APOBEC3G

Summary

Gene Symbol: APOBEC3G
Description: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3G
Alias: A3G, ARCD, ARP-9, ARP9, CEM-15, CEM15, MDS019, bK150C2.7, dJ494G10.1, DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3G, APOBEC-related cytidine deaminase, APOBEC-related protein 9, DNA dC->dU editing enzyme, apolipoprotein B editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme cytidine deaminase, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3G, deoxycytidine deaminase, phorbolin-like protein MDS019
Species: human
Products:     APOBEC3G

Top Publications

  1. Ribeiro A, Maia e Silva A, Santa Marta M, Pombo A, Moniz Pereira J, Goncalves J, et al. Functional analysis of Vif protein shows less restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 by APOBEC3G. J Virol. 2005;79:823-33 pubmed
    ..Vif counteracts an antiretroviral cellular factor in nonpermissive cells named CEM15/APOBEC3G. Although HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Vif protein (Vif1) can be functionally replaced by HIV-2 Vif protein (Vif2), its ..
  2. Tian C, Yu X, Zhang W, Wang T, Xu R, Yu X. Differential requirement for conserved tryptophans in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif for the selective suppression of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. J Virol. 2006;80:3112-5 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) and related cytidine deaminases, such as APOBEC3F (A3F), are potent inhibitors of retroviruses. Formation of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires suppression of multiple cytidine deaminases by Vif...
  3. Khan M, Goila Gaur R, Opi S, Miyagi E, Takeuchi H, Kao S, et al. Analysis of the contribution of cellular and viral RNA to the packaging of APOBEC3G into HIV-1 virions. Retrovirology. 2007;4:48 pubmed
    Efficient incorporation of the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (APO3G) into HIV-1 virions is necessary for its antiviral activity...
  4. Wang F, Huang J, Zhang H, Ma X, Zhang H. APOBEC3G upregulation by alpha interferon restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in human peripheral plasmacytoid dendritic cells. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:722-30 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G), a member of cytidine deaminase family, has potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity...
  5. Friew Y, Boyko V, HU W, Pathak V. Intracellular interactions between APOBEC3G, RNA, and HIV-1 Gag: APOBEC3G multimerization is dependent on its association with RNA. Retrovirology. 2009;6:56 pubmed publisher
    Host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G) blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by G-to-A hypermutation, and by inhibiting DNA synthesis and provirus formation...
  6. Izumi T, Burdick R, Shigemi M, Plisov S, HU W, Pathak V. Mov10 and APOBEC3G localization to processing bodies is not required for virion incorporation and antiviral activity. J Virol. 2013;87:11047-62 pubmed publisher
    Mov10 and APOBEC3G (A3G) localize to cytoplasmic granules called processing bodies (P bodies), incorporate into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions, and inhibit viral replication...
  7. Opi S, Takeuchi H, Kao S, Khan M, Miyagi E, Goila Gaur R, et al. Monomeric APOBEC3G is catalytically active and has antiviral activity. J Virol. 2006;80:4673-82 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3G (APO3G) is a cytidine deaminase that restricts replication of vif-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Like other members of the cellular deaminase family, APO3G has the propensity to form homo-multimers...
  8. Greene W, Debyser Z, Ikeda Y, Freed E, Stephens E, Yonemoto W, et al. Novel targets for HIV therapy. Antiviral Res. 2008;80:251-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This review contains concise summaries of discussed topics that included Vif-APOBEC3G, LEDGF/p75, TRIM 5alpha, virus assembly and maturation, and Vpu...
  9. Mbisa J, Bu W, Pathak V. APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G inhibit HIV-1 DNA integration by different mechanisms. J Virol. 2010;84:5250-9 pubmed publisher
    APOBEC3F (A3F) and APBOBEC3G (A3G) both are host restriction factors that can potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication...

More Information

Publications231 found, 100 shown here

  1. Miyagi E, Brown C, Opi S, Khan M, Goila Gaur R, Kao S, et al. Stably expressed APOBEC3F has negligible antiviral activity. J Virol. 2010;84:11067-75 pubmed publisher
    APOBEC3F (A3F) is a member of the family of cytidine deaminases that is often coexpressed with APOBEC3G (A3G) in cells susceptible to HIV infection...
