Dcr-2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Dcr-2
Description: Dicer-2
Alias: CG6493, DCR-2, DCR2, DICER, Dcr, Dcr2, Dicer, Dicer2, Dmel\CG6493, cg6493, dcr, dcr-2, dcr2, dic2, dicer, dicer-2, dicer2, dmDcr-2, Dicer-2, CG6493-PA, CG6493-PB, Dcr-2-PA, Dcr-2-PB, Dicer2, dicer, dicer 2, dicer-2
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Dcr-2

Top Publications

  1. Habayeb M, Ekström J, Hultmark D. Nora virus persistent infections are not affected by the RNAi machinery. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5731 pubmed publisher
    ..Nora virus infections are also unaffected by mutations in the Toll and Jak-Stat pathways. In these respects, the Nora virus differs from other studied Drosophila RNA viruses. ..
  2. Marques J, Kim K, Wu P, Alleyne T, Jafari N, Carthew R. Loqs and R2D2 act sequentially in the siRNA pathway in Drosophila. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway requires Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) in association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP) called R2D2...
  3. Pham J, Sontheimer E. Molecular requirements for RNA-induced silencing complex assembly in the Drosophila RNA interference pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39278-83 pubmed
    ..Here we show that R1 forms when the Dicer-2/R2D2 heterodimer binds short interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes...
  4. Ghildiyal M, Xu J, Seitz H, Weng Z, Zamore P. Sorting of Drosophila small silencing RNAs partitions microRNA* strands into the RNA interference pathway. RNA. 2010;16:43-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Central to this sorting decision is the affinity of the small RNA duplex for the Dcr-2/R2D2 heterodimer, which loads small RNAs into Ago2...
  5. Blumenstiel J, Fu R, Theurkauf W, Hawley R. Components of the RNAi machinery that mediate long-distance chromosomal associations are dispensable for meiotic and early somatic homolog pairing in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;180:1355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there appears to be at least two mechanisms that bring homologous sequences together within the nucleus: those that act between dispersed homologous sequences and those that act to align and pair homologous chromosomes. ..
  6. Lakatos L, Csorba T, Pantaleo V, Chapman E, Carrington J, Liu Y, et al. Small RNA binding is a common strategy to suppress RNA silencing by several viral suppressors. EMBO J. 2006;25:2768-80 pubmed
    ..None of the suppressors affected the activity of preassembled RISC complexes. In contrast, each suppressor uniformly inhibited the siRNA-initiated RISC assembly pathway by preventing RNA silencing initiator complex formation. ..
  7. Lotti F, Imlach W, Saieva L, Beck E, Hao L, Li D, et al. An SMN-dependent U12 splicing event essential for motor circuit function. Cell. 2012;151:440-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings directly link defective splicing of critical neuronal genes induced by SMN deficiency to motor circuit dysfunction, establishing a molecular framework for the selective pathology of SMA. ..
  8. Galiana Arnoux D, Dostert C, Schneemann A, Hoffmann J, Imler J. Essential function in vivo for Dicer-2 in host defense against RNA viruses in drosophila. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:590-7 pubmed
    ..B2, a potent inhibitor of processing of double-stranded RNA mediated by the essential RNA interference factor Dicer. Conversely, flies with a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) showed enhanced ..
  9. Ameres S, Hung J, Xu J, Weng Z, Zamore P. Target RNA-directed tailing and trimming purifies the sorting of endo-siRNAs between the two Drosophila Argonaute proteins. RNA. 2011;17:54-63 pubmed publisher
  10. Jia H, Liu Y, Xia R, Tong C, Yue T, Jiang J, et al. Casein kinase 2 promotes Hedgehog signaling by regulating both smoothened and Cubitus interruptus. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37218-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that CK2 prevents Ci ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. Thus, CK2 promotes Hh signaling activity by regulating multiple pathway components. ..

Detail Information

Publications87

  1. Habayeb M, Ekström J, Hultmark D. Nora virus persistent infections are not affected by the RNAi machinery. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5731 pubmed publisher
    ..Nora virus infections are also unaffected by mutations in the Toll and Jak-Stat pathways. In these respects, the Nora virus differs from other studied Drosophila RNA viruses. ..
  2. Marques J, Kim K, Wu P, Alleyne T, Jafari N, Carthew R. Loqs and R2D2 act sequentially in the siRNA pathway in Drosophila. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway requires Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) in association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP) called R2D2...
  3. Pham J, Sontheimer E. Molecular requirements for RNA-induced silencing complex assembly in the Drosophila RNA interference pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39278-83 pubmed
    ..Here we show that R1 forms when the Dicer-2/R2D2 heterodimer binds short interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes...
  4. Ghildiyal M, Xu J, Seitz H, Weng Z, Zamore P. Sorting of Drosophila small silencing RNAs partitions microRNA* strands into the RNA interference pathway. RNA. 2010;16:43-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Central to this sorting decision is the affinity of the small RNA duplex for the Dcr-2/R2D2 heterodimer, which loads small RNAs into Ago2...
  5. Blumenstiel J, Fu R, Theurkauf W, Hawley R. Components of the RNAi machinery that mediate long-distance chromosomal associations are dispensable for meiotic and early somatic homolog pairing in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;180:1355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there appears to be at least two mechanisms that bring homologous sequences together within the nucleus: those that act between dispersed homologous sequences and those that act to align and pair homologous chromosomes. ..
  6. Lakatos L, Csorba T, Pantaleo V, Chapman E, Carrington J, Liu Y, et al. Small RNA binding is a common strategy to suppress RNA silencing by several viral suppressors. EMBO J. 2006;25:2768-80 pubmed
    ..None of the suppressors affected the activity of preassembled RISC complexes. In contrast, each suppressor uniformly inhibited the siRNA-initiated RISC assembly pathway by preventing RNA silencing initiator complex formation. ..
  7. Lotti F, Imlach W, Saieva L, Beck E, Hao L, Li D, et al. An SMN-dependent U12 splicing event essential for motor circuit function. Cell. 2012;151:440-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings directly link defective splicing of critical neuronal genes induced by SMN deficiency to motor circuit dysfunction, establishing a molecular framework for the selective pathology of SMA. ..
  8. Galiana Arnoux D, Dostert C, Schneemann A, Hoffmann J, Imler J. Essential function in vivo for Dicer-2 in host defense against RNA viruses in drosophila. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:590-7 pubmed
    ..B2, a potent inhibitor of processing of double-stranded RNA mediated by the essential RNA interference factor Dicer. Conversely, flies with a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) showed enhanced ..
  9. Ameres S, Hung J, Xu J, Weng Z, Zamore P. Target RNA-directed tailing and trimming purifies the sorting of endo-siRNAs between the two Drosophila Argonaute proteins. RNA. 2011;17:54-63 pubmed publisher
  10. Jia H, Liu Y, Xia R, Tong C, Yue T, Jiang J, et al. Casein kinase 2 promotes Hedgehog signaling by regulating both smoothened and Cubitus interruptus. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37218-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that CK2 prevents Ci ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. Thus, CK2 promotes Hh signaling activity by regulating multiple pathway components. ..
  11. Flynt A, Liu N, Martin R, Lai E. Dicing of viral replication intermediates during silencing of latent Drosophila viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5270-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, this + strand virus specifically generated Dicer-2-dependent, 21-nucleotide siRNAs that derived in equal proportion from + and - strands...
  12. Smibert P, Yang J, Azzam G, Liu J, Lai E. Homeostatic control of Argonaute stability by microRNA availability. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:789-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In mouse cells, we found that the stability of Ago2 declined in Dicer-knockout cells and was rescued by proteasome blockade or introduction of either Dicer plasmid or Dicer-independent ..
  13. Meyer W, Schreiber S, Guo Y, Volkmann T, Welte M, Müller H. Overlapping functions of argonaute proteins in patterning and morphogenesis of Drosophila embryos. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e134 pubmed
    ..Our findings argue against a strict separation of Ago1 and Ago2 functions and suggest that these proteins act in concert to control key steps of the midblastula transition and of segmental patterning. ..
  14. Matranga C, Tomari Y, Shin C, Bartel D, Zamore P. Passenger-strand cleavage facilitates assembly of siRNA into Ago2-containing RNAi enzyme complexes. Cell. 2005;123:607-20 pubmed
    ..For siRNAs, virtually all RISC is assembled through this cleavage-assisted mechanism. In contrast, passenger-strand cleavage is not important for the incorporation of miRNAs that derive from mismatched duplexes. ..
  15. Oh H, Irvine K. In vivo regulation of Yorkie phosphorylation and localization. Development. 2008;135:1081-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify modulation of subcellular localization as a mechanism of Yki regulation, and establish that this regulation occurs in vivo through multiple sites of Warts-dependent phosphorylation on Yki. ..
  16. Bronkhorst A, Van Rij R. The long and short of antiviral defense: small RNA-based immunity in insects. Curr Opin Virol. 2014;7:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dicer-2 detects viral double-stranded RNA, produced by RNA and DNA viruses, and generates viral small interfering RNAs (..
  17. Landthaler M, Yalcin A, Tuschl T. The human DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 and Its D. melanogaster homolog are required for miRNA biogenesis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2162-7 pubmed
    ..a hairpin RNA (pre-miRNA), which is followed by export of the pre-miRNA to the cytoplasm and further processing by Dicer to mature miRNAs...
  18. Wang S, Elgin S. Drosophila Piwi functions downstream of piRNA production mediating a chromatin-based transposon silencing mechanism in female germ line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:21164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to its better-known function in posttranscriptional silencing, piRNA also appears to function in a targeting mechanism for heterochromatin formation mediated by Piwi. ..
  19. Liu Y, Ye X, Jiang F, Liang C, Chen D, Peng J, et al. C3PO, an endoribonuclease that promotes RNAi by facilitating RISC activation. Science. 2009;325:750-3 pubmed publisher
    ..long double-stranded RNA- and duplex siRNA-initiated RISC activities with the use of recombinant Drosophila Dicer-2, R2D2, and Ago2 proteins...
  20. Lee Y, Pressman S, Andress A, Kim K, White J, Cassidy J, et al. Silencing by small RNAs is linked to endosomal trafficking. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1150-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It may provide a means to enhance the dynamics of RNA silencing in the cytoplasm. ..
  21. Chotkowski H, Ciota A, Jia Y, Puig Basagoiti F, Kramer L, Shi P, et al. West Nile virus infection of Drosophila melanogaster induces a protective RNAi response. Virology. 2008;377:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..and adult flies containing mutations in each of four different RNAi genes (Argonaute 2, spindle-E, piwi, and Dicer-2) were significantly more susceptible to WNV infection than wildtype flies...
  22. Pham J, Pellino J, Lee Y, Carthew R, Sontheimer E. A Dicer-2-dependent 80s complex cleaves targeted mRNAs during RNAi in Drosophila. Cell. 2004;117:83-94 pubmed
    ..To form, all three complexes require Dicer-2 (Dcr-2), which directly contacts siRNAs in the ATP-independent R1 complex...
  23. Lin H. piRNAs in the germ line. Science. 2007;316:397 pubmed
    ..Recently, a class of small RNAs that interact with Piwi proteins has been discovered in the mammalian germ line and Drosophila. These Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) represent a distinct small RNA pathway. ..
  24. Okamura K, Ishizuka A, Siomi H, Siomi M. Distinct roles for Argonaute proteins in small RNA-directed RNA cleavage pathways. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1655-66 pubmed
    ..The association of AGO1 with Dicer-1 and pre-miRNA also suggests that AGO1 is involved in miRNA biogenesis...
  25. Wang X, Aliyari R, Li W, Li H, Kim K, Carthew R, et al. RNA interference directs innate immunity against viruses in adult Drosophila. Science. 2006;312:452-4 pubmed
    ..in which viral double-stranded RNA produced during infection acts as the pathogen trigger whereas Drosophila Dicer-2 and Argonaute-2 act as host sensor and effector, respectively...
  26. Nishida K, Miyoshi K, Ogino A, Miyoshi T, Siomi H, Siomi M. Roles of R2D2, a cytoplasmic D2 body component, in the endogenous siRNA pathway in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2013;49:680-91 pubmed publisher
    Endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) in Drosophila are processed by Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) and loaded onto Ago2 by the Dcr-2/R2D2 heterodimer...
  27. Obbard D, Jiggins F, Halligan D, Little T. Natural selection drives extremely rapid evolution in antiviral RNAi genes. Curr Biol. 2006;16:580-5 pubmed
    ..show that the rate of amino acid evolution is substantially elevated in genes related to antiviral RNAi function (Dcr2, R2D2, and Ago2)...
  28. Khurana J, Xu J, Weng Z, Theurkauf W. Distinct functions for the Drosophila piRNA pathway in genome maintenance and telomere protection. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001246 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the aub and armi genes have an additional function in assembly of the telomere protection complex. ..
  29. Lim D, Kim J, Kim S, Carthew R, Lee Y. Functional analysis of dicer-2 missense mutations in the siRNA pathway of Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;371:525-30 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila RNase III enzyme Dicer-2 processes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) precursors into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)...
  30. Hammond S. Dicing and slicing: the core machinery of the RNA interference pathway. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5822-9 pubmed
    ..At the heart of the pathway are two ribonuclease machines. The ribonuclease III enzyme Dicer initiates the RNAi pathway by generating the active short interfering RNA trigger...
  31. Liu X, Jiang F, Kalidas S, Smith D, Liu Q. Dicer-2 and R2D2 coordinately bind siRNA to promote assembly of the siRISC complexes. RNA. 2006;12:1514-20 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, the Dicer-2/R2D2 complex initiates RNA interference (RNAi) by processing long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
  32. Ishizuka A, Siomi M, Siomi H. A Drosophila fragile X protein interacts with components of RNAi and ribosomal proteins. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2497-508 pubmed
    ..We show that Dmp68 is also required for efficient RNAi. We further show that dFMR1 is associated with Dicer, another essential component of the RNAi pathway, and microRNAs (miRNAs) in vivo, suggesting that dFMR1 is part of ..
  33. Lakatos L, Szittya G, Silhavy D, Burgyan J. Molecular mechanism of RNA silencing suppression mediated by p19 protein of tombusviruses. EMBO J. 2004;23:876-84 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the obtained results also suggest that the p19-mediated sequestration of siRNAs in virus-infected cells blocks the spread of the mobile, systemic signal of RNA silencing...
  34. Lawlor K, O Keefe L, Samaraweera S, van Eyk C, McLeod C, Maloney C, et al. Double-stranded RNA is pathogenic in Drosophila models of expanded repeat neurodegenerative diseases. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3757-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The Dicer pathway is essential for this toxicity and in neuronal cells accounts for metabolism of the high copy number (CAG...
  35. Tomari Y, Matranga C, Haley B, Martinez N, Zamore P. A protein sensor for siRNA asymmetry. Science. 2004;306:1377-80 pubmed
    ..We show that in Drosophila, the orientation of the Dicer-2/R2D2 protein heterodimer on the siRNA duplex determines which siRNA strand associates with the core RISC protein ..
  36. Jiang F, Ye X, Liu X, Fincher L, McKearin D, Liu Q. Dicer-1 and R3D1-L catalyze microRNA maturation in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1674-9 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, Dicer-2/R2D2 and Dicer-1 generate small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), respectively...
  37. Lee Y, Nakahara K, Pham J, Kim K, He Z, Sontheimer E, et al. Distinct roles for Drosophila Dicer-1 and Dicer-2 in the siRNA/miRNA silencing pathways. Cell. 2004;117:69-81 pubmed
    The RNase III enzyme Dicer processes RNA into siRNAs and miRNAs, which direct a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to cleave mRNA or block its translation (RNAi)...
  38. He L, Hannon G. MicroRNAs: small RNAs with a big role in gene regulation. Nat Rev Genet. 2004;5:522-31 pubmed
  39. Preall J, Sontheimer E. RNAi: RISC gets loaded. Cell. 2005;123:543-5 pubmed
    ..2005) reveal the fate of the rejected passenger siRNA strand. Additionally, Gregory et al. (2005) define a heterotrimeric complex from humans that appears to execute dsRNA loading, strand selection, and target mRNA cleavage activities. ..
  40. Martin R, Smibert P, Yalcin A, Tyler D, Schäfer U, Tuschl T, et al. A Drosophila pasha mutant distinguishes the canonical microRNA and mirtron pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:861-70 pubmed publisher
    ..While pasha adult somatic clones are similar in many respects to those of dicer-1 clones, pasha mutant larvae revealed an unexpected requirement for the miRNA pathway in imaginal disc growth...
  41. Grewal S, Elgin S. Transcription and RNA interference in the formation of heterochromatin. Nature. 2007;447:399-406 pubmed
    ..Silencing of chromatin might involve trans-acting sources of the crucial small RNAs that carry out RNA interference, but in some cases, transcription of the region to be silenced seems to be required--an apparent contradiction. ..
  42. Peng J, Karpen G. H3K9 methylation and RNA interference regulate nucleolar organization and repeated DNA stability. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:25-35 pubmed
    ..dimethylation (H3K9me2) in chromatin associated with repeated DNAs decreased dramatically in Su(var)3-9 and dcr-2 (dicer-2) mutant tissues compared with wild type...
  43. Ulvila J, Parikka M, Kleino A, Sormunen R, Ezekowitz R, Kocks C, et al. Double-stranded RNA is internalized by scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis in Drosophila S2 cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14370-5 pubmed
    ..Our data provide insight into the mechanism of dsRNA internalization by Drosophila cells. These results have implications for dsRNA delivery into mammalian cells. ..
  44. Rogulja D, Rauskolb C, Irvine K. Morphogen control of wing growth through the Fat signaling pathway. Dev Cell. 2008;15:309-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations identify Fat as a signaling pathway that links the morphogen-mediated establishment of gradients of positional values across developing organs to the regulation of organ growth. ..
  45. Grimaud C, Bantignies F, Pal Bhadra M, Ghana P, Bhadra U, Cavalli G. RNAi components are required for nuclear clustering of Polycomb group response elements. Cell. 2006;124:957-71 pubmed
    ..b>Dicer-2, PIWI, and Argonaute1, three RNAi components, frequently colocalize with PcG bodies, and their mutation ..
  46. White K, Humphrey D, Hirth F. The dopaminergic system in the aging brain of Drosophila. Front Neurosci. 2010;4:205 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of TH?>?Dcr2, mCD8::GFP revealed a specific effect of Dcr2 expression on walking activity but not on exploratory or centrophobic ..
  47. Sabin L, Zheng Q, Thekkat P, Yang J, Hannon G, Gregory B, et al. Dicer-2 processes diverse viral RNA species. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55458 pubmed publisher
    ..is mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which are liberated from double-stranded (ds)RNA precursors by Dicer and guide the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to targets...
  48. Kawamura Y, Saito K, Kin T, Ono Y, Asai K, Sunohara T, et al. Drosophila endogenous small RNAs bind to Argonaute 2 in somatic cells. Nature. 2008;453:793-7 pubmed publisher
    ..germ line, Piwi-interacting RNAs arise from repetitive intergenic elements including retrotransposons by a Dicer-independent pathway and function through the Piwi subfamily of Argonautes to ensure silencing of retrotransposons...
  49. Mueller S, Gausson V, Vodovar N, Deddouche S, Troxler L, Perot J, et al. RNAi-mediated immunity provides strong protection against the negative-strand RNA vesicular stomatitis virus in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This result is of particular interest in view of the frequent transmission of medically relevant negative-strand RNA viruses to humans by insect vectors. ..
  50. Fagegaltier D, Bouge A, Berry B, Poisot E, Sismeiro O, Coppee J, et al. The endogenous siRNA pathway is involved in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar effects were observed in dcr2, r2d2, and ago2 mutants...
  51. Okamura K, Liu N, Lai E. Distinct mechanisms for microRNA strand selection by Drosophila Argonautes. Mol Cell. 2009;36:431-44 pubmed publisher
  52. Tomari Y, Du T, Haley B, Schwarz D, Bennett R, Cook H, et al. RISC assembly defects in the Drosophila RNAi mutant armitage. Cell. 2004;116:831-41 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that armi is required for RISC maturation. ..
  53. Okamura K, Balla S, Martin R, Liu N, Lai E. Two distinct mechanisms generate endogenous siRNAs from bidirectional transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:581-90 pubmed publisher
    ..cis-NATs with overlapping 3' exons generate 21-nt, and, based on previously published small RNA data [corrected] Dicer-2 (Dcr-2)-dependent, 3'-end modified siRNAs...
  54. Rand T, Petersen S, Du F, Wang X. Argonaute2 cleaves the anti-guide strand of siRNA during RISC activation. Cell. 2005;123:621-9 pubmed
    ..The anti-guide strand behaves as a RISC substrate and is cleaved by Ago2. This cleavage event is important for the removal of the anti-guide strand from Ago2 protein and activation of RISC. ..
  55. Haynes K, Caudy A, Collins L, Elgin S. Element 1360 and RNAi components contribute to HP1-dependent silencing of a pericentric reporter. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2222-7 pubmed
    ..Silencing of the 1360, hsp70-white reporter is sensitive to mutations in RNAi components. Our results implicate 1360 as a target for sequence-specific heterochromatic silencing through an RNAi-dependent mechanism. ..
  56. Van Rij R, Saleh M, Berry B, Foo C, Houk A, Antoniewski C, et al. The RNA silencing endonuclease Argonaute 2 mediates specific antiviral immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2985-95 pubmed
    ..This suppressor binds long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and inhibits Dicer-2-mediated processing of dsRNA into short interfering RNA (siRNA), but does not bind short siRNAs or disrupt the ..
  57. Marques J, Wang J, Wang X, de Oliveira K, Gao C, Aguiar E, et al. Functional specialization of the small interfering RNA pathway in response to virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003579 pubmed publisher
    ..when exogenous or endogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA) is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) in association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP) cofactor called Loquacious (Loqs-PD)...
  58. van Mierlo J, Bronkhorst A, Overheul G, Sadanandan S, Ekström J, Heestermans M, et al. Convergent evolution of argonaute-2 slicer antagonism in two distinct insect RNA viruses. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002872 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected viral small RNAs with a signature of Dicer-2 dependent small interfering RNAs in Nora virus infected Drosophila...
  59. Kavi H, Fernandez H, Xie W, Birchler J. RNA silencing in Drosophila. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5940-9 pubmed
    ..RNA silencing processes in Drosophila are described. ..
  60. Liu Q, Rand T, Kalidas S, Du F, Kim H, Smith D, et al. R2D2, a bridge between the initiation and effector steps of the Drosophila RNAi pathway. Science. 2003;301:1921-5 pubmed
    ..The siRNA-generating enzyme was purified from Drosophila S2cells and consists of two stoichiometric subunits: Dicer-2(DCR-2) and a previously unknown protein that we named R2D2...
  61. Cernilogar F, Onorati M, Kothe G, Burroughs A, Parsi K, Breiling A, et al. Chromatin-associated RNA interference components contribute to transcriptional regulation in Drosophila. Nature. 2011;480:391-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the key RNAi components Dicer 2 (DCR2) and Argonaute 2 (AGO2) associate with chromatin (with a strong preference for euchromatic, ..
  62. Saito K, Ishizuka A, Siomi H, Siomi M. Processing of pre-microRNAs by the Dicer-1-Loquacious complex in Drosophila cells. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e235 pubmed
    ..These pre-miRNAs are then exported to the cytoplasm and further processed by Dicer to mature miRNAs...
  63. Miyoshi K, Miyoshi T, Hartig J, Siomi H, Siomi M. Molecular mechanisms that funnel RNA precursors into endogenous small-interfering RNA and microRNA biogenesis pathways in Drosophila. RNA. 2010;16:506-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Although piRNAs are produced independently of Dicer, miRNA and esiRNA biogenesis pathways require Dicer1 and Dicer2, respectively...
  64. Moshkovich N, Lei E. HP1 recruitment in the absence of argonaute proteins in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000880 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that heterochromatin forms independently of endo-siRNA and piRNA pathways. ..
  65. Pelisson A, Sarot E, Payen Groschêne G, Bucheton A. A novel repeat-associated small interfering RNA-mediated silencing pathway downregulates complementary sense gypsy transcripts in somatic cells of the Drosophila ovary. J Virol. 2007;81:1951-60 pubmed
    ..The rasiRNA-associated protein Piwi (but not Aub) is required for gypsy silencing, whereas Dicer-2 (which makes siRNAs) is not...
  66. Kavi H, Fernandez H, Xie W, Birchler J. Polycomb, pairing and PIWI--RNA silencing and nuclear interactions. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006;31:485-7 pubmed
    ..These Pc-associated sequences are involved with the control of the proper expression of developmental HOX genes. ..
  67. Saleh M, Tassetto M, Van Rij R, Goic B, Gausson V, Berry B, et al. Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNA interference spread. Nature. 2009;458:346-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, similar to protein-based immunity in vertebrates, the antiviral RNAi response in flies also relies on the systemic spread of a virus-specific immunity signal. ..
  68. Okamura K, Robine N, Liu Y, Liu Q, Lai E. R2D2 organizes small regulatory RNA pathways in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:884-96 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are generally produced by different Dicer enzymes (Dcr-1 and Dcr-2) and sorted to functionally distinct Argonaute effectors (AGO1 and AGO2)...
  69. Deddouche S, Matt N, Budd A, Mueller S, Kemp C, Galiana Arnoux D, et al. The DExD/H-box helicase Dicer-2 mediates the induction of antiviral activity in drosophila. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1425-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of Vago was dependent on the helicase Dicer-2...
  70. Hartig J, Esslinger S, Böttcher R, Saito K, Forstemann K. Endo-siRNAs depend on a new isoform of loquacious and target artificially introduced, high-copy sequences. EMBO J. 2009;28:2932-44 pubmed publisher
    ..One strand of the dsRNA precursor can come from spliced mRNA, whereas the opposite strand derives from independent transcripts in antisense orientation. ..
  71. Findley S, Tamanaha M, Clegg N, Ruohola Baker H. Maelstrom, a Drosophila spindle-class gene, encodes a protein that colocalizes with Vasa and RDE1/AGO1 homolog, Aubergine, in nuage. Development. 2003;130:859-71 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, maelstrom mutant ovaries show mislocalization of two proteins involved in the microRNA and/or RNAi pathways, Dicer and Argonaute2, suggesting a potential connection between nuage and the microRNA-pathway.
  72. Li H, Li W, Ding S. Induction and suppression of RNA silencing by an animal virus. Science. 2002;296:1319-21 pubmed
    ..These findings establish RNA silencing as an adaptive antiviral defense in animal cells. B2 also inhibits RNA silencing in transgenic plants, providing evidence for a conserved RNA silencing pathway in the plant and animal kingdoms...
  73. Cenik E, Fukunaga R, Lu G, Dutcher R, Wang Y, Tanaka Hall T, et al. Phosphate and R2D2 restrict the substrate specificity of Dicer-2, an ATP-driven ribonuclease. Mol Cell. 2011;42:172-84 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila Dicer-2 generates small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), whereas Dicer-1 produces microRNAs (miRNAs) from pre-miRNA...
  74. Hartig J, Forstemann K. Loqs-PD and R2D2 define independent pathways for RISC generation in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:3836-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Both are processed from double-stranded RNA precursors by Dcr-2 and then loaded into the Argonaute protein Ago2...
  75. Yu Z, Teng X, Bonini N. Triplet repeat-derived siRNAs enhance RNA-mediated toxicity in a Drosophila model for myotonic dystrophy. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001340 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the two transcripts led to novel pathogenesis with the generation of dcr-2 and ago2-dependent 21-nt triplet repeat-derived siRNAs...
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    The role of Dicer's helicase domain is enigmatic, but in vivo it is required for processing certain endogenous siRNA, but not miRNA...
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    ..into approximately 22 nucleotide regulatory RNAs via consecutive cleavages by two RNase III enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. In this study, we characterize Drosophila small RNAs that derive from short intronic hairpins termed "..
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    ..antiviral immune response, in which viral replication intermediates or viral dsRNA genomes are processed by Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) into viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs)...
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    ..These approximately 21-nt RNAs are produced by a distinct Dicer, Dcr-2, and do not depend on Drosha/Pasha complexes...
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    ..Thus, the two members of the Drosophila Ago subclade of Argonaute proteins are functionally specialized, but specific small RNA classes are not restricted to associate with Ago1 or Ago2. ..
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    Drosophila Dicer-1 produces microRNAs (miRNAs) from pre-miRNA, whereas Dicer-2 generates small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from long dsRNA. Alternative splicing of the loquacious (loqs) mRNA generates three distinct Dicer partner proteins...
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    ..2'-O-methylation of siRNAs may be the final step in assembly of the RNAi-enzyme complex, RISC, occurring after an Argonaute-bound siRNA duplex is converted to single-stranded RNA. ..
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    ..genes with roles in immune response and RNA metabolism, with the latter category including each subunit of the Dicer-2/r2d2 heterodimer. The vast majority of gene duplications (96...
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    ..Our data suggest that the chaperone machinery may serve as the driving force for the RISC assembly pathway. ..
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    Double-stranded RNA-binding proteins (dsRBPs), such as R2D2 and Loquacious (Loqs), function in tandem with Dicer (Dcr) enzymes in RNA interference (RNAi)...