aromatase

Summary

Gene Symbol: aromatase
Description: cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1
Alias: ARO, ARO1, CPV1, CYAR, CYP19, CYPXIX, P-450AROM, aromatase, cytochrome P-450AROM, cytochrome P450 19A1, cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1, cytochrome P450, subfamily XIX (aromatization of androgens), estrogen synthase, estrogen synthetase, flavoprotein-linked monooxygenase, microsomal monooxygenase
Species: human
Products:     aromatase

Top Publications

  1. McInnes K, Brown K, Knower K, Chand A, Clyne C, Simpson E. Characterisation of aromatase expression in the human adipocyte cell line SGBS. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;112:429-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Aromatase is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes which catalyses the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of estrogens...
  2. He S, Hartsfield J, Guo Y, Cao Y, Wang S, Chen S. Association between CYP19A1 genotype and pubertal sagittal jaw growth. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012;142:662-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The CYP19A1 (formerly CYP19) gene encodes the cytochrome P450 enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthetase), which converts testosterone to estrogen...
  3. Peter I, Shearman A, Zucker D, Schmid C, Demissie S, Cupples L, et al. Variation in estrogen-related genes and cross-sectional and longitudinal blood pressure in the Framingham Heart Study. J Hypertens. 2005;23:2193-200 pubmed
    ..blood pressure and polymorphisms at the estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1), estrogen receptor-beta (ESR2), aromatase (CYP19A1), and nuclear receptor coactivator 1 (NCOA1) genes after adjustment for common risk factors...
  4. Umamaheswaran G, Dkhar S, Kalaivani S, Anjana R, Revathy M, Jaharamma M, et al. Haplotype structures and functional polymorphic variants of the drug target enzyme aromatase (CYP19A1) in South Indian population. Med Oncol. 2013;30:665 pubmed publisher
    CYP19A1 gene product aromatase (CYP19A1) is a 58-kDa protein and belongs to the member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which facilitates the bioconversion of estrogens from androgens...
  5. Iwasaki M, Hamada G, Nishimoto I, Netto M, Motola J, Laginha F, et al. Dietary isoflavone intake, polymorphisms in the CYP17, CYP19, 17beta-HSD1, and SHBG genes, and risk of breast cancer in case-control studies in Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:466-75 pubmed publisher
    We tested the hypothesis that polymorphisms in cytochrome P450c17alpha (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (17beta-HSD1) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) genes may modify the association between ..
  6. Colomer R, Monzo M, Tusquets I, Rifa J, Baena J, Barnadas A, et al. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the aromatase gene is associated with the efficacy of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole in advanced breast carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:811-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy of treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole in breast cancer patients segregated with respect to DNA polymorphisms of the aromatase gene CYP19...
  7. Garcia Casado Z, Guerrero Zotano A, Llombart Cussac A, Calatrava A, Fernandez Serra A, Ruiz Simon A, et al. A polymorphism at the 3'-UTR region of the aromatase gene defines a subgroup of postmenopausal breast cancer patients with poor response to neoadjuvant letrozole. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:36 pubmed publisher
    b>Aromatase (CYP19A1) regulates estrogen biosynthesis. Polymorphisms in CYP19A1 have been related to the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC)...
  8. Petry C, Ong K, Michelmore K, Artigas S, Wingate D, Balen A, et al. Associations between common variation in the aromatase gene promoter region and testosterone concentrations in two young female populations. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;98:199-206 pubmed
    We recently reported association between a coding-region single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP50) in the aromatase gene that encodes a key enzyme in testosterone metabolism, with risk for the development of precocious pubarche and ..
  9. Ghosh D, Griswold J, Erman M, Pangborn W. Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase. Nature. 2009;457:219-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the only enzyme in vertebrates known to catalyse the biosynthesis of all oestrogens from androgens. Aromatase inhibitors therefore constitute a frontline therapy for oestrogen-dependent breast cancer...

More Information

Publications83

  1. Garringer J, Niyonkuru C, McCullough E, Loucks T, Dixon C, Conley Y, et al. Impact of aromatase genetic variation on hormone levels and global outcome after severe TBI. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:1415-25 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no studies have evaluated associations with cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) hormone profiles and aromatase gene (cytochrome P450 [CYP]19A1) variability on clinical TBI outcomes. We evaluated 110 adults with severe TBI...
