stabilization in breast cancer involving aberrant Axin1 expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:2790-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The signaling cascade that controls phosphorylation at T58 and S62 is coordinated by the scaffold protein Axin1. We therefore examined Axin1 in breast cancer and report decreased AXIN1 expression and a shift in the ratio of ..
  69. Chen J, Ou Y, Li Y, Hu S, Shao L, Liu Y. Metformin extends C. elegans lifespan through lysosomal pathway. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..We further show in Caenorhabditis elegans that both v-ATPase-mediated TORC1 inhibition and v-ATPase-AXIN/LKB1-mediated AMPK activation contribute to the lifespan extension effect of metformin...