APOL1

Summary

Gene Symbol: APOL1
Description: apolipoprotein L1
Alias: APO-L, APOL, APOL-I, FSGS4, apolipoprotein L1, apolipoprotein L 1, apolipoprotein L1-B3
Species: human
Products:     APOL1

Top Publications

  1. Vanhollebeke B, Nielsen M, Watanabe Y, Truc P, Vanhamme L, Nakajima K, et al. Distinct roles of haptoglobin-related protein and apolipoprotein L-I in trypanolysis by human serum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4118-23 pubmed
    Apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I) is a human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) component able to kill Trypanosoma brucei brucei by forming anion-selective pores in the lysosomal membrane of the parasite...
  2. Freedman B, Langefeld C, Murea M, Ma L, Otvos J, Turner J, et al. Apolipoprotein L1 nephropathy risk variants associate with HDL subfraction concentration in African Americans. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:3805-10 pubmed publisher
    Coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with non-diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. ApoL1 proteins associate with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in the circulation...
  3. Monajemi H, Fontijn R, Pannekoek H, Horrevoets A. The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution and is expressed in human vascular tissue. Genomics. 2002;79:539-46 pubmed
    We previously isolated APOL3 (CG12-1) cDNA and now describe the isolation of APOL1 and APOL2 cDNA from an activated endothelial cell cDNA library and show their endothelialspecific expression in human vascular tissue...
  4. Wasser W, Tzur S, Wolday D, Adu D, Baumstein D, Rosset S, et al. Population genetics of chronic kidney disease: the evolving story of APOL1. J Nephrol. 2012;25:603-18 pubmed publisher
    ..database information enabled research groups to discover common functional DNA sequence risk variants in the APOL1 gene...
  5. Behar D, Kedem E, Rosset S, Haileselassie Y, Tzur S, Kra Oz Z, et al. Absence of APOL1 risk variants protects against HIV-associated nephropathy in the Ethiopian population. Am J Nephrol. 2011;34:452-9 pubmed publisher
    ..end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) among HIV-infected Americans of African ancestral heritage has been attributed to APOL1 genetic variation...
  6. Atta M, Estrella M, Kuperman M, Foy M, Fine D, Racusen L, et al. HIV-associated nephropathy patients with and without apolipoprotein L1 gene variants have similar clinical and pathological characteristics. Kidney Int. 2012;82:338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..kidney disease in African Americans and two independent sequence variants in the APOL1 gene, encoding apolipoprotein L1. In this study we determined the frequency of APOL1 risk variants in patients with biopsy-proven HIV-..
  7. Perez Morga D, Vanhollebeke B, Paturiaux Hanocq F, Nolan D, Lins L, Homble F, et al. Apolipoprotein L-I promotes trypanosome lysis by forming pores in lysosomal membranes. Science. 2005;309:469-72 pubmed
    ..In Trypanosoma brucei, apolipoprotein L-I was targeted to the lysosomal membrane and triggered depolarization of this membrane, continuous influx of chloride, and subsequent osmotic swelling of the lysosome until the trypanosome lysed. ..
  8. Lugli E, Pouliot M, Loomis M, Raper J. Characterization of primate trypanosome lytic factors. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;138:9-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe here previously unidentified components of highly purified human TLF1: apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I), human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide 18 (hCAP18) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (..
  9. Genovese G, Friedman D, Pollak M. APOL1 variants and kidney disease in people of recent African ancestry. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013;9:240-4 pubmed publisher
    Coding variants within the APOL1 gene have been associated with kidney disease, explaining an association that was previously attributed to variants within the neighbouring MYH9 gene...

More Information

Publications82

  1. Tayo B, Kramer H, Salako B, Gottesman O, McKenzie C, Ogunniyi A, et al. Genetic variation in APOL1 and MYH9 genes is associated with chronic kidney disease among Nigerians. Int Urol Nephrol. 2013;45:485-94 pubmed publisher
    A region of chromosome 22 which includes APOL1 and MYH9 genes was recently identified as a risk locus for non-diabetic forms of kidney disease, including idiopathic and HIV-associated focal segmental glomerular sclerosis and kidney ..
  2. Vanhamme L, Paturiaux Hanocq F, Poelvoorde P, Nolan D, Lins L, Van den Abbeele J, et al. Apolipoprotein L-I is the trypanosome lytic factor of human serum. Nature. 2003;422:83-7 pubmed
    ..interacts strongly with a carboxy-terminal alpha-helix of the human-specific serum protein apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I)...
  3. Freedman B, Langefeld C, Turner J, Nunez M, High K, Spainhour M, et al. Association of APOL1 variants with mild kidney disease in the first-degree relatives of African American patients with non-diabetic end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 2012;82:805-11 pubmed publisher
    ..aggregation of non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is found in African Americans and variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) contribute to this risk...
  4. Page N, Butlin D, Lomthaisong K, Lowry P. The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: identification, classification, and sites of distribution. Genomics. 2001;74:71-8 pubmed
    We report the cloning of a new gene family encoding six apolipoprotein L (apoL-I to -VI) proteins. The genes were identified as a cluster spanning a region of 619 kb on chromosome 22...
  5. Tzur S, Rosset S, Skorecki K, Wasser W. APOL1 allelic variants are associated with lower age of dialysis initiation and thereby increased dialysis vintage in African and Hispanic Americans with non-diabetic end-stage kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:1498-505 pubmed publisher
    The APOL1 G1 and G2 genetic variants make a major contribution to the African ancestry risk for a number of common forms of non-diabetic end-stage kidney disease (ESKD)...
  6. Reeves Daniel A, DePalma J, Bleyer A, Rocco M, Murea M, Adams P, et al. The APOL1 gene and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2011;11:1025-30 pubmed publisher
    Coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with nephropathy in African Americans (AAs). The effect of transplanting kidneys from AA donors with two APOL1 nephropathy risk variants is unknown...
  7. Larsen C, Beggs M, Saeed M, Walker P. Apolipoprotein L1 risk variants associate with systemic lupus erythematosus-associated collapsing glomerulopathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:722-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of APOL1 risk alleles associates with HIV-associated collapsing glomerulopathy, but it is unknown whether these risk ..
  8. Lipkowitz M, Freedman B, Langefeld C, Comeau M, Bowden D, Kao W, et al. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with hypertension-attributed nephropathy and the rate of kidney function decline in African Americans. Kidney Int. 2013;83:114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To better understand this, coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) and the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) genes were evaluated for an association with ..
  9. Fine D, Wasser W, Estrella M, Atta M, Kuperman M, Shemer R, et al. APOL1 risk variants predict histopathology and progression to ESRD in HIV-related kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:343-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the role of APOL1 risk variants in predicting renal histopathology and progression to ESRD in 98 HIV-infected African Americans with ..
  10. Kanji Z, Powe C, Wenger J, Huang C, Ankers E, Sullivan D, et al. Genetic variation in APOL1 associates with younger age at hemodialysis initiation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:2091-7 pubmed publisher
    African Americans have a markedly higher incidence of ESRD compared with other racial groups. Two variants in the APOL1 gene, to date observed only among individuals of recent African ancestry, associate with increased risk for renal ..
  11. Kopp J, Nelson G, Sampath K, Johnson R, Genovese G, An P, et al. APOL1 genetic variants in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HIV-associated nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:2129-37 pubmed publisher
    Trypanolytic variants in APOL1, which encodes apolipoprotein L1, associate with kidney disease in African Americans, but whether APOL1-associated glomerular disease has a distinct clinical phenotype is unknown...
  12. Freedman B, Langefeld C, Andringa K, Croker J, Williams A, Garner N, et al. End-stage renal disease in African Americans with lupus nephritis is associated with APOL1. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66:390-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) nephropathy risk alleles G1/G2, common in African Americans and rare in European Americans, ..
  13. Duchateau P, Pullinger C, Cho M, Eng C, Kane J. Apolipoprotein L gene family: tissue-specific expression, splicing, promoter regions; discovery of a new gene. J Lipid Res. 2001;42:620-30 pubmed
    Previously we identified and cloned the cDNA for a new protein, apolipoprotein L (apoL), present in plasma and mainly associated with large high density lipoprotein particles...
  14. Genovese G, Friedman D, Ross M, Lecordier L, Uzureau P, Freedman B, et al. Association of trypanolytic ApoL1 variants with kidney disease in African Americans. Science. 2010;329:841-5 pubmed publisher
    ..end-stage kidney disease (H-ESKD) are associated with two independent sequence variants in the APOL1 gene on chromosome 22 {FSGS odds ratio = 10.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.0 to 18.4]; H-ESKD odds ratio = 7...
  15. Tzur S, Rosset S, Shemer R, Yudkovsky G, Selig S, Tarekegn A, et al. Missense mutations in the APOL1 gene are highly associated with end stage kidney disease risk previously attributed to the MYH9 gene. Hum Genet. 2010;128:345-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Genomes Project to identify two western African-specific missense mutations (S342G and I384M) in the neighboring APOL1 gene, and demonstrate that these are more strongly associated with ESKD than previously reported MYH9 variants...
  16. Wan G, Zhaorigetu S, Liu Z, Kaini R, Jiang Z, Hu C. Apolipoprotein L1, a novel Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only lipid-binding protein, induces autophagic cell death. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21540-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the cloning and characterization of a novel Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only protein, apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1), that, when overexpressed and accumulated intracellularly, induces AuCD in cells as characterized by ..
  17. Duchateau P, Pullinger C, Orellana R, Kunitake S, Naya Vigne J, O Connor P, et al. Apolipoprotein L, a new human high density lipoprotein apolipoprotein expressed by the pancreas. Identification, cloning, characterization, and plasma distribution of apolipoprotein L. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:25576-82 pubmed
    ..123 < d < 1.21 g/ml. Free apoL was not detected in plasma...
  18. Papeta N, Kiryluk K, Patel A, Sterken R, Kacak N, Snyder H, et al. APOL1 variants increase risk for FSGS and HIVAN but not IgA nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:1991-6 pubmed publisher
    ..initial studies implicated MYH9, more recent analyses localized the strongest association within the neighboring APOL1 gene...
  19. Genovese G, Tonna S, Knob A, Appel G, Katz A, Bernhardy A, et al. A risk allele for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in African Americans is located within a region containing APOL1 and MYH9. Kidney Int. 2010;78:698-704 pubmed publisher
    ..comparison of African Americans found variants within a 60 kb region of chromosome 22 containing part of the APOL1 and MYH9 genes associated with increased risk of FSGS...
  20. Ashley Koch A, Okocha E, Garrett M, Soldano K, De Castro L, Jonassaint J, et al. MYH9 and APOL1 are both associated with sickle cell disease nephropathy. Br J Haematol. 2011;155:386-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle (MYH9) and apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genes have been associated with risk for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and end-stage renal ..
  21. Friedman D, Kozlitina J, Genovese G, Jog P, Pollak M. Population-based risk assessment of APOL1 on renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:2098-105 pubmed publisher
    Case-control studies suggest that African Americans with genetic variants in both copies of APOL1 have increased risk for hypertension-attributable ESRD and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis...
  22. Freedman B, Langefeld C, Lu L, Divers J, Comeau M, Kopp J, et al. Differential effects of MYH9 and APOL1 risk variants on FRMD3 Association with Diabetic ESRD in African Americans. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002150 pubmed publisher
    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MYH9 and APOL1 on chromosome 22 (c22) are powerfully associated with non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans (AAs)...
  23. Parsa A, Kao W, Xie D, Astor B, Li M, Hsu C, et al. APOL1 risk variants, race, and progression of chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2183-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In two studies, we examined the effects of variants in the gene encoding apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) on the progression of chronic kidney disease...
  24. Ulasi I, Tzur S, Wasser W, Shemer R, Kruzel E, Feigin E, et al. High population frequencies of APOL1 risk variants are associated with increased prevalence of non-diabetic chronic kidney disease in the Igbo people from south-eastern Nigeria. Nephron Clin Pract. 2013;123:123-8 pubmed publisher
    Continental Africa is facing an epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD). APOL1 risk variants have been shown to be strongly associated with an increased risk for non-diabetic kidney disease including HIV nephropathy, primary non-..
  25. Lee B, Kumar V, Williams T, Abdi R, Bernhardy A, Dyer C, et al. The APOL1 genotype of African American kidney transplant recipients does not impact 5-year allograft survival. Am J Transplant. 2012;12:1924-8 pubmed publisher
    Apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1) gene variants are associated with end-stage renal disease in African Americans (AAs). Here we investigate the impact of recipient APOL1 gene distributions on kidney allograft outcomes...
  26. Zhaorigetu S, Wan G, Kaini R, Jiang Z, Hu C. ApoL1, a BH3-only lipid-binding protein, induces autophagic cell death. Autophagy. 2008;4:1079-82 pubmed
    We recently reported the identification and characterization of a novel BH3-only pro-death protein, apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1), that, when overexpressed, induces autophagic cell death (ACD) in a variety of cells, including those ..
  27. Vanhollebeke B, Truc P, Poelvoorde P, Pays A, Joshi P, Katti R, et al. Human Trypanosoma evansi infection linked to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2752-6 pubmed
    Humans have innate immunity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei that is known to involve apolipoprotein L-I (APOL1). Recently, a case of T. evansi infection in a human was identified in India...
  28. Madhavan S, O Toole J, Konieczkowski M, Ganesan S, Bruggeman L, Sedor J. APOL1 localization in normal kidney and nondiabetic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:2119-28 pubmed publisher
    In patients of African ancestry, genetic variants in APOL1, which encodes apolipoprotein L1, associate with the nondiabetic kidney diseases, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), and hypertensive ..
  29. Young B, Fullerton S, Wilson J, Cavanaugh K, Blacksher E, Spigner C, et al. Clinical Genetic Testing for APOL1: Are we There Yet?. Semin Nephrol. 2017;37:552-557 pubmed publisher
    ..Two independent variants of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene, G1 and G2, have been associated with a 7- to 10-fold greater risk of developing nondiabetic ..
  30. Wang Z, Guo L, Zhou H, Qu H, Wang S, Liu F, et al. Using drugs to target necroptosis: dual roles in disease therapy. Histol Histopathol. 2018;33:773-789 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we briefly introduce up to date concepts concerning the mechanism of necroptosis, the diseases that involve necroptosis, and the drugs that can be applied to treat such diseases. ..
  31. Albert T, Duchateau P, Deeb S, Pullinger C, Cho M, Heilbron D, et al. Apolipoprotein L-I is positively associated with hyperglycemia and plasma triglycerides in CAD patients with low HDL. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:469-74 pubmed
    Apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I) is present on a subset of HDL particles and is positively correlated with plasma triglycerides (TGs)...
  32. Estrella M, Parekh R. The Expanding Role of APOL1 Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disease. Semin Nephrol. 2017;37:520-529 pubmed publisher
    Variants of the APOL1 gene, found primarily in individuals of African descent, are associated with various forms of kidney disease and kidney disease progression...
  33. Friedman D. A Brief History of APOL1: A Gene Evolving. Semin Nephrol. 2017;37:508-513 pubmed publisher
    b>APOL1 kidney risk variants lead to high rates of kidney disease in people of recent African ancestry. These risk variants are very common and confer a large increase in risk of kidney disease...
  34. Rosset S, Tzur S, Behar D, Wasser W, Skorecki K. The population genetics of chronic kidney disease: insights from the MYH9-APOL1 locus. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011;7:313-26 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis enabled two independent research teams to discover more strongly associated mutations in the neighboring APOL1 gene...
  35. Lei Y, Anders H. Evolutionary trade-offs in kidney injury and repair. Histol Histopathol. 2017;32:1099-1113 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of ..
  36. Ouban A. Claudin-1 role in colon cancer: An update and a review. Histol Histopathol. 2018;33:1013-1019 pubmed publisher
  37. Fontaine F, Lecordier L, Vanwalleghem G, Uzureau P, Van Reet N, Fontaine M, et al. APOLs with low pH dependence can kill all African trypanosomes. Nat Microbiol. 2017;2:1500-1506 pubmed publisher
    The primate-specific serum protein apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) is the only secreted member of a family of cell death promoting proteins 1-4 ...
  38. Zhang J, Wang M, Tian L, Genovese G, Yan P, Wilson J, et al. UBD modifies APOL1-induced kidney disease risk. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:3446-3451 pubmed publisher
    ..Two specific coding variants in the Apolipoprotein-L1 gene APOL1 termed G1 and G2 are the causal drivers of much of this difference in risk, following a recessive pattern of ..
  39. Chen T, Appel L, Grams M, Tin A, Choi M, Lipkowitz M, et al. APOL1 Risk Variants and Cardiovascular Disease: Results From the AASK (African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension). Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1765-1769 pubmed publisher
    Among African Americans, the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk variants have been associated with various types of kidney disease and chronic kidney disease progression...
  40. Peng T, Li G, Zhong X, Wang L. Does copy number variation of APOL1 gene affect the susceptibility to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis?. Ren Fail. 2017;39:500-504 pubmed publisher
    b>APOL1 risk variants (G1 and G2) are associated with increased susceptibility to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in African population. However, the two risk mutations were not found in Chinese FSGS patients...
  41. Robinson T, Freedman B. APOL1 genotype, blood pressure, and survival in African Americans with nondiabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2017;91:276-278 pubmed publisher
    ..This commentary reviews the current findings and extends the discussion to apolipoprotein L1 gene by blood pressure (or gene by environment) interactions.
  42. Friedman D, Pollak M. Apolipoprotein L1 and Kidney Disease in African Americans. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016;27:204-215 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants in the Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene cause high rates of kidney disease in African Americans...
  43. Mukamal K, Tremaglio J, Friedman D, Ix J, Kuller L, Tracy R, et al. APOL1 Genotype, Kidney and Cardiovascular Disease, and Death in Older Adults. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:398-403 pubmed publisher
    We sought to evaluate the cardiovascular impact of coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene APOL1 that protect against trypanosome infection but have been associated with kidney disease among African Americans...
  44. Palmer N, Ng M, Langefeld C, Divers J, Lea J, Okusa M, et al. Lack of Association of the APOL1 G3 Haplotype in African Americans with ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;26:1021-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 variants are strongly associated with progressive nondiabetic nephropathy in populations with recent African ancestry...
  45. Taylor H, Khatua A, Popik W. The innate immune factor apolipoprotein L1 restricts HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 2014;88:592-603 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) is a major component of the human innate immune response against African trypanosomes...
  46. Limou S, Dummer P, Nelson G, Kopp J, Winkler C. APOL1 toxin, innate immunity, and kidney injury. Kidney Int. 2015;88:28-34 pubmed publisher
    The discovery that two common APOL1 alleles were strongly associated with nondiabetic kidney diseases in African descent populations led to hope for improved diagnosis and treatment...
  47. Giusti F, Kessler P, Hansen R, Della Pia E, Le Bon C, Mourier G, et al. Synthesis of a Polyhistidine-bearing Amphipol and its Use for Immobilizing Membrane Proteins. Biomacromolecules. 2015;16:3751-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, A8-35, a polyacrylate-based APol, was grafted with hexahistidine tags (His6-tags)...
  48. Fu Y, Zhu J, Richman A, Zhang Y, Xie X, Das J, et al. APOL1-G1 in Nephrocytes Induces Hypertrophy and Accelerates Cell Death. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:1106-1116 pubmed publisher
    People of African ancestry carrying certain APOL1 mutant alleles are at elevated risk of developing renal diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying APOL1-associated renal diseases are unknown...
  49. Hayek S, Koh K, Grams M, Wei C, Ko Y, Li J, et al. A tripartite complex of suPAR, APOL1 risk variants and ?v?3 integrin on podocytes mediates chronic kidney disease. Nat Med. 2017;23:945-953 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene variants G1 and G2, but not the reference allele (G0), are associated with an increased risk of ..
  50. Zwang N, Shetty A, Sustento Reodica N, Gordon E, Leventhal J, Gallon L, et al. APOL1-Associated End-Stage Renal Disease in a Living Kidney Transplant Donor. Am J Transplant. 2016;16:3568-3572 pubmed publisher
    Homozygosity for apolipoprotein-L1 (APOL1) risk variants has emerged as an important predictor of renal disease in individuals of African descent over the past several years...
  51. Freedman B. APOL1 and nephropathy progression in populations of African ancestry. Semin Nephrol. 2013;33:425-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, genetic association between the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene and several severe nondiabetic forms of kidney disease in African Americans approach Mendelian ..
  52. Lan X, Jhaveri A, Cheng K, Wen H, Saleem M, Mathieson P, et al. APOL1 risk variants enhance podocyte necrosis through compromising lysosomal membrane permeability. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;307:F326-36 pubmed publisher
    ..GS) in African Americans has been attributed to two coding sequence variants (G1 and G2) in the APOL1 gene. To date, the cellular function and the role of APOL1 variants (Vs) in GS are still unknown...
  53. Larsen C, Beggs M, Saeed M, Ambruzs J, Cossey L, Messias N, et al. Histopathologic findings associated with APOL1 risk variants in chronic kidney disease. Mod Pathol. 2015;28:95-102 pubmed publisher
    The effects of nephropathy risk variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) on renal histopathology in African Americans with arterionephrosclerosis or putative 'hypertension-associated' nephropathy are unknown...
  54. Nally J. Chronic kidney disease in African Americans: Puzzle pieces are falling into place. Cleve Clin J Med. 2017;84:855-862 pubmed publisher
    ..African Americans are disproportionately affected by the disease, and recently discovered genetic variants in APOL1 that protect against sleeping sickness in Africa provide an important explanation for the increased burden...
  55. Mancone C, Amicone L, Fimia G, Bravo E, Piacentini M, Tripodi M, et al. Proteomic analysis of human very low-density lipoprotein by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Proteomics. 2007;7:143-54 pubmed
    ..Notably, we also identified seven isoforms of apoL-I and two isoforms of prenylcysteine lyase as new VLDL-associated proteins...
  56. Bruggeman L, O Toole J, Ross M, Madhavan S, Smurzynski M, Wu K, et al. Plasma apolipoprotein L1 levels do not correlate with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25:634-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) protein circulates and is localized in kidney cells, but the contribution of APOL1 location to CKD ..
  57. Pondrom S. The AJT Report: news and issues that affect organ and tissue transplantation. Genetic factor may limitkidney donation. Am J Transplant. 2012;12:2865-6 pubmed publisher
  58. Rubinow K, Henderson C, Robinson Cohen C, Himmelfarb J, De Boer I, Vaisar T, et al. Kidney function is associated with an altered protein composition of high-density lipoprotein. Kidney Int. 2017;92:1526-1535 pubmed publisher
    ..34-2.67), 1.52-fold higher apolipoprotein C-III (1.25-1.84), 0.70-fold lower apolipoprotein L1 (0.55-0.92), and 0.64-fold lower vitronectin (0.48-0.85)...
  59. Pays E. [Molecular dialogue between African trypanosomes and humans]. Bull Mem Acad R Med Belg. 2011;166:358-63; discussion 364-5 pubmed
    ..rhodesiense to resist trypanolysis by human serum, which led us to discover that the trypanolytic factor is apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1)...
  60. Larsen C, Beggs M, Walker P, Saeed M, Ambruzs J, Messias N. Histopathologic effect of APOL1 risk alleles in PLA2R-associated membranous glomerulopathy. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;64:161-3 pubmed publisher
  61. Langefeld C, Divers J, Pajewski N, Hawfield A, Reboussin D, Bild D, et al. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with prevalent kidney but not prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial. Kidney Int. 2015;87:169-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 coding variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans (AAs)...
  62. Besse W, Mansour S, Jatwani K, Nast C, Brewster U. Collapsing glomerulopathy in a young woman with APOL1 risk alleles following acute parvovirus B19 infection: a case report investigation. BMC Nephrol. 2016;17:125 pubmed publisher
    ..This lesion occurs disproportionally in patients carrying two APOL1 risk alleles, and is the classic histologic lesion resulting from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection of ..
  63. Bentley A, Divers J, Shriner D, Doumatey A, Gutiérrez O, Adeyemo A, et al. APOL1 G1 genotype modifies the association between HDLC and kidney function in African Americans. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:421 pubmed publisher
    Despite evidence of an association between variants at the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) locus and a spectrum of related kidney diseases, underlying biological mechanisms remain unknown...
  64. Jotwani V, Shlipak M, Scherzer R, Parekh R, Kao W, Bennett M, et al. APOL1 Genotype and Glomerular and Tubular Kidney Injury in Women With HIV. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015;65:889-98 pubmed publisher
    b>APOL1 genotype is associated with advanced kidney disease in African Americans, but the pathogenic mechanisms are unclear...
  65. Thomson R, Genovese G, Canon C, Kovacsics D, Higgins M, Carrington M, et al. Evolution of the primate trypanolytic factor APOL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E2130-9 pubmed publisher
    ApolipoproteinL1 (APOL1) protects humans and some primates against several African trypanosomes...
  66. Cubedo J, Padro T, Alonso R, Mata P, Badimon L. ApoL1 levels in high density lipoprotein and cardiovascular event presentation in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:1059-73 pubmed publisher
    ..FH patients had lower apoA-I levels and a differential HDL distribution profile of apoL1 and apoA-IV. ELISA validation revealed decreased apoL1 serum levels in FH patients...
  67. McLaren P, Gawanbacht A, Pyndiah N, Krapp C, Hotter D, Kluge S, et al. Identification of potential HIV restriction factors by combining evolutionary genomic signatures with functional analyses. Retrovirology. 2015;12:41 pubmed publisher
    ..Five factors (APOL1, APOL6, CD164, TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10D) suppressed infectious HIV-1 production in transfected 293T cells by >90% ..
  68. Huang Y, Li Q, Fan P, Liu R, Zhang J, Liang S, et al. Association study of apolipoprotein L-I Lys166Glu and Ile244Met gene variants with obesity in Chinese subjects. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2012;16:514-8 pubmed publisher
    b>ApoL-I is a newly found component of high-density lipoprotein, and has a potential role in lipid metabolism...
  69. Haque S, Patil G, Mishra A, Lan X, Popik W, Malhotra A, et al. Effect of APOL1 disease risk variants on APOL1 gene product. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) has two sets of sequence variants that are risk factors for kidney disease development, APOL1G1 (..
  70. Rotimi C, Tekola Ayele F, Baker J, Shriner D. The African diaspora: history, adaptation and health. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2016;41:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..in Latin Americans that likely derived from the slave trade; and understanding of the ancestral backgrounds of APOL1 and LPL found to influence kidney disease and lipid levels, respectively, providing specific insights into disease ..
  71. Kopp J, Heymann J, Winkler C. APOL1 Renal Risk Variants: Fertile Soil for HIV-Associated Nephropathy. Semin Nephrol. 2017;37:514-519 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants are potent risk factors for glomerular disease, but one or more additional factors are required for expression of glomerular disease...
  72. Weckerle A, Snipes J, Cheng D, Gebre A, Reisz J, Murea M, et al. Characterization of circulating APOL1 protein complexes in African Americans. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:120-30 pubmed publisher
    b>APOL1 gene renal-risk variants are associated with nephropathy and CVD in African Americans; however, little is known about the circulating APOL1 variant proteins which reportedly bind to HDL...
  73. Wonkam A, Mnika K, Ngo Bitoungui V, Chetcha Chemegni B, Chimusa E, Dandara C, et al. Clinical and genetic factors are associated with pain and hospitalisation rates in sickle cell anaemia in Cameroon. Br J Haematol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..b>APOL1 G1/G2 correlated with increased hospitalisation (P = 0·048)...