  2. Altmäe S, Haller K, Peters M, Saare M, Hovatta O, Stavreus Evers A, et al. Aromatase gene (CYP19A1) variants, female infertility and ovarian stimulation outcome: a preliminary report. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18:651-7 pubmed
    Progress has been made towards ascertaining the genetic predictors of ovarian stimulation in IVF. Aromatase cytochrome P450, encoded by the CYP19A1 gene, catalyses a key step in ovarian oestrogen biosynthesis...
  3. Kim J, Lee C, Kim H, Jo Y, Lee J, Jung M, et al. The association between genetic polymorphisms in CYP19 and breast cancer risk in Korean women. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:487-92 pubmed
    b>Aromatase encoding by the CYP19 gene catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens...
  4. Guo Y, Xiong D, Yang T, Guo Y, Recker R, Deng H. Polymorphisms of estrogen-biosynthesis genes CYP17 and CYP19 may influence age at menarche: a genetic association study in Caucasian females. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2401-8 pubmed
    ..Our study aimed to identify whether the CYP17 and CYP19, the two key genes involved in the biosynthesis of estrogen, are associated with AAM variation in 1048 females ..
  5. Sohl C, Guengerich F. Kinetic analysis of the three-step steroid aromatase reaction of human cytochrome P450 19A1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17734-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 19A1 (P450 19A1), the aromatase, catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens through a sequential three-step reaction, generating 19-hydroxy and 19-aldehyde intermediates en route to the product estrogen...
  6. Yang H, Gonzalez Bosquet J, Li Q, Platz E, Brinton L, Sherman M, et al. Common genetic variation in the sex hormone metabolic pathway and endometrial cancer risk: pathway-based evaluation of candidate genes. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:827-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we identified regions in AR and CYP19A1 that are of interest for further evaluation in relation to endometrial cancer risk in future haplotype and subsequent fine mapping studies in larger study populations. ..
  7. Setiawan V, Doherty J, Shu X, Akbari M, Chen C, De Vivo I, et al. Two estrogen-related variants in CYP19A1 and endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:242-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides evidence that CYP19A1 genetic variation influences susceptibility to endometrial cancer, particularly among older and obese women. ..
  8. Chen D, Reierstad S, Lu M, Lin Z, Ishikawa H, Bulun S. Regulation of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters. Cancer Lett. 2009;273:15-27 pubmed publisher
    By converting androstenedione to estrone, or testosterone to estradiol, aromatase is a key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis...
  9. Eriksson A, Lorentzon M, Vandenput L, Labrie F, Lindersson M, Syvanen A, et al. Genetic variations in sex steroid-related genes as predictors of serum estrogen levels in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1033-41 pubmed publisher
    ..cohort identified the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2470152 in intron 1 of the CYP19 gene, which codes for aromatase, responsible for the final step of the biosynthesis of E2 and E1, to be most significantly associated with serum ..
  10. Payne E, Ingley E, Dick I, Wilson S, Bond C, Prince R. In vitro kinetic properties of the Thr201Met variant of human aromatase gene CYP19A1: functional responses to substrate and product inhibition and enzyme inhibitors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2998-3002 pubmed publisher
    The T(201)M variant (rs28757184) within exon 5 of the human aromatase gene CYP19A1, present in up to 20% of some populations, has been reported to reduce prostate cancer progression...
  11. Lunardi G, Piccioli P, Bruzzi P, Notaro R, Lastraioli S, Serra M, et al. Plasma estrone sulfate concentrations and genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer treated with letrozole. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137:167-74 pubmed publisher
    Estrogen synthesis suppression induced by aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer (BC) patients may be affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene encoding aromatase enzyme, CYP19A1...
  12. Cai H, Shu X, Egan K, Cai Q, Long J, Gao Y, et al. Association of genetic polymorphisms in CYP19A1 and blood levels of sex hormones among postmenopausal Chinese women. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:657-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Single nucleotide polymorphisms in blocks 1 and 2 of the CYP19A1 gene are related to plasma levels of estrogen among postmenopausal Chinese women and may therefore play an important role in the etiology of hormone-related cancers. ..
  13. Travis R, Schumacher F, Hirschhorn J, Kraft P, Allen N, Albanes D, et al. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:2734-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterized by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk of prostate cancer. ..
  14. Ghosh D, Jiang W, Lo J, Egbuta C. Higher order organization of human placental aromatase. Steroids. 2011;76:753-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Aromatase (CYP19A1) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the 19-methyl group and aromatization of the A-ring of androgens...
  15. Chace C, Pang D, Weng C, Temkin A, Lax S, Silverman W, et al. Variants in CYP17 and CYP19 cytochrome P450 genes are associated with onset of Alzheimer's disease in women with down syndrome. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;28:601-12 pubmed publisher
    CYP17 and CYP19 are involved in the peripheral synthesis of estrogens, and polymorphisms in CYP17 and CYP19 have been associated with increased risk of estrogen-related disorders...
  16. Ribeiro F, de Amorim L, de Almeida Simão T, Mendonça G, de Moura Gallo C, Pinto L. CYP19 (TTTA)n polymorphism and breast cancer risk in Brazilian women. Toxicol Lett. 2006;164:90-5 pubmed
    ..The CYP19 gene encodes the enzyme aromatase, which catalyzes the conversion of androgens into estrogens...
  17. Long J, Kataoka N, Shu X, Wen W, Gao Y, Cai Q, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP19A1 gene and breast cancer survival. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:2115-22 pubmed
    The CYP19A1 protein (aromatase) plays a critical role in estrogen biosynthesis and thus may be related to the progression of breast cancer...
  18. Prescott J, Thompson D, Kraft P, Chanock S, Audley T, Brown J, et al. Genome-wide association study of circulating estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in postmenopausal women. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37815 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the small magnitude of difference in hormone levels associated with common genetic variants is likely insufficient to detectably contribute to breast cancer risk. ..
  19. Liu L, Bai Y, Zhou J, Sun X, Sui H, Zhang W, et al. A polymorphism at the 3'-UTR region of the aromatase gene is associated with the efficacy of the aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, in metastatic breast carcinoma. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:18973-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of this study indicate that rs4646 polymorphism in the CYP19A1 gene may serve as a prognostic maker of the response to anastrozole in patients with MBC who are treated with anastrozole. ..
  20. Suzuki T, Miki Y, Moriya T, Akahira J, Ishida T, Hirakawa H, et al. 5Alpha-reductase type 1 and aromatase in breast carcinoma as regulators of in situ androgen production. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:285-91 pubmed
    ..was positively associated with 5alpha-reductase type 1 (5alphaRed1), and negatively correlated with aromatase. We then examined clinical significance of AR and 5alphaRed1 status in 115 breast carcinoma tissues by ..
  21. Woods N, Mitchell E, Tao Y, Viernes H, Stapleton P, Farin F. Polymorphisms in the estrogen synthesis and metabolism pathways and symptoms during the menopausal transition: observations from the Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study. Menopause. 2006;13:902-10 pubmed
    ..Genotyping was done for the following polymorphisms: CYP1A1m2; CYP1B1*2 and CYP1B1*3; CYP17 5'UTR; CYP19 3'UTR; CYP19 (TTTA)n; including CYP19 7r and CYP19 7(r-3); CYP19 8r and CYP19 11r; and ESR1PvuII and ESR1XbaI...
  22. Colette S, Lousse J, Defrere S, Curaba M, Heilier J, van Langendonckt A, et al. Absence of aromatase protein and mRNA expression in endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:2133-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Aromatase has been reported to be involved in estrogen biosynthesis and expressed in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of endometriosis patients...
  23. Haiman C, Dossus L, Setiawan V, Stram D, Dunning A, Thomas G, et al. Genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus predicts circulating estrogen levels but not breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Cancer Res. 2007;67:1893-7 pubmed
    The CYP19A1 gene encodes the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for the final step in the biosynthesis of estrogens...
  24. Hu Z, Song C, Lu J, Luo J, Shen Z, Huang W, et al. A multigenic study on breast cancer risk associated with genetic polymorphisms of ER Alpha, COMT and CYP19 gene in BRCA1/BRCA2 negative Shanghai women with early onset breast cancer or affected relatives. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007;133:969-78 pubmed
    ..The genotypes of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), aromatase (CYP19), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes were analyzed by direct DNA-sequencing...
  25. Ashton K, Proietto A, Otton G, Symonds I, McEvoy M, Attia J, et al. Polymorphisms in genes of the steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism pathways and endometrial cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34:328-37 pubmed publisher
  26. Subbaramaiah K, Hudis C, Chang S, Hla T, Dannenberg A. EP2 and EP4 receptors regulate aromatase expression in human adipocytes and breast cancer cells. Evidence of a BRCA1 and p300 exchange. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3433-44 pubmed
    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (aromatase), a product of the CYP19 gene, catalyzes the synthesis of estrogens from androgens...
  27. Warren R, Skinner J, Sala E, Denton E, Dowsett M, Folkerd E, et al. Associations among mammographic density, circulating sex hormones, and polymorphisms in sex hormone metabolism genes in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1502-8 pubmed
    ..globulin (SHBG), androstenedione, 17-OH-progesterone, estrone, and estrone sulfate] and 15 SNPs in the CYP17, CYP19, EDH17B2, SHBG, COMT, and CYP1B1 genes were studied...
  28. Dieudonne M, Sammari A, Dos Santos E, Leneveu M, Giudicelli Y, Pecquery R. Sex steroids and leptin regulate 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I and P450 aromatase expressions in human preadipocytes: Sex specificities. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;99:189-96 pubmed
    ..dehydrogenase (HSD1), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of cortisone into cortisol and the P450 aromatase, the enzyme catalysing androgens aromatization into estrogens, are both expressed in human adipose tissue...
  29. Wang L, Ellsworth K, Moon I, Pelleymounter L, Eckloff B, Martin Y, et al. Functional genetic polymorphisms in the aromatase gene CYP19 vary the response of breast cancer patients to neoadjuvant therapy with aromatase inhibitors. Cancer Res. 2010;70:319-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Aromatase (CYP19) is a critical enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis and aromatase inhibitors (AI) are employed widely for endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with breast cancer...
  30. Praporski S, Ng S, Nguyen A, Corbin C, Mechler A, Zheng J, et al. Organization of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in sex steroid synthesis: PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN LIPID MEMBRANES. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33224-32 pubmed publisher
    ..type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their electron donor NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR)...
  31. Song D, Liu G, Luu The V, Zhao D, Wang L, Zhang H, et al. Expression of aromatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1, 7 and 12 in breast cancer. An immunocytochemical study. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;101:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The steroidogenic enzymes involved in E2 formation are aromatase which transforms testosterone into E2 and androstenedione into estrone (E1) and reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid ..
  32. Kohno T, Kakinuma R, Iwasaki M, Yamaji T, Kunitoh H, Suzuki K, et al. Association of CYP19A1 polymorphisms with risks for atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in the lungs. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..079) in a population of 363 postmenopausal women without cancer. These results indicate that CYP19A1 polymorphisms are involved in the risk for lung AAH and BAC in the lungs by causing differences in estrogen levels...
  33. Zhang X, Zhang C, Xu P, Liang F, Che Y, Xia Y, et al. SNP rs2470152 in CYP19 is correlated to aromatase activity in Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Mol Med Rep. 2012;5:245-9 pubmed publisher
    CYP19 encodes aromatase, a key enzyme essential for estrogen biosynthesis...
  34. Oterino A, Toriello M, Cayon A, Castillo J, Colas R, Alonson Arranz A, et al. Multilocus analyses reveal involvement of the ESR1, ESR2, and FSHR genes in migraine. Headache. 2008;48:1438-50 pubmed
    ..009), ESR2-FSHR (global P = .011), and nominally significant interaction for ESR2-ESR1-FSHR genes (global P = .037). We found significant association of female hormone metabolism polymorphisms under the perspective of multigene approach. ..
  35. Ramirez Lorca R, Grilo A, Martinez Larrad M, Manzano L, Serrano Hernando F, Moron F, et al. Sex and body mass index specific regulation of blood pressure by CYP19A1 gene variants. Hypertension. 2007;50:884-90 pubmed
    ..A key enzyme in determining estrogen levels is aromatase cytochrome P450...
  36. Xu W, Dai Q, Xiang Y, Long J, Ruan Z, Cheng J, et al. Interaction of soy food and tea consumption with CYP19A1 genetic polymorphisms in the development of endometrial cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:1420-30 pubmed
    Certain polyphenols inhibit the activity of aromatase, a critical enzyme in estrogen synthesis that is coded by the CYP19A1 gene...
  37. Zhang L, Gu L, Qian B, Hao X, Zhang W, Wei Q, et al. Association of genetic polymorphisms of ER-alpha and the estradiol-synthesizing enzyme genes CYP17 and CYP19 with breast cancer risk in Chinese women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;114:327-38 pubmed publisher
    ..regulatory regions of ER-alpha (rs3798577) and other two estrogen-metabolizing enzyme genes CYP17 (rs743572) and CYP19 (rs10046) among 300 breast cancer cases and 390 controls in a Chinese population...
  38. Fasching P, Loehberg C, Strissel P, Lux M, Bani M, Schrauder M, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the aromatase gene (CYP19A1), HER2/neu status, and prognosis in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;112:89-98 pubmed
    ..b>Aromatase is involved in the production of estrogens, and altered expression of it might be associated with the prognosis...
  39. Cai Q, Kataoka N, Li C, Wen W, Smith J, Gao Y, et al. Haplotype analyses of CYP19A1 gene variants and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:27-32 pubmed publisher
    Estrogens play a central role in the etiology of breast cancer. The CYP19A1 gene encodes aromatase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of estrogens...
  40. Wang H, Li Q, Wang T, Yang G, Wang Y, Zhang X, et al. A common polymorphism in the human aromatase gene alters the risk for polycystic ovary syndrome and modifies aromatase activity in vitro. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:386-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Aromatase is a key enzyme involved in estradiol and estrone biosynthesis...
  41. Mao J, Su H, Feng R, Donelson M, Aplenc R, Rebbeck T, et al. Association of functional polymorphisms in CYP19A1 with aromatase inhibitor associated arthralgia in breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R8 pubmed publisher
    b>Aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia (AIAA) is a common and often debilitating symptom in breast cancer survivors...
  42. Darabi H, Czene K, Wedren S, Li Y, Liu J, Hall P, et al. Genetic variation in the androgen estrogen conversion pathway in relation to breast cancer prognosticators. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;127:503-9 pubmed publisher
    ..008 and 0.011; 1-sided, respectively). Our results provide new evidence that CYP19A1 is involved in both breast cancer risk and prognosis. ..
  43. Olivo Marston S, Mechanic L, Mollerup S, Bowman E, Remaley A, Forman M, et al. Serum estrogen and tumor-positive estrogen receptor-alpha are strong prognostic classifiers of non-small-cell lung cancer survival in both men and women. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1778-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the genetic control of estrogen biosynthesis and response in lung cancer could lead to improved prognosis and therapy. ..
  44. Riancho J, Valero C, Naranjo A, Morales D, Sañudo C, Zarrabeitia M. Identification of an aromatase haplotype that is associated with gene expression and postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:660-5 pubmed
    Osteoporosis has a significant genetic component. The aromatase-dependent conversion of androgenic precursors is the main source of estrogens in postmenopausal women...
  45. Catalano S, Barone I, Giordano C, Rizza P, Qi H, Gu G, et al. Rapid estradiol/ERalpha signaling enhances aromatase enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1634-45 pubmed publisher
    In situ estrogen production by aromatase conversion from androgens plays an important role in breast tumor promotion...
  46. Justenhoven C, Hamann U, Schubert F, Zapatka M, Pierl C, Rabstein S, et al. Breast cancer: a candidate gene approach across the estrogen metabolic pathway. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;108:137-49 pubmed
    ..The tested polymorphisms of the estrogen metabolic pathway may not play a direct role in breast cancer risk. Therefore, future association studies should be extended to other polymorphisms and other regulatory pathways. ..
  47. Kuo S, Yang S, Lien H, Lo C, Lin C, Lu Y, et al. CYP19 genetic polymorphism haplotype AASA is associated with a poor prognosis in premenopausal women with lymph node-negative, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:562197 pubmed publisher
    Given the critical role of CYP19 in estrogen synthesis, we investigated the influence of CYP19 gene polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of lymph node- (LN-) negative, hormone receptor- (HR-) positive early breast cancers...
  48. Lundin E, Wirgin I, Lukanova A, Afanasyeva Y, Krogh V, Axelsson T, et al. Selected polymorphisms in sex hormone-related genes, circulating sex hormones and risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. 2012;36:445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of estrogen and progesterone in the development of endometrial cancer is well documented. Few studies have examined the association of genetic variants in sex hormone-related genes with endometrial cancer risk...
  49. Ikeda K, Shiraishi K, Eguchi A, Osumi H, Matsuishi K, Matsubara E, et al. Association of a genetic variant of CYP19A1 with multicentric development of lung adenocarcinomas. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21:939-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the cytochrome P450 19A1 gene to determine if they are associated with multiple adenocarcinomas risk...
  50. Lee S, Kim W, Choi J, Lee S, Shin J. Identification of CYP19A1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their haplotype distributions in a Korean population. J Hum Genet. 2010;55:189-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Aromatase, encoded by the CYP19A1 gene, is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of estrogen. In an effort to screen for CYP19A1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Koreans, the CYP19A1 gene was directly sequenced in 50 normal subjects...
  51. Chow J, Simpson E, Boon W. Alternative 5'-untranslated first exons of the mouse Cyp19A1 (aromatase) gene. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;115:115-25 pubmed publisher
    The human aromatase gene (CYP19A1) has eleven tissue-specific untranslated first exons, while only three have been described in the mouse Cyp19A1 namely brain-, ovary- and testis-specific exons 1...
  52. Irahara N, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Noguchi S. Quantitative analysis of aromatase, sulfatase and 17beta-HSD(1) mRNA expression in soft tissue metastases of breast cancer. Cancer Lett. 2006;243:23-31 pubmed
    Expression of the estrogen-synthesizing genes aromatase, steroid sulfatase (STS) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 (17beta-HSD(1)) has been shown to be up-regulated in primary breast cancer tissue but their expression status ..
  53. Freedman N, Ahn J, Hou L, Lissowska J, Zatonski W, Yeager M, et al. Polymorphisms in estrogen- and androgen-metabolizing genes and the risk of gastric cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should be interpreted cautiously until replicated in other studies. ..
  54. Sonoda T, Suzuki H, Mori M, Tsukamoto T, Yokomizo A, Naito S, et al. Polymorphisms in estrogen related genes may modify the protective effect of isoflavones against prostate cancer risk in Japanese men. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2010;19:131-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined whether the genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptors (ESR-alpha and ESR-beta) and cytochrome P450 19A1 (CYP19A1) modified the protective effect of isoflavones against prostate cancer...
  55. Kagawa N. Efficient expression of human aromatase (CYP19) in E. coli. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;705:109-22 pubmed publisher
    Human aromatase (CYP19, P450arom) is responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens...
  56. Fleming N, Knower K, Lazarus K, Fuller P, Simpson E, Clyne C. Aromatase is a direct target of FOXL2: C134W in granulosa cell tumors via a single highly conserved binding site in the ovarian specific promoter. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14389 pubmed publisher
    Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary often express aromatase and synthesize estrogen, which in turn may influence their progression...
  57. Goodman M, Lurie G, Thompson P, McDuffie K, Carney M. Association of two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 locus and ovarian cancer risk. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008;15:1055-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The production of estrogen involves the conversion of androgens via P450 aromatase, encoded by the CYP19A1 gene...
  58. Slattery M, Lundgreen A, Herrick J, Kadlubar S, Caan B, Potter J, et al. Variation in the CYP19A1 gene and risk of colon and rectal cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22:955-63 pubmed publisher
    CYP19A1, or aromatase, influences estrogen-metabolizing enzymes and may influence cancer risk...
  59. Jiang W, Ghosh D. Motion and flexibility in human cytochrome p450 aromatase. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32565 pubmed publisher
    The crystal structures of human placental aromatase in complex with the substrate androstenedione and exemestane have revealed an androgen-specific active site and the structural basis for higher order organization...
  60. Khatri Y, Luthra A, Duggal R, Sligar S. Kinetic solvent isotope effect in steady-state turnover by CYP19A1 suggests involvement of Compound 1 for both hydroxylation and aromatization steps. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:3117-22 pubmed publisher
    CYP19A1, or human aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in a three-step reaction through the formation of 19-hydroxy and 19-aldehyde intermediates...
  61. Mak P, Luthra A, Sligar S, Kincaid J. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of the oxygenated intermediates of human CYP19A1 implicates a compound i intermediate in the final lyase step. J Am Chem Soc. 2014;136:4825-8 pubmed publisher
    CYP19A1, or aromatase, a cytochrome P450 responsible for estrogen biosynthesis in humans, is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer...
  62. Morris P, Hudis C, Giri D, Morrow M, Falcone D, Zhou X, et al. Inflammation and increased aromatase expression occur in the breast tissue of obese women with breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:1021-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we found increased numbers of CLS, activation of the NF-?B transcription factor, and elevated aromatase levels and activity in the mammary glands of obese mice...
  63. Huang C, Kuo S, Lien H, Yang S, You S, Shen C, et al. The CYP19 TTTA repeat polymorphism is related to the prognosis of premenopausal stage I-II and operable stage III breast cancers. Oncologist. 2008;13:751-60 pubmed publisher
    Given the critical role of the CYP19 gene, encoding aromatase, in estrogen synthesis and the association of the estrogen level with its TTTA repeat polymorphism, the potential influence of this polymorphism on breast cancer survival, and ..
  64. Peter I, Kelley Hedgepeth A, Fox C, Cupples L, Huggins G, Housman D, et al. Variation in estrogen-related genes associated with cardiovascular phenotypes and circulating estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2779-85 pubmed publisher
    ..associations between variations in genes encoding estrogen receptors alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2), and enzyme aromatase (CYP19A1), which regulates the estrogen to testosterone ratio, and cardiovascular phenotypes in the Framingham ..
  65. Shimodaira M, Nakayama T, Sato N, Saito K, Morita A, Sato I, et al. Association study of aromatase gene (CYP19A1) in essential hypertension. Int J Med Sci. 2008;5:29-35 pubmed
    As aromatase-deficient mice, which are deficient in estrogens, reportedly have reduced blood pressure, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1) is thought to be a susceptibility gene for essential hypertension (EH)...
  66. Licznerska B, Wegman P, Nordenskjold B, Wingren S. In situ levels of oestrogen producing enzymes and its prognostic significance in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;112:15-23 pubmed
    ..We measured the mRNA and protein levels of aromatase and sulfatase by real-time PCR (n=161) and immunohistochemistry (n=131) in postmenopausal women with breast ..
  67. Olson J, Ingle J, Ma C, Pelleymounter L, Schaid D, Pankratz V, et al. A comprehensive examination of CYP19 variation and risk of breast cancer using two haplotype-tagging approaches. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;102:237-47 pubmed
    ..Androgens are converted to estrogens by the aromatase enzyme, which is encoded by the CYP19 gene...
  68. Parakh T, Hernandez J, Grammer J, Weck J, Hunzicker Dunn M, Zeleznik A, et al. Follicle-stimulating hormone/cAMP regulation of aromatase gene expression requires beta-catenin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12435-40 pubmed
    ..of estradiol in women are controlled by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which regulates transcription of the aromatase gene (CYP19A1) in ovarian granulosa cells...
  69. Huang R, Poduslo S. CYP19 haplotypes increase risk for Alzheimer's disease. J Med Genet. 2006;43:e42 pubmed
    Cytochrome P450 aromatase, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens to oestrogen, is expressed at high levels in the gonads and in the brain...
  70. Jongen V, Hollema H, van der Zee A, Heineman M. Aromatase in the context of breast and endometrial cancer. A review. Minerva Endocrinol. 2006;31:47-60 pubmed
    ..The local presence of androgens and the local expression and activity of aromatase is considered important for this steroidogenesis...
  71. Irahara N, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Noguchi S. Quantitative analysis of aromatase mRNA expression derived from various promoters (I.4, I.3, PII and I.7) and its association with expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and COX-2 mRNAs in human breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1915-21 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to study the aromatase mRNA expression as well as promoter usage (I.4, I.3, PII and I...
  72. Ma X, Qi X, Chen C, Lin H, Xiong H, Li Y, et al. Association between CYP19 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: results from 10,592 cases and 11,720 controls. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;122:495-501 pubmed publisher
    The association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with breast cancer has been widely reported, but results of previous studies were somewhat contradictory and underpowered...
  73. Izawa M, Inoue M, Osaki M, Ito H, Harada T, Terakawa N, et al. Cytochrome P450 aromatase gene (CYP19) expression in gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2008;11:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we examined aromatase expression in gastric carcinoma...
  74. Pineda B, García Pérez M, Cano A, Lluch A, Eroles P. Associations between aromatase CYP19 rs10046 polymorphism and breast cancer risk: from a case-control to a meta-analysis of 20,098 subjects. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53902 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, the CYP19 gene encodes for aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens...