INS

Summary

Gene Symbol: INS
Description: insulin
Alias: insulin, proinsulin
Species: cow
Products:     INS

Top Publications

  1. Zako T, Sakono M, Hashimoto N, Ihara M, Maeda M. Bovine insulin filaments induced by reducing disulfide bonds show a different morphology, secondary structure, and cell toxicity from intact insulin amyloid fibrils. Biophys J. 2009;96:3331-40 pubmed publisher
    Amyloid fibrils are associated with more than 20 diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Insulin is a 51-residue polypeptide hormone, with its two polypeptide chains linked by one intrachain and two interchain ..
  2. Rhoads R, Kim J, Leury B, Baumgard L, Segoale N, Frank S, et al. Insulin increases the abundance of the growth hormone receptor in liver and adipose tissue of periparturient dairy cows. J Nutr. 2004;134:1020-7 pubmed
    ..promotes lipid mobilization from adipose tissue, but paradoxically, is associated with depressed concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a growth factor produced in a GH-dependent fashion in liver...
  3. Schaafsma D, McNeill K, Stelmack G, Gosens R, Baarsma H, Dekkers B, et al. Insulin increases the expression of contractile phenotypic markers in airway smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C429-39 pubmed
    We have previously demonstrated that long-term exposure of bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM) strips to insulin induces a functional hypercontractile phenotype...
  4. Dennison A, Jones R, Staniforth R, Parnell A. Interaction of partially denatured insulin with a DSPC floating lipid bilayer. Soft Matter. 2016;12:824-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We used neutron reflectivity to study the interaction of insulin, a model amyloidogenic protein, with a DSPC floating lipid bilayer...
  5. D Agostino J, Younes M, White J, Besch P, Field J, Frazier M. Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid for bovine preproinsulin. Mol Endocrinol. 1987;1:327-31 pubmed
    ..The overall nucleotide homology between bovine and human preproinsulin mRNA was 76% for the preregion, 89% for the A chain, 83% for the B chain, and 68% for the C peptide (including a 15 nucleotide deletion). ..
  6. Kurouski D, Washington J, Ozbil M, Prabhakar R, Shekhtman A, Lednev I. Disulfide bridges remain intact while native insulin converts into amyloid fibrils. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36989 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of insulin fibrils was characterized by deep ultraviolet resonance Raman (DUVRR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) ..
  7. Nolan C, Margoliash E, Peterson J, Steiner D. The structure of bovine proinsulin. J Biol Chem. 1971;246:2780-95 pubmed
  8. Nagaveni V, Sravani M, Prabhakar S, Vairamani M. Differential interactions of isomeric amino sugars with insulin studied under electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester). 2011;17:485-95 pubmed publisher
    Protein-ligand interactions were studied for bovine insulin-amino sugar systems under electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry conditions...
  9. Devlin G, Knowles T, Squires A, McCammon M, Gras S, Nilsson M, et al. The component polypeptide chains of bovine insulin nucleate or inhibit aggregation of the parent protein in a conformation-dependent manner. J Mol Biol. 2006;360:497-509 pubmed
    ..b>Insulin is a small, predominantly alpha-helical protein consisting of 51 residues in two disulfide-linked polypeptide ..
  10. Mann S, Abuelo A, Nydam D, Leal Yepes F, Overton T, Wakshlag J. Insulin signaling and skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in transition dairy cows either overfed energy or fed a controlled energy diet prepartum. J Comp Physiol B. 2016;186:513-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Overconsumption of energy during late pregnancy affects resting glucose and insulin concentrations peripartum and increases the risk for hyperketonemia postpartum, but the effects on muscle tissue ..

Detail Information

Publications64

  1. Zako T, Sakono M, Hashimoto N, Ihara M, Maeda M. Bovine insulin filaments induced by reducing disulfide bonds show a different morphology, secondary structure, and cell toxicity from intact insulin amyloid fibrils. Biophys J. 2009;96:3331-40 pubmed publisher
    Amyloid fibrils are associated with more than 20 diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Insulin is a 51-residue polypeptide hormone, with its two polypeptide chains linked by one intrachain and two interchain ..
  2. Rhoads R, Kim J, Leury B, Baumgard L, Segoale N, Frank S, et al. Insulin increases the abundance of the growth hormone receptor in liver and adipose tissue of periparturient dairy cows. J Nutr. 2004;134:1020-7 pubmed
    ..promotes lipid mobilization from adipose tissue, but paradoxically, is associated with depressed concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a growth factor produced in a GH-dependent fashion in liver...
  3. Schaafsma D, McNeill K, Stelmack G, Gosens R, Baarsma H, Dekkers B, et al. Insulin increases the expression of contractile phenotypic markers in airway smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C429-39 pubmed
    We have previously demonstrated that long-term exposure of bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM) strips to insulin induces a functional hypercontractile phenotype...
  4. Dennison A, Jones R, Staniforth R, Parnell A. Interaction of partially denatured insulin with a DSPC floating lipid bilayer. Soft Matter. 2016;12:824-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We used neutron reflectivity to study the interaction of insulin, a model amyloidogenic protein, with a DSPC floating lipid bilayer...
  5. D Agostino J, Younes M, White J, Besch P, Field J, Frazier M. Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid for bovine preproinsulin. Mol Endocrinol. 1987;1:327-31 pubmed
    ..The overall nucleotide homology between bovine and human preproinsulin mRNA was 76% for the preregion, 89% for the A chain, 83% for the B chain, and 68% for the C peptide (including a 15 nucleotide deletion). ..
  6. Kurouski D, Washington J, Ozbil M, Prabhakar R, Shekhtman A, Lednev I. Disulfide bridges remain intact while native insulin converts into amyloid fibrils. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36989 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of insulin fibrils was characterized by deep ultraviolet resonance Raman (DUVRR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) ..
  7. Nolan C, Margoliash E, Peterson J, Steiner D. The structure of bovine proinsulin. J Biol Chem. 1971;246:2780-95 pubmed
  8. Nagaveni V, Sravani M, Prabhakar S, Vairamani M. Differential interactions of isomeric amino sugars with insulin studied under electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester). 2011;17:485-95 pubmed publisher
    Protein-ligand interactions were studied for bovine insulin-amino sugar systems under electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry conditions...
  9. Devlin G, Knowles T, Squires A, McCammon M, Gras S, Nilsson M, et al. The component polypeptide chains of bovine insulin nucleate or inhibit aggregation of the parent protein in a conformation-dependent manner. J Mol Biol. 2006;360:497-509 pubmed
    ..b>Insulin is a small, predominantly alpha-helical protein consisting of 51 residues in two disulfide-linked polypeptide ..
  10. Mann S, Abuelo A, Nydam D, Leal Yepes F, Overton T, Wakshlag J. Insulin signaling and skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in transition dairy cows either overfed energy or fed a controlled energy diet prepartum. J Comp Physiol B. 2016;186:513-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Overconsumption of energy during late pregnancy affects resting glucose and insulin concentrations peripartum and increases the risk for hyperketonemia postpartum, but the effects on muscle tissue ..
  11. Menting J, Whittaker J, Margetts M, Whittaker L, Kong G, Smith B, et al. How insulin engages its primary binding site on the insulin receptor. Nature. 2013;493:241-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Insulin receptor signalling has a central role in mammalian biology, regulating cellular metabolism, growth, division, differentiation and survival...
  12. Kerestes M, Faigl V, Kulcsar M, Balogh O, Foldi J, Febel H, et al. Periparturient insulin secretion and whole-body insulin responsiveness in dairy cows showing various forms of ketone pattern with or without puerperal metritis. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2009;37:250-61 pubmed publisher
    To study the effect of time and different forms of hyperketonemia, with or without puerperal metritis, on insulin and glucose responses, 31 Holstein cows were subjected to glucose (GTT) and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) between 18 and 22 ..
  13. Grudzielanek S, Jansen R, Winter R. Solvational tuning of the unfolding, aggregation and amyloidogenesis of insulin. J Mol Biol. 2005;351:879-94 pubmed
    ..and diversified effects on the unfolding, non-native assembly and fibril formation of the amyloidogenic protein insulin. Fluorescence, CD and UV-spectroscopic methods as well as atomic force microscopy imaging have been employed to ..
  14. Salokangas A, Smyth D, Markussen J, Sundby F. Bovine proinsulin: amino acid sequence of the C-peptide isolated from pancreas. Eur J Biochem. 1971;20:183-9 pubmed
  15. Soos M, Field C, Siddle K. Purified hybrid insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I receptors bind insulin-like growth factor-I, but not insulin, with high affinity. Biochem J. 1993;290 ( Pt 2):419-26 pubmed
    Hybrid insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors have previously been described in human placenta, but it has not been possible to study their properties in the presence of classical insulin receptors and type I IGF ..
  16. Accorsi P, Pacioni B, Pezzi C, Forni M, Flint D, Seren E. Role of prolactin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 in mammary gland involution in the dairy cow. J Dairy Sci. 2002;85:507-13 pubmed
    ..Prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) play a specific role on rat mammary gland apoptosis, through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and the IGF binding protein (IGFBP) system...
  17. Steiner D, Cho S, Oyer P, Terris S, Peterson J, Rubenstein A. Isolation and characterization of proinsulin C-peptide from bovine pancreas. J Biol Chem. 1971;246:1365-74 pubmed
  18. Chew B, Eisenman J, Tanaka T. Arginine infusion stimulates prolactin, growth hormone, insulin, and subsequent lactation in pregnant dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 1984;67:2507-18 pubmed
    ..by rapid infusion into 16 late-pregnant Holstein cows to study changes of prolactin, growth hormone, insulin, total protein, urea nitrogen, and subsequent lactation. Arginine was infused daily at ...
  19. Leury B, Baumgard L, Block S, Segoale N, Ehrhardt R, Rhoads R, et al. Effect of insulin and growth hormone on plasma leptin in periparturient dairy cows. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R1107-15 pubmed
    ..This decline mirrors that of plasma insulin but is reciprocal to the profile of plasma growth hormone (GH), suggesting that both hormones may regulate plasma ..
  20. Lisi G, Png C, Wilcox D. Thermodynamic contributions to the stability of the insulin hexamer. Biochemistry. 2014;53:3576-84 pubmed publisher
    The insulin hexamer is resistant to degradation and fibrillation, which makes it an important quaternary structure for its in vivo storage in Zn(2+)- and Ca(2+)-rich vesicles in the pancreas and for pharmaceutical formulations...
  21. Butler S, Pelton S, Butler W. Insulin increases 17 beta-estradiol production by the dominant follicle of the first postpartum follicle wave in dairy cows. Reproduction. 2004;127:537-45 pubmed
    Prolonged anovulation following parturition has a negative impact on fertility in dairy cows. Insulin plays an important role in ovarian function in many species, and is profoundly depressed in dairy cows during early lactation...
  22. McBride S, Tilger C, Sanford S, Tessier P, Hirsa A. Comparison of Human and Bovine Insulin Amyloidogenesis under Uniform Shear. J Phys Chem B. 2015;119:10426-33 pubmed publisher
    ..rotating Couette flow was used to evaluate the kinetics of amyloid formation under uniform shear for two similar insulin species (human and bovine) that demonstrate unique fibrillization kinetics...
  23. Frankaer C, Mossin S, Stahl K, Harris P. Towards accurate structural characterization of metal centres in protein crystals: the structures of Ni and Cu T(6) bovine insulin derivatives. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2014;70:110-22 pubmed publisher
    Using synchrotron radiation (SR), the crystal structures of T6 bovine insulin complexed with Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) were solved to 1.50 and 1.45?Å resolution, respectively...
  24. Krebs M, MacPhee C, Miller A, Dunlop I, Dobson C, Donald A. The formation of spherulites by amyloid fibrils of bovine insulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14420-4 pubmed
    Bovine insulin has long been known to self-assemble in vitro into amyloid fibrils...
  25. Nemoto T, Yanagita T, Satoh S, Maruta T, Kanai T, Murakami M, et al. Insulin-induced neurite-like process outgrowth: acceleration of tau protein synthesis via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase~mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Neurochem Int. 2011;59:880-8 pubmed publisher
    Both insulin and tau, promoting neuronal differentiation (neurite outgrowth, neuronal polarity, and myelination) and cell survival, are associated with neurodegenerative disease (e.g., Alzheimer's disease)...
  26. Corl B, Butler S, Butler W, Bauman D. Short communication: Regulation of milk fat yield and fatty acid composition by insulin. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:4172-5 pubmed
    ..One that continues to receive support is the glucogenic-insulin theory...
  27. Maeda R, Ado K, Takeda N, Taniguchi Y. Promotion of insulin aggregation by protein disulfide isomerase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1774:1619-27 pubmed
    We examined the aggregation of insulin as a result of reduction of disulfide bonds catalyzed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) using various techniques...
  28. Xi Y, Yang Z, Wu F, Han Z, Wang G. Gene expression profiling of hormonal regulation related to the residual feed intake of Holstein cattle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;465:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..regulation, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) selected the adipocytokine signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway...
  29. Babenko V, Dzwolak W. Amino acid sequence determinants in self-assembly of insulin chiral amyloid superstructures: role of C-terminus of B-chain in association of fibrils. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:625-30 pubmed publisher
    ..amyloid superstructures is a newly recognised phenomenon observed upon agitation-assisted fibrillation of bovine insulin. Here, by surveying several amyloidogenic precursors we examine whether formation of such entities is unique to ..
  30. Grudzielanek S, Smirnovas V, Winter R. Solvation-assisted pressure tuning of insulin fibrillation: from novel aggregation pathways to biotechnological applications. J Mol Biol. 2006;356:497-509 pubmed
    Solvation-assisted pressure tuning has been employed to unravel unknown structural and kinetic aspects of the insulin aggregation and fibrillation process...
  31. Shingu H, Hodate K, Kushibiki S, Touno E, Oshibe A, Ueda Y, et al. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone treatment on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in lactating Japanese Black cows under negative energy balance. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:1247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma GH, IGF-1, insulin, and glucose concentrations increased (P<0...
  32. Vieira M, Bianchi I, Madeira E, Roll V, Oliveira C, Viau P, et al. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin and membrane integrity of bull spermatozoa. Reprod Domest Anim. 2010;45:1110-3 pubmed publisher
    ..aimed to evaluate the effect of the exogenous recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin and semen quality of bulls...
  33. Itoh F, Obara Y, Rose M, Fuse H, Hashimoto H. Insulin and glucagon secretion in lactating cows during heat exposure. J Anim Sci. 1998;76:2182-9 pubmed
    Heat stress affects endocrine systems in cows. This study investigated changes in insulin and glucagon secretion between thermoneutral (TN; 18 degrees C, relative humidity [RH] 60%) and hot (28 degrees C, RH 60%) environments in ..
  34. Brange J, Dodson G, Edwards D, Holden P, Whittingham J. A model of insulin fibrils derived from the x-ray crystal structure of a monomeric insulin (despentapeptide insulin). Proteins. 1997;27:507-16 pubmed
    The crystal structure of despentapeptide insulin, a monomeric insulin, has been refined at 1.3 A spacing and subsequently used to predict and model the organization in the insulin fibril...
  35. Khan M, Jacometo C, Graugnard D, Corrêa M, Schmitt E, Cardoso F, et al. Overfeeding Dairy Cattle During Late-Pregnancy Alters Hepatic PPAR?-Regulated Pathways Including Hepatokines: Impact on Metabolism and Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity. Gene Regul Syst Bio. 2014;8:97-111 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 57 target genes encompassing PPAR?-targets/co-regulators, hepatokines, growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis, lipogenesis, and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated on -14, 7, 14, and 30 ..
  36. Byrne A, Southgate J, Brison D, Leese H. Regulation of apoptosis in the bovine blastocyst by insulin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) superfamily. Mol Reprod Dev. 2002;62:489-95 pubmed
    b>Insulin and the insulin-like growth factors, IGF-I and IGF-II, have been reported to exert a mitogenic effect on the preimplantation mammalian embryo...
  37. Molento C, Block E, Cue R, Petitclerc D. Effects of insulin, recombinant bovine somatotropin, and their interaction on insulin-like growth factor-I secretion and milk protein production in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2002;85:738-47 pubmed
    This trial was designed to test the effects of insulin, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST), and their interaction on milk protein and selected blood parameters in dairy cows...
  38. Foucher J, Niu P, Mourot B, Vaillant C, Le Gac F. In vivo and in vitro studies on sex steroid binding protein (SBP) regulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): influence of sex steroid hormones and of factors linked to growth and metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991;39:975-86 pubmed
    ..In preliminary experiments, (1) insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and SBP concentrations were found to change inversely after a 4 days stimulation with ..
  39. Kurouski D, Dukor R, Lu X, Nafie L, Lednev I. Normal and reversed supramolecular chirality of insulin fibrils probed by vibrational circular dichroism at the protofilament level of fibril structure. Biophys J. 2012;103:522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Two chiral polymorphs of insulin, which can be controllably grown by means of small pH variations, exhibit opposite signs of vibrational circular ..
  40. Mackle T, Dwyer D, Ingvartsen K, Chouinard P, Ross D, Bauman D. Effects of insulin and postruminal supply of protein on use of amino acids by the mammary gland for milk protein synthesis. J Dairy Sci. 2000;83:93-105 pubmed
    ..During the clamp, insulin was infused at 1...
  41. Kuroda Y, Kuriyama H, Kihara S, Kishida K, Maeda N, Hibuse T, et al. Insulin-mediated regulation of decidual protein induced by progesterone (DEPP) in adipose tissue and liver. Horm Metab Res. 2010;42:173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because fasting-induced DEPP expression was observed in insulin-sensitive organs, we investigated the regulation of DEPP in white adipose tissue and liver...
  42. Sim es I, Faro R, Bur D, Kay J, Faro C. Shewasin A, an active pepsin homolog from the bacterium Shewanella amazonensis. FEBS J. 2011;278:3177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The distinctions between the bacterial and eukaryotic polypeptides are discussed and their evolutionary relationships are outlined...
  43. Griinari J, McGuire M, Dwyer D, Bauman D, Barbano D, House W. The role of insulin in the regulation of milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 1997;80:2361-71 pubmed
    We examined the role of insulin in milk protein synthesis using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp approach in combination with abomasal infusion of casein. The two experimental periods consisted of abomasal infusion of water or 0...
  44. Arora A, Ha C, Park C. Inhibition of insulin amyloid formation by small stress molecules. FEBS Lett. 2004;564:121-5 pubmed
    ..the effectiveness of small stress molecules such as ectoine, betaine, trehalose, and citrulline on inhibition of insulin amyloid formation in vitro...
  45. Paul S, Pramanick K, Kundu S, Bandyopadhyay A, Mukherjee D. Involvement of PI3 kinase and MAP kinase in IGF-I- and insulin-induced oocyte maturation in Cyprinus carpio. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;309:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..that in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in Cyprinus carpio oocytes was induced by recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and bovine insulin (b-insulin) and this induction was steroid-independent...
  46. Cohick W, Vicini J, Staples C, Clark J, McCutcheon S, Bauman D. Effects of intake and postruminal casein infusion on performance and concentrations of hormones in plasma of lactating cows. J Dairy Sci. 1986;69:3022-31 pubmed
    ..Restricting feed intake increased plasma growth hormone and decreased concentrations of insulin and triiodothyronine. Glucagon, prolactin, and thyroxine were not affected by intake...
  47. Comellas A, Kelly A, Trejo H, Briva A, Lee J, Sznajder J, et al. Insulin regulates alveolar epithelial function by inducing Na+/K+-ATPase translocation to the plasma membrane in a process mediated by the action of Akt. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence that insulin increases alveolar fluid reabsorption and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity by increasing its translocation to the ..
  48. Ryle A, Sanger F, Smith L, Kitai R. The disulphide bonds of insulin. Biochem J. 1955;60:541-56 pubmed
  49. Pfeiffer H, Chatziathanasiou N, Verstraeten B, Meersman F, Glorieux C, Heremans K, et al. In-situ spectroscopic investigation of ultrasonic assisted unfolding and aggregation of insulin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1834:336-41 pubmed publisher
    ..excitation at moderate intensities has a significant influence on the unfolding and aggregation behaviour of insulin. Irradiation with an average sound intensity of even as low as 70mW/cm(2) leads to a lowering of the unfolding ..
  50. Palaniappan M, Menon B, Menon K. Stimulatory effect of insulin on theca-interstitial cell proliferation and cell cycle regulatory proteins through MTORC1 dependent pathway. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;366:81-9 pubmed publisher
    The present study examined the effect of insulin-mediated activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) signaling network on the proliferation of primary culture of theca-interstitial (T-I) cells...
  51. Sanger F, Tuppy H. The amino-acid sequence in the phenylalanyl chain of insulin. 2. The investigation of peptides from enzymic hydrolysates. Biochem J. 1951;49:481-90 pubmed
  52. Sharp J, Forrest J, Jones R. Surface denaturation and amyloid fibril formation of insulin at model lipid-water interfaces. Biochemistry. 2002;41:15810-9 pubmed
    ..that different lipid surfaces have upon the denaturation and subsequent formation of amyloid fibrils of bovine insulin. The adsorption and unfolding kinetics of insulin being adsorbed onto the different lipid surfaces under ..
  53. Tah B, Pal P, Roy S, Dutta D, Mishra S, Ghosh M, et al. Quantum-mechanical DFT calculation supported Raman spectroscopic study of some amino acids in bovine insulin. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014;129:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..QM) calculations by Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed of all amino acids present in bovine insulin. Simulated Raman spectra of those amino acids are compared with their experimental spectra and the major bands ..
  54. Fändrich M. Absolute correlation between lag time and growth rate in the spontaneous formation of several amyloid-like aggregates and fibrils. J Mol Biol. 2007;365:1266-70 pubmed
    ..Here, I have analysed the absolute k(g) and t(l) values from a total of 298 samples prepared from insulin, glucagon and different sequence variants of the Alzheimer's Abeta(1-40) peptide...
  55. Zhao K, Liu H, Zhou M, Zhao F, Liu J. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake via a phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase-linked signaling pathway in bovine mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2014;97:3660-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin on glucose uptake in lactating bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC)...
  56. Guedes S, Vitorino R, Domingues M, Amado F, Domingues P. Oxidative modifications in glycated insulin. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397:1985-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the central role of insulin in the biology of diabetes, we investigated the site-specific oxidation of native and glycated insulin (mono, di, ..
  57. Reverchon M, Rame C, Cognie J, Briant E, Elis S, Guillaume D, et al. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e93198 pubmed publisher
    ..the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG)...
  58. Campbell P, Frey D, Baumrucker C. Changes in bovine mammary insulin binding during pregnancy and lactation. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1987;87:649-53 pubmed
    1. Binding of insulin to microsomes from mammary glands of pregnant and lactating dairy cows was characterized. 2. Binding affinities of the insulin receptor did not change from pregnancy to lactation. 3...
  59. Shi X, Wang Z, Yan L, Ezemaduka A, Fan G, Wang R, et al. Small heat shock protein AgsA forms dynamic fibrils. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the fibril-forming AgsA is able to suppress the dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of insulin efficiently within a certain range of temperature...
  60. Zeng G, Shou J, Li K, Zhang Y. In-situ confocal Raman observation of structural changes of insulin crystals in sequential dehydration process. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1814:1631-40 pubmed publisher
    ..combined with relative humidity (RH) control technique was used to study the sequential dehydration process of insulin crystals...
  61. Lupoli B, Johansson B, Uvnas Moberg K, Svennersten Sjaunja K. Effect of suckling on the release of oxytocin, prolactin, cortisol, gastrin, cholecystokinin, somatostatin and insulin in dairy cows and their calves. J Dairy Res. 2001;68:175-87 pubmed
    ..The plasma levels of oxytocin, prolactin, cortisol, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), somatostatin and insulin were analysed...
  62. Sechen S, Dunshea F, Bauman D. Somatotropin in lactating cows: effect on response to epinephrine and insulin. Am J Physiol. 1990;258:E582-8 pubmed
    ..Also, the effects of insulin on lipolysis and glucose clearance were examined...
  63. Keogh K, Kenny D, Kelly A, Waters S. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle. Physiol Genomics. 2015;47:344-54 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-..
  64. Sanger F, THOMPSON E. The amino-acid sequence in the glycyl chain of insulin. II. The investigation of peptides from enzymic hydrolysates. Biochem J. 1953;53:366-74 pubmed