  2. Farrow M, Kim E, Wolinsky S, Sheehy A. NFAT and IRF proteins regulate transcription of the anti-HIV gene, APOBEC3G. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:2567-77 pubmed publisher
    The human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) is an innate restriction factor that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Regulation of A3G gene expression plays an important role in this suppression...
  3. Compton A, Hirsch V, Emerman M. The host restriction factor APOBEC3G and retroviral Vif protein coevolve due to ongoing genetic conflict. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:91-8 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that inhibits retroviruses. HIV and related primate lentiviruses encode Vif, which counteracts A3G by inducing its degradation...
  4. Adolph M, Webb J, Chelico L. Retroviral restriction factor APOBEC3G delays the initiation of DNA synthesis by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64196 pubmed publisher
    It is well established that the cytosine deaminase APOBEC3G can restrict HIV-1 virions in the absence of the virion infectivity factor (Vif) by inducing genome mutagenesis through deamination of cytosine to uracil in single-stranded HIV-1 ..
  5. Kobayashi T, Koizumi Y, Takeuchi J, Misawa N, Kimura Y, Morita S, et al. Quantification of deaminase activity-dependent and -independent restriction of HIV-1 replication mediated by APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G through experimental-mathematical investigation. J Virol. 2014;88:5881-7 pubmed publisher
    APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G cytidine deaminases potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by enzymatically inserting G-to-A mutations in viral DNA and/or impairing viral reverse transcription independently of ..
  6. Chiu Y, Witkowska H, Hall S, Santiago M, Soros V, Esnault C, et al. High-molecular-mass APOBEC3G complexes restrict Alu retrotransposition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15588-93 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) and related deoxycytidine deaminases are potent intrinsic antiretroviral factors...
  7. Donahue J, Vetter M, Mukhtar N, D Aquila R. The HIV-1 Vif PPLP motif is necessary for human APOBEC3G binding and degradation. Virology. 2008;377:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..infectivity factor (Vif) is required during viral replication to inactivate the host cell anti-viral factor, APOBEC3G (A3G)...
  8. Henry M, Guetard D, Suspène R, Rusniok C, Wain Hobson S, Vartanian J. Genetic editing of HBV DNA by monodomain human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases and the recombinant nature of APOBEC3G. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4277 pubmed publisher
    ..The amino terminal domain of A3G alone was completely devoid of deaminase activity to within the sensitivity of 3DPCR ( approximately 10(-4) to 10(-..
  9. Chen G, He Z, Wang T, Xu R, Yu X. A patch of positively charged amino acids surrounding the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif SLVx4Yx9Y motif influences its interaction with APOBEC3G. J Virol. 2009;83:8674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..K22, K26, Y30, and Y40 were found to be important for the Vif-induced degradation and suppression of cellular APOBEC3G (A3G)...
  10. Iwatani Y, Chan D, Liu L, Yoshii H, Shibata J, Yamamoto N, et al. HIV-1 Vif-mediated ubiquitination/degradation of APOBEC3G involves four critical lysine residues in its C-terminal domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19539-44 pubmed publisher
    ..ability to hijack the cellular ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway to counteract the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G (A3G), a host cytidine deaminase that can block HIV-1 replication...
  11. Wang X, Ao Z, Chen L, Kobinger G, Peng J, Yao X. The cellular antiviral protein APOBEC3G interacts with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and inhibits its function during viral replication. J Virol. 2012;86:3777-86 pubmed publisher
    The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) exerts a multifaceted antiviral effect against HIV-1 infection...
  12. Munk C, Jensen B, Zielonka J, Haussinger D, Kamp C. Running loose or getting lost: how HIV-1 counters and capitalizes on APOBEC3-induced mutagenesis through its Vif protein. Viruses. 2012;4:3132-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Both experimental evidence and the substantiation of the underlying dynamics through coevolutionary models are presented as complementary views of a coevolutionary arms race. ..
  13. Valcke H, Bernard N, Bruneau J, Alary M, Tsoukas C, Roger M. APOBEC3G genetic variants and their association with risk of HIV infection in highly exposed Caucasians. AIDS. 2006;20:1984-6 pubmed
    The cytosine deaminase APOBEC3G has been identified as a host factor that inhibits HIV-1 replication...
  14. Malim M. Natural resistance to HIV infection: The Vif-APOBEC interaction. C R Biol. 2006;329:871-5 pubmed
    Members of the APOBEC family of cellular polynucleotide cytidine deaminases (e.g., APOBEC3G) are potent inhibitors of HIV infection...
  15. Gandhi S, Siliciano J, Bailey J, Siliciano R, Blankson J. Role of APOBEC3G/F-mediated hypermutation in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in elite suppressors. J Virol. 2008;82:3125-30 pubmed
    ..To determine the role of APOBEC3G/F proteins in the control of viremia in these patients, we used a novel assay to measure the frequency of ..
  16. Bogerd H, Cullen B. Single-stranded RNA facilitates nucleocapsid: APOBEC3G complex formation. RNA. 2008;14:1228-36 pubmed publisher
    Binding of APOBEC3G to the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag polyprotein may represent a critical early step in the selective packaging of this antiretroviral factor into HIV virions...
  17. Goila Gaur R, Khan M, Miyagi E, Strebel K. Differential sensitivity of "old" versus "new" APOBEC3G to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vif. J Virol. 2009;83:1156-60 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 Vif counteracts the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by inhibiting its encapsidation into virions...
  18. Zhen A, Wang T, Zhao K, Xiong Y, Yu X. A single amino acid difference in human APOBEC3H variants determines HIV-1 Vif sensitivity. J Virol. 2010;84:1902-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Although we found that Vif hijacks the same E3 ligase to degrade A3H_HapII as it does to inactivate APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F), more Vif motifs were involved in A3H_HapII inactivation than in either A3G or A3F ..
  19. Blanco Melo D, Venkatesh S, Bieniasz P. Intrinsic cellular defenses against human immunodeficiency viruses. Immunity. 2012;37:399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..We also speculate on how restriction factors arose, how they might interact with the conventional innate and adaptive immune systems, and how an understanding of these intrinsic cellular defenses might be usefully exploited. ..
  20. Etienne L, Hahn B, Sharp P, Matsen F, Emerman M. Gene loss and adaptation to hominids underlie the ancient origin of HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:85-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HIV-1 originated through a series of gene loss and adaptation events that generated its chimpanzee precursor and lowered the species barrier to human infection. ..
  21. Pace C, Keller J, Nolan D, James I, Gaudieri S, Moore C, et al. Population level analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 hypermutation and its relationship with APOBEC3G and vif genetic variation. J Virol. 2006;80:9259-69 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro through the induction of G-->A hypermutation; however, the relevance of this host antiviral strategy to clinical HIV-1 is currently not ..
  22. Yang B, Chen K, Zhang C, Huang S, Zhang H. Virion-associated uracil DNA glycosylase-2 and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease are involved in the degradation of APOBEC3G-edited nascent HIV-1 DNA. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11667-75 pubmed
    ..Since antiviral activity of APOBEC3G is partially affected by UNG2 inhibitor Ugi or UNG2-specific short-interfering RNA in virus-producing cells but ..
  23. Wang T, Tian C, Zhang W, Luo K, Sarkis P, Yu L, et al. 7SL RNA mediates virion packaging of the antiviral cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G. J Virol. 2007;81:13112-24 pubmed
    Cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) has broad antiviral activity against diverse retroviruses and/or retrotransposons, and its antiviral functions are believed to rely on its encapsidation into virions in an RNA-dependent fashion...
  24. Neil S, Bieniasz P. Human immunodeficiency virus, restriction factors, and interferon. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:569-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Such knowledge could allow for novel forms of therapeutic intervention in pathogenic retroviral infections, as well as the development of animal models of human disease. ..
  25. Cen S, Peng Z, Li X, Li Z, Ma J, Wang Y, et al. Small molecular compounds inhibit HIV-1 replication through specifically stabilizing APOBEC3G. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16546-52 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a host inhibitor for human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1). However, HIV-1 Vif binds hA3G and induces its degradation...
  26. Fourati S, Malet I, Lambert S, Soulie C, Wirden M, Flandre P, et al. E138K and M184I mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase coemerge as a result of APOBEC3 editing in the absence of drug exposure. AIDS. 2012;26:1619-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, incomplete neutralization of one or more APOBEC3 proteins may favor viral escape to rilpivirine-emtricitabine. ..
  27. Russell R, Smith J, Barr R, Bhattacharyya D, Pathak V. Distinct domains within APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F interact with separate regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif. J Virol. 2009;83:1992-2003 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) inhibit the replication of Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 Vif overcomes these host restriction factors by binding to them and inducing their degradation...
  28. Bishop K, Verma M, Kim E, Wolinsky S, Malim M. APOBEC3G inhibits elongation of HIV-1 reverse transcripts. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000231 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that, in the absence of Vif, restricts HIV-1 replication and reduces the amount of viral DNA that accumulates in cells...
  29. Kopietz F, Jaguva Vasudevan A, Krämer M, Muckenfuss H, Sanzenbacher R, Cichutek K, et al. Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif with APOBEC3G is not dependent on serine/threonine phosphorylation status. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..type 1 accessory protein Vif is important for viral infectivity because it counteracts the antiviral protein APOBEC3G (A3G)...
  30. Carpenter M, Rajagurubandara E, Wijesinghe P, Bhagwat A. Determinants of sequence-specificity within human AID and APOBEC3G. DNA Repair (Amst). 2010;9:579-87 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3G (A3G) and activation-induced deaminase (AID) belong to a family of DNA-cytosine deaminases. While A3G targets the last C in a run of C's, AID targets C in the consensus sequence WRC (W is A or T and R is a purine)...
  31. Chaipan C, Smith J, HU W, Pathak V. APOBEC3G restricts HIV-1 to a greater extent than APOBEC3F and APOBEC3DE in human primary CD4+ T cells and macrophages. J Virol. 2013;87:444-53 pubmed publisher
    ..significant inhibition of HIV-1?vif produced in 293T cells in the presence of APOBEC3DE (A3DE), APOBEC3F (A3F), APOBEC3G (A3G), and APOBEC3H haplotype II (A3H HapII) but not APOBEC3B (A3B), APOBEC3C (A3C), or APOBEC3H haplotype I (A3H ..
  32. Cullen B. Role and mechanism of action of the APOBEC3 family of antiretroviral resistance factors. J Virol. 2006;80:1067-76 pubmed
  33. Burnett A, Spearman P. APOBEC3G multimers are recruited to the plasma membrane for packaging into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virus-like particles in an RNA-dependent process requiring the NC basic linker. J Virol. 2007;81:5000-13 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3G is an endogenous host restriction factor that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. The antiviral activity of APOBEC3G is dependent upon its incorporation into the virus particle...
  34. Mulder L, Harari A, Simon V. Cytidine deamination induced HIV-1 drug resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that naturally occurring HIV-1 Vif point mutants with suboptimal anti-APOBEC3G activity induce the appearance of proviruses with lamivudine (3TC) drug resistance-associated mutations before ..
  35. Guo F, Saadatmand J, Niu M, Kleiman L. Roles of Gag and NCp7 in facilitating tRNA(Lys)(3) Annealing to viral RNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2009;83:8099-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Both in vivo and in vitro, APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits tRNA(3)(Lys) annealing facilitated by NCp7 but not annealing facilitated by Gag...
  36. Li X, Guo F, Zhang L, Kleiman L, Cen S. APOBEC3G inhibits DNA strand transfer during HIV-1 reverse transcription. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:32065-74 pubmed
    Human APOBEC3G (hA3G) has been identified as an anti-HIV-1 host factor. The presence of hA3G in HIV-1 strongly inhibits the ability of the virus to produce new viral DNA upon infection...
  37. Chelico L, Pham P, Calabrese P, Goodman M. APOBEC3G DNA deaminase acts processively 3' --> 5' on single-stranded DNA. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:392-9 pubmed
    Akin to a 'Trojan horse,' APOBEC3G DNA deaminase is encapsulated by the HIV virion. APOBEC3G facilitates restriction of HIV-1 infection in T cells by deaminating cytosines in nascent minus-strand complementary DNA...
  38. Peng G, Lei K, Jin W, Greenwell Wild T, Wahl S. Induction of APOBEC3 family proteins, a defensive maneuver underlying interferon-induced anti-HIV-1 activity. J Exp Med. 2006;203:41-6 pubmed
    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), a cytidine deaminase, is a recently recognized innate intracellular protein with lethal activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  39. Nguyen D, Gummuluru S, Hu J. Deamination-independent inhibition of hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by APOBEC3G. J Virol. 2007;81:4465-72 pubmed
    The APOBEC3 family of mammalian cytidine deaminases, including APOBEC3G (A3G), has been shown to function as innate antiviral factors against retroviruses and can also suppress the replication of the hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
  40. Senavirathne G, Jaszczur M, Auerbach P, Upton T, Chelico L, Goodman M, et al. Single-stranded DNA scanning and deamination by APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase at single molecule resolution. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:15826-35 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3G (Apo3G) is a single-stranded (ss)DNA cytosine deaminase that eliminates HIV-1 infectivity by converting C ? U in numerous small target motifs on the minus viral cDNA...
  41. Gillick K, Pollpeter D, Phalora P, Kim E, Wolinsky S, Malim M. Suppression of HIV-1 infection by APOBEC3 proteins in primary human CD4(+) T cells is associated with inhibition of processive reverse transcription as well as excessive cytidine deamination. J Virol. 2013;87:1508-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Detailed analyses of mutation spectra in viral cDNA strongly imply that one particular APOBEC3 protein, APOBEC3G, provides the bulk of the antiviral phenotype in CD4(+) T cells, with the effects of APOBEC3F and APOBEC3D being ..
  42. Wichroski M, Robb G, Rana T. Human retroviral host restriction factors APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F localize to mRNA processing bodies. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e41 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3G is an antiviral host factor capable of inhibiting the replication of both exogenous and endogenous retroviruses as well as hepatitis B, a DNA virus that replicates through an RNA intermediate...
  43. Chiu Y, Greene W. Multifaceted antiviral actions of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. Trends Immunol. 2006;27:291-7 pubmed
    ..the innate immune system have revealed that cells have a potent intrinsic antiretroviral defense in the form of APOBEC3G, which is a member of a larger family of cytidine deaminases that are active against HIV-1 and other retroviruses...
  44. Mulder L, Ooms M, Majdak S, Smedresman J, Linscheid C, Harari A, et al. Moderate influence of human APOBEC3F on HIV-1 replication in primary lymphocytes. J Virol. 2010;84:9613-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We used an HIV NL4-3 mutant that selectively counteracts APOBEC3G (A3G) but not APOBEC3F (A3F) to dissect the relative contribution of A3F to the inhibition of HIV-1 replication ..
  45. Dang Y, Wang X, York I, Zheng Y. Identification of a critical T(Q/D/E)x5ADx2(I/L) motif from primate lentivirus Vif proteins that regulate APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F neutralizing activity. J Virol. 2010;84:8561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Vif is one of these proteins. It functions as an adaptor that binds to the cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) and bridges them to a cullin 5 (Cul5) and elongin (Elo) B/C E3 ubiquitin ligase complex ..
  46. Refsland E, Hultquist J, Harris R. Endogenous origins of HIV-1 G-to-A hypermutation and restriction in the nonpermissive T cell line CEM2n. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002800 pubmed publisher
    The DNA deaminase APOBEC3G converts cytosines to uracils in retroviral cDNA, which are immortalized as genomic strand G-to-A hypermutations by reverse transcription...
  47. Widera M, Erkelenz S, Hillebrand F, Krikoni A, Widera D, Kaisers W, et al. An intronic G run within HIV-1 intron 2 is critical for splicing regulation of vif mRNA. J Virol. 2013;87:2707-20 pubmed publisher
    ..target T lymphocytes, human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) encounters the retroviral restriction factor APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G; A3G), which is counteracted by the HIV-1 ..
  48. Izumi T, Io K, Matsui M, Shirakawa K, Shinohara M, Nagai Y, et al. HIV-1 viral infectivity factor interacts with TP53 to induce G2 cell cycle arrest and positively regulate viral replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20798-803 pubmed publisher
    ..This report demonstrates the molecular mechanisms and the biological significance of Vif-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest for HIV-1 infection. ..
  49. Malim M, Bieniasz P. HIV Restriction Factors and Mechanisms of Evasion. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a006940 pubmed publisher
    ..of the three restriction factors that have been widely shown to be potent inhibitors of HIV-1: namely, APOBEC3G, TRIM5?, and tetherin...
  50. Ao Z, Yu Z, Wang L, Zheng Y, Yao X. Vpr14-88-Apobec3G fusion protein is efficiently incorporated into Vif-positive HIV-1 particles and inhibits viral infection. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1995 pubmed publisher
    APOBEC3G (A3G), a deoxycytidine deaminase, is a potent host antiviral factor that can restrict HIV-1 infection...
  51. Yamashita T, Kamada K, Hatcho K, Adachi A, Nomaguchi M. Identification of amino acid residues in HIV-1 Vif critical for binding and exclusion of APOBEC3G/F. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:1142-9 pubmed publisher
    To define a region(s) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif that involves binding to its target APOBEC3G (A3G), we have generated a series of site-specific proviral vif mutants...
  52. Russell R, Moore M, HU W, Pathak V. APOBEC3G induces a hypermutation gradient: purifying selection at multiple steps during HIV-1 replication results in levels of G-to-A mutations that are high in DNA, intermediate in cellular viral RNA, and low in virion RNA. Retrovirology. 2009;6:16 pubmed publisher
    Naturally occurring Vif variants that are unable to inhibit the host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G) have been isolated from infected individuals...
  53. Iwatani Y, Takeuchi H, Strebel K, Levin J. Biochemical activities of highly purified, catalytically active human APOBEC3G: correlation with antiviral effect. J Virol. 2006;80:5992-6002 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3G (APO3G), a cytidine deaminase with two zinc finger domains, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in the absence of Vif...
  54. Jónsson S, LaRue R, Stenglein M, Fahrenkrug S, Andresdottir V, Harris R. The restriction of zoonotic PERV transmission by human APOBEC3G. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e893 pubmed
    The human APOBEC3G protein is an innate anti-viral factor that can dominantly inhibit the replication of some endogenous and exogenous retroviruses...
  55. Knoepfel S, Salisch N, Huelsmann P, Rauch P, Walter H, Metzner K. Comparison of G-to-A mutation frequencies induced by APOBEC3 proteins in H9 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the context of impaired processivities of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase variants. J Virol. 2008;82:6536-45 pubmed publisher
  56. WALKER R, Khan M, Kao S, Goila Gaur R, Miyagi E, Strebel K. Identification of dominant negative human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif mutants that interfere with the functional inactivation of APOBEC3G by virus-encoded Vif. J Virol. 2010;84:5201-11 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that serves as a potent intrinsic inhibitor of retroviral replication...
  57. Fan J, Ma G, Nosaka K, Tanabe J, Satou Y, Koito A, et al. APOBEC3G generates nonsense mutations in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 proviral genomes in vivo. J Virol. 2010;84:7278-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence context of G-to-A mutations was in accordance with the preferred target sequence of human APOBEC3G (hA3G)...
  58. Hultquist J, McDougle R, Anderson B, Harris R. HIV type 1 viral infectivity factor and the RUNX transcription factors interact with core binding factor ? on genetically distinct surfaces. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28:1543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..promoter activity, none of these impacted the ability of CBF? to stabilize Vif or enhance degradation of APOBEC3G. A mutagenesis screen of CBF? surface residues identified a single amino acid change, F68D, that disrupted Vif ..
  59. Esnault C, Heidmann O, Delebecque F, Dewannieux M, Ribet D, Hance A, et al. APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase inhibits retrotransposition of endogenous retroviruses. Nature. 2005;433:430-3 pubmed
    ..Here we identify another level of antiviral control, mediated by APOBEC3G, a member of the cytidine deaminase family that was previously shown to block HIV replication...
  60. Watashi K, Khan M, Yedavalli V, Yeung M, Strebel K, Jeang K. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication and regulation of APOBEC3G by peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1. J Virol. 2008;82:9928-36 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) is a cytidine deaminase that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. HIV-1 synthesizes a viral infectivity factor (Vif) to counter A3G restriction...
  61. Champiat S, Garrison K, Raposo R, Burwitz B, Reed J, Tandon R, et al. T cells target APOBEC3 proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected humans and simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaques. J Virol. 2013;87:6073-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results raise the possibility that these T cell responses may be part of the larger antiretroviral immune response...
  62. Kao S, Goila Gaur R, Miyagi E, Khan M, Opi S, Takeuchi H, et al. Production of infectious virus and degradation of APOBEC3G are separable functional properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif. Virology. 2007;369:329-39 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vif regulates viral infectivity by inhibiting the encapsidation of APOBEC3G (APO3G) through proteasomal degradation of the protein...
  63. Vetter M, Johnson M, Antons A, Unutmaz D, D Aquila R. Differences in APOBEC3G expression in CD4+ T helper lymphocyte subtypes modulate HIV-1 infectivity. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000292 pubmed publisher
    The cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F exert anti-HIV-1 activity that is countered by the HIV-1 vif protein...
  64. Green L, Liu Y, He J. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection and replication by enhancing viral incorporation of innate anti-HIV-1 protein A3G: a non-pathogenic Nef mutant-based anti-HIV strategy. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13363-72 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) is a cellular protein that has been identified as an innate anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) factor...
  65. Khan M, Goila Gaur R, Kao S, Miyagi E, WALKER R, Strebel K. Encapsidation of APOBEC3G into HIV-1 virions involves lipid raft association and does not correlate with APOBEC3G oligomerization. Retrovirology. 2009;6:99 pubmed publisher
    The cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G), when incorporated into the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), renders viral particles non-infectious...
  66. Shao Q, Wang Y, Hildreth J, Liu B. Polyubiquitination of APOBEC3G is essential for its degradation by HIV-1 Vif. J Virol. 2010;84:4840-4 pubmed publisher
    Proteasomal degradation of APOBEC3G is a critical step for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. However, the necessity for polyubiquitination of APOBEC3G in this process is still controversial...
  67. Wedekind J, Gillilan R, Janda A, Krucinska J, Salter J, Bennett R, et al. Nanostructures of APOBEC3G support a hierarchical assembly model of high molecular mass ribonucleoprotein particles from dimeric subunits. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38122-6 pubmed
    Human APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a cytidine deaminase that restricts human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in a vif (the virion infectivity factor from HIV)-dependent manner...
  68. Xiao Z, Xiong Y, Zhang W, Tan L, Ehrlich E, Guo D, et al. Characterization of a novel Cullin5 binding domain in HIV-1 Vif. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:541-50 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus tyoe 1 (HIV-1) Vif counteracts host restriction cytidine deaminase (APOBEC3G) A3G by co-opting the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome machinery...
  69. Goila Gaur R, Strebel K. HIV-1 Vif, APOBEC, and intrinsic immunity. Retrovirology. 2008;5:51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Vif is also able to prevent encapsidation of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F through degradation-independent mechanism(s)...
  70. Zennou V, Bieniasz P. Comparative analysis of the antiretroviral activity of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F from primates. Virology. 2006;349:31-40 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F exhibit antiretroviral activity primarily as a consequence of their ability to deaminate cytidines in retroviral DNA...
  71. Nguyen D, Hu J. Reverse transcriptase- and RNA packaging signal-dependent incorporation of APOBEC3G into hepatitis B virus nucleocapsids. J Virol. 2008;82:6852-61 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) is a cytidine deaminase that can inhibit a wide range of retroviruses, including the para-retrovirus hepatitis B virus (HBV). The antiviral function of A3G depends on its incorporation into assembling viral particles...
  72. Stieler K, Fischer N. Apobec 3G efficiently reduces infectivity of the human exogenous gammaretrovirus XMRV. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11738 pubmed publisher
    ..The Apobec3 (A3) proteins, a family of cytidine deaminases, are one important group of host proteins that control primary infection and efficient viral spread...
  73. Casartelli N, Guivel Benhassine F, Bouziat R, Brandler S, Schwartz O, Moris A. The antiviral factor APOBEC3G improves CTL recognition of cultured HIV-infected T cells. J Exp Med. 2010;207:39-49 pubmed publisher
    The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) enzyme exerts an intrinsic anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) defense by introducing lethal G-to-A hypermutations in the viral genome...
  74. Pillai S, Abdel Mohsen M, Guatelli J, Skasko M, Monto A, Fujimoto K, et al. Role of retroviral restriction factors in the interferon-?-mediated suppression of HIV-1 in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3035-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and BST-2 expression levels were measured in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected, antiretroviral ..
  75. Huang J, Liang Z, Yang B, Tian H, Ma J, Zhang H. Derepression of microRNA-mediated protein translation inhibition by apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) and its family members. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33632-40 pubmed
    The apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G or A3G) and its fellow cytidine deaminase family members are potent restrictive factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and many other ..
  76. Mercenne G, Bernacchi S, Richer D, Bec G, Henriet S, Paillart J, et al. HIV-1 Vif binds to APOBEC3G mRNA and inhibits its translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:633-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Results using a Vif protein mutated in the multimerization domain suggested that the molecular mechanism of translational control is more complicated than a simple physical blockage of scanning ribosomes. ..
  77. Burdick R, Smith J, Chaipan C, Friew Y, Chen J, Venkatachari N, et al. P body-associated protein Mov10 inhibits HIV-1 replication at multiple stages. J Virol. 2010;84:10241-53 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have shown that APOBEC3G (A3G), a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, is localized to cytoplasmic mRNA-processing bodies (P bodies)...
  78. Chen K, Martemyanova N, Lu Y, Shindo K, Matsuo H, Harris R. Extensive mutagenesis experiments corroborate a structural model for the DNA deaminase domain of APOBEC3G. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:4761-6 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3G is a single-strand DNA cytosine deaminase capable of blocking retrovirus and retrotransposon replication. APOBEC3G has two conserved zinc-coordinating motifs but only one is required for catalysis...
  79. Sadler H, Stenglein M, Harris R, Mansky L. APOBEC3G contributes to HIV-1 variation through sublethal mutagenesis. J Virol. 2010;84:7396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..b>APOBEC3G can extinguish HIV-1 infectivity by its incorporation into virus particles and subsequent cytosine deaminase ..
  80. Wissing S, Galloway N, Greene W. HIV-1 Vif versus the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases: an intracellular duel between pathogen and host restriction factors. Mol Aspects Med. 2010;31:383-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Vif acts by preventing virion encapsidation of two potent antiviral factors, the APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F cytidine deaminases...
  81. Hu C, Saenz D, Fadel H, Walker W, Peretz M, Poeschla E. The HIV-1 central polypurine tract functions as a second line of defense against APOBEC3G/F. J Virol. 2010;84:11981-93 pubmed publisher
    ..in non-vif-permissive cells (HuT78, H9, and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]), suggesting APOBEC3G (A3G) restriction...
  82. Jern P, Russell R, Pathak V, Coffin J. Likely role of APOBEC3G-mediated G-to-A mutations in HIV-1 evolution and drug resistance. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000367 pubmed publisher
    ..genomes than in their putative ancestral genomes, compared to random controls, implying that moderate levels of A3G-mediated G-to-A mutation have been a factor in HIV-1 evolution...
  83. Nagao T, Yamashita T, Miyake A, Uchiyama T, Nomaguchi M, Adachi A. Different interaction between HIV-1 Vif and its cellular target proteins APOBEC3G/APOBEC3F. J Med Invest. 2010;57:89-94 pubmed
    ..mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif for their interaction with cellular anti-viral factors APOBEC3G/APOBEC3F...
  84. Phalora P, Sherer N, Wolinsky S, Swanson C, Malim M. HIV-1 replication and APOBEC3 antiviral activity are not regulated by P bodies. J Virol. 2012;86:11712-24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F interact with numerous proteins that regulate cellular RNA metabolism, including components of the ..
  85. Dutko J, Schäfer A, Kenny A, Cullen B, Curcio M. Inhibition of a yeast LTR retrotransposon by human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. Curr Biol. 2005;15:661-6 pubmed
    ..Human APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G are specifically incorporated into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) progeny virions in the absence of ..
  86. Shirakawa K, Takaori Kondo A, Kobayashi M, Tomonaga M, Izumi T, Fukunaga K, et al. Ubiquitination of APOBEC3 proteins by the Vif-Cullin5-ElonginB-ElonginC complex. Virology. 2006;344:263-6 pubmed
    ..HIV-1 Vif overcomes the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by ubiquitinating the protein...
  87. Soros V, Yonemoto W, Greene W. Newly synthesized APOBEC3G is incorporated into HIV virions, inhibited by HIV RNA, and subsequently activated by RNase H. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e15 pubmed
    APOBEC3G (A3G) is a potent antiretroviral deoxycytidine deaminase that, when incorporated into HIV virions, hypermutates nascent viral DNA formed during reverse transcription...
  88. Wang Y, Shao Q, Yu X, Kong W, Hildreth J, Liu B. N-terminal hemagglutinin tag renders lysine-deficient APOBEC3G resistant to HIV-1 Vif-induced degradation by reduced polyubiquitination. J Virol. 2011;85:4510-9 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3G, a potent HIV-1 host restriction factor, is overcome by HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif), which induces its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation...