William T Couldwell


Affiliation: University of Utah
Country: USA


  1. Ravindra V, Gozal Y, Palmer C, Couldwell W. Hemorrhagic Atypical Planum Sphenoidale Meningioma with Intermittent Vision Loss-A Rare Presentation of Apoplexy. World Neurosurg. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..As the most common benign intracranial tumors, meningiomas should remain in the differential for patients presenting with apoplectiform symptoms. ..
  2. Ravindra V, Griauzde J, Scoville J, Kilburg C, Wilkinson D, Christensen C, et al. Moderate Sedation for Pipeline Embolization of Posterior Circulation Disease: Technical Note from a Single Center. World Neurosurg. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, its use may allow for more rapid identification of procedural complications, facilitating emergent treatment and decreasing procedure-related morbidity. ..
  3. Karsy M, Azab M, Guan J, Couldwell W, Rolston J. The Impact of Specialization in Journal Networks and Scholarship. World Neurosurg. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Improved analysis and understanding of available bibliometrics, including their limitations, are necessary to appreciate their role in measuring scholarship. ..
  4. Abou Al Shaar H, Azab M, Karsy M, Guan J, Couldwell W, Jensen R. Assessment of Costs in Open Microsurgery and Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracranial Meningiomas. World Neurosurg. 2018;119:e357-e365 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional cost-effectiveness studies evaluating patients with true therapeutic equipoise will provide further guidance in these efforts. ..
  5. Kilburg C, Kalani M, Park M. Posterior communicating artery occlusion and recanalization through a fusiform aneurysm after flow diversion. J Clin Neurosci. 2018;55:97-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient had not had any clinical symptoms during this event. The unorganized nature of the thrombus within aneurysms after flow diversion may allow accessory vascular channels to form in the event of occlusion of a side branch. ..
  6. Abou Al Shaar H, Alzhrani G, Gozal Y, Karsy M, Couldwell W. Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Signal Changes of the Striatum: An Unusual Complication in the Setting of Neurosurgical Procedures. World Neurosurg. 2018;118:177-180 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge of this rare entity is important so that tight control of perioperative serum glucose can be achieved in diabetic patients to prevent this rare entity. ..
  7. Abou Al Shaar H, Brock A, Kundu B, Englot D, Rolston J. Increased nationwide use of stereoencephalography for intracranial epilepsy electroencephalography recordings. J Clin Neurosci. 2018;53:132-134 pubmed publisher
    ..The factors driving these changes are unknown, but are likely due in part to the desire for minimally invasive surgical options. ..
  8. Ravindra V, Kalra R, Dailey A. Electromyography stimulation compared with intraoperative O-arm imaging for evaluating pedicle screw breaches in lumbar spine surgery: a prospective analysis of 1006 screws in 164 patients. Spine J. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..O-arm may be better for detecting either medial or lateral breaches than EMG stimulation if there are concerns about screw placement or for confirmation of placement before leaving the operating room. ..
  9. Karsy M, Harmer J, Guan J, Brock A, Ravindra V, Chung L, et al. Outcomes in adults with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: A retrospective cohort study. J Clin Neurosci. 2018;53:34-40 pubmed publisher
    ..6%), but prediction of poor outcome remains challenging in patients with CVST. Our results suggested that systemic infection and craniectomy were the most robust predictors of poor outcome. ..

More Information


  1. Ravindra V, Kraus K, Riva Cambrin J, Kestle J. The Need for Cost-Effective Neurosurgical Innovation--A Global Surgery Initiative. World Neurosurg. 2015;84:1458-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The growing demonstration of surgical innovation and cost-effective technology represents an opportunity within neurosurgery to achieve the goal of making surgical care more accessible to the global population. ..
  2. Sommer T, Karsy M, Driscoll M, Jensen R. Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection and Osteomyelitis of the Skull. World Neurosurg. 2018;115:297-300 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first reported case of Ramsay-Hunt syndrome-type VZV infection being complicated by osteomyelitis of the calvaria. Our case also demonstrates the diagnosis of VZV osteomyelitis through the use of current pathologic methods. ..
  3. Eli I, Gamboa N, Guan J, Taussky P. Acute Compartment Syndrome as a Complication of the Use of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring Needle Electrodes. World Neurosurg. 2018;112:247-249 pubmed publisher
    ..Although it is a particularly rare complication of IOM, compartment syndrome represents a surgical emergency that carries significant morbidity if not immediately recognized and treated. ..
  4. Bowers C, Taussky P, Park M, Neil J, Couldwell W. Rescue microsurgery with bypass and stent removal following Pipeline treatment of a giant internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2015;157:2071-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Microsurgical rescue for definitive aneurysm treatment with PED removal can be safe and effective for aneurysms unsuccessfully treated with PED. ..
  5. Couldwell W, Surnock A, Tobia A, Cabana B, Stillerman C, Forsyth P, et al. A phase 1/2 study of orally administered synthetic hypericin for treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas. Cancer. 2011;117:4905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The response results were comparable to those reported from other studies of salvage therapies for recurrent malignant brain tumors. ..
  6. Ravindra V, Mazur M, Kumpati G, Park M, Patel A, Tandar A, et al. Carotid Artery Stenosis in the Setting of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Clinical and Technical Considerations of Carotid Stenting. World Neurosurg. 2016;86:194-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These patients require intensive care and careful monitoring. Larger prospective studies are needed to determine whether carotid stenting in the setting of TAVR can provide long-term neurological benefits. ..
  7. Bowers C, Burns G, Salzman K, McGill L, MacDonald J. Comparison of ferromagnetic induction and bipolar electrosurgery and suction in corticotomies in pig cerebrum. Int J Surg. 2015;16:55-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies are needed to investigate the clinical implications of energy-based surgical dissection on cerebral tissue. ..
  8. Boettcher L, Abou Al Shaar H, Ravindra V, Horn J, Palmer C, Menacho S. Intracranial Epidural Metastases of Adrenal Pheochromocytoma: A Rare Entity. World Neurosurg. 2018;114:235-240 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastatic epidural spread of pheochromocytoma without concomitant subdural or intraparenchymal extension. ..
  9. Eli I, Kim R, Kilburg C, Pecha T, Couldwell W, Menacho S. Postoperative Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy After Left Far-Lateral Craniectomy for Resection of Craniocervical Meningioma. World Neurosurg. 2018;114:339-343 pubmed publisher
    ..Intraoperative blood transfusion should be considered in prolonged surgeries in the lateral position, where slow blood loss over a long period could be a contributing factor to development of PION. ..
  10. Ravindra V, Wallace S, Vaidya R, Fox W, Klugh A, Puskas D, et al. Spinal Stabilization Using Orthopedic Extremity Instrumentation Sets During Operation Enduring Freedom-Afghanistan. World Neurosurg. 2016;86:503-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an off-label use, and the authors do not recommend the use of these techniques as standard treatment in most medical environments. ..
  11. Ravindra V, Mazur M, Park M, Kilburg C, Moran C, Hardman R, et al. Complications in Endovascular Neurosurgery: Critical Analysis and Classification. World Neurosurg. 2016;95:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This system provides a framework for future studies and quality control in endovascular neurosurgery. ..
  12. Jamil O, Taussky P, Schmidt R, Park M. Fulminant Vasculitis Associated with Extracranial Dissections and Occlusion, Ischemic Strokes, and Aneurysm Rupture: Case Report and Review of the Literature. World Neurosurg. 2016;91:674.e7-674.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..Fulminant central nervous system vasculitis can occur with critical vascular anomalies that require emergent intervention and should be part of the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these multiple vascular pathologies. ..
  13. Abou Al Shaar H, Raheja A, Palmer C, Schmidt M, Couldwell W. Hypothalamic-Optochiasmatic Pilocytic Astrocytoma Associated with Occipital and Sacral Spinal Cavernomas: A Mere Coincidence or a True Association?. World Neurosurg. 2016;90:707.e17-707.e21 pubmed publisher
  14. Raheja A, Eli I, Bowers C, Palmer C, Couldwell W. Primary Intracranial Epidermoid Carcinoma with Diffuse Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis: Report of Two Cases. World Neurosurg. 2016;88:692.e9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A separate biopsy specimen from the enhancing portion of the tumor is used to rule out an underlying coexisting malignancy. Multimodal management carries the best prognosis for primary intracranial squamous cell carcinoma with LC. ..
  15. Kalra R, Schmidt M. The Role of a Miniopen Thoracoscopic-assisted Approach in the Management of Burst Fractures Involving the Thoracolumbar Junction. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2017;28:139-145 pubmed publisher
    ..The adoption by spine surgeons of minimally invasive thoracoscopic techniques used by thoracic surgeons has expanded to include treatment of most anterior thoracolumbar disorders. ..
  16. Ravindra V, Mazur M, Bisson E, Barton C, Shah L, Dailey A. The Usefulness of Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Defining Painful Upper Cervical Facet Arthropathy. World Neurosurg. 2016;96:390-395 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SPECT-CT may be a useful adjunct in the workup for neck pain secondary to facet arthropathy that could obviate diagnostic injections. ..
  17. request reprint
    Ravindra V, Guan J, Holland C, Dailey A, Schmidt M, Godzik J, et al. Vitamin D status in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison of fusion rates and patient outcome measures. A preliminary experience. J Neurosurg Sci. 2016;: pubmed
    ..Low vitamin D levels were associated with worse patient-reported outcomes and were an independent predictor of greater disability, which suggests vitamin D supplementation may offer some benefit in these patients. ..
  18. Raheja A, Kalra R, Couldwell W. Three-Dimensional Versus Two-Dimensional Neuroendoscopy: A Preclinical Laboratory Study. World Neurosurg. 2016;92:378-385 pubmed publisher
  19. Raheja A, Abou Al Shaar H, Patel B, Couldwell W. Surgical implications of frontoethmoidal pneumosinus dilatans-associated proptosis caused by meningioma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2016;158:1597-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Although PSD-associated proptosis is relatively uncommon, it carries important clinical implications in surgical management of skull-base and orbital meningiomas. ..
  20. Reynolds J, MacDonald J. Direct C2 Pedicle Screw Fixation for Axis Body Fracture. World Neurosurg. 2016;93:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..It may provide a more-efficient and less-morbid treatment than halo brace or cervical collar immobilization in some patients. ..
  21. Bowers C, Gurgel R, Brimley C, Hawryluk G, Taggart M, Braden S, et al. Surgical Treatment of Vestibular Schwannoma: Does Age Matter?. World Neurosurg. 2016;96:58-65 pubmed publisher
    ..With no difference in surgical complications, facial nerve outcome, or hearing preservation rates between older and younger patients in our series, age alone may not be an absolute contraindication to surgical management of VS. ..
  22. Karsy M, Gillespie D, Horn K, Burrell L, Yap J, Jensen R. Correlation of Glioma Proliferation and Hypoxia by Luciferase, Magnetic Resonance, and Positron Emission Tomography Imaging. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1742:301-320 pubmed publisher
    ..These tools can potentially be used for assessing tumor growth characteristics, hypoxia, mutational effects, and treatment effects. ..
  23. Tiburcio P, Lyne S, Eric Huang L. In Vivo Manipulation of HIF-1? Expression During Glioma Genesis. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1742:227-235 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter provides details of plasmid construction, viral production, and intracranial delivery of transgenes, a methodology that can be easily adapted to a specific purpose. ..
  24. Guan J, Karsy M, Brock A, Couldwell W. The Utility of Ankle-Brachial Index as a Predictor of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. World Neurosurg. 2016;89:139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In this small single-center study, lower ABI values were strongly associated with SAH-induced DCI, which may provide a tool for managing DCI in aneurysmal SAH. ..
  25. Karsy M, Raheja A, Eli I, Guan J, Couldwell W. Clinical Outcomes with Transcranial Resection of the Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma. World Neurosurg. 2017;108:748-755 pubmed publisher
    ..Various treatment approaches can be considered for TSM resection, but the ability to decompress the optic canal and achieve a GTR makes the frontotemporal approach attractive in many cases. ..
  26. Guan J, Bisson E. Treatment of Odontoid Fractures in the Aging Population. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2017;28:115-123 pubmed publisher
    ..This report reviews the key points in the management of odontoid fractures in the aged patient, including diagnosis, the various forms of conservative therapies, and the options for surgical intervention. ..
  27. Guan J, Spivak E, Wilkerson C, Park M. Subdural Empyema in the Setting of Multimodal Intracranial Monitoring. World Neurosurg. 2017;97:749.e1-749.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the safety profile of multimodal intracranial modeling is excellent, with increasing numbers of invasive bedside procedures, neurosurgeons must remain acutely vigilant for the development of infectious complications. ..
  28. Guan J, Karsy M, Eli I, Bisson E, McNally S, Taussky P, et al. Increased Incidence of Hypovitaminosis D Among Patients Requiring Treatment for Cerebral Aneurysms. World Neurosurg. 2016;88:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Patients with cerebral aneurysms requiring treatment have a significantly higher incidence of hypovitaminosis D compared with patients in a control group. ..
  29. Eli I, Raheja A, Corn H, Simmons D, Palmer C, Couldwell W. Sellar Wegener Granulomatosis Masquerading as Cabergoline-Resistant Prolactinoma. World Neurosurg. 2016;95:622.e1-622.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..WG should be part of the differential diagnosis of inflammatory lesions in the sella, the identification of which can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this systemic disease for optimal outcome. ..
  30. Karsy M, Yoon N, Boettcher L, Jensen R, Shah L, MacDonald J, et al. Surgical treatment of glioblastoma in the elderly: the impact of complications. J Neurooncol. 2018;138:123-132 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that decreased patient function limits postoperative adjuvant therapy and predisposes to higher morbidity especially in this age group. ..
  31. Ravindra V, Schmidt M. Management of Spinal Meningiomas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016;27:195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, the current management of spinal meningiomas and the body of literature surrounding conventional treatment is reviewed and discussed. ..
  32. Raheja A, Bowers C, MacDonald J, Shelton C, Gurgel R, Brimley C, et al. Middle Fossa Approach for Vestibular Schwannoma: Good Hearing and Facial Nerve Outcomes with Low Morbidity. World Neurosurg. 2016;92:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that resection via the MFA is a rational alternative to watchful waiting or stereotactic radiosurgery. ..
  33. Ravindra V, Mazur M, Driscoll M, McEvoy S, Schmidt M. BRCA2-positive spinal intramedullary ovarian metastatic disease: case report. Spine J. 2016;16:e201-7 pubmed publisher
  34. Chen R, Cohen A, Colman H. Targeted Therapeutics in Patients With High-Grade Gliomas: Past, Present, and Future. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2016;17:42 pubmed publisher
  35. Karsy M, Raheja A, Guan J, Osborn A, Couldwell W. Scalp Arteriovenous Malformation with Concomitant, Flow-Dependent Malformation and Aneurysm. World Neurosurg. 2016;90:708.e5-708.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..While sAVMs have been described in the literature, the combination of the diverse conditions seen in this case is unique. ..
  36. Couldwell W. Transcallosal approach for third ventriculostomy and removal of midbrain cavernous malformation. Neurosurg Focus. 2013;34:Video 6 pubmed publisher
    ..The details of the procedure and nuances of technique are described in the narration. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/zKKnehp7l2c. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2013.V1.FOCUS12348) ..
  37. Gamboa N, Joyce E, Eli I, Park M, Taussky P, Schmidt R, et al. Clinical presentation and treatment paradigms of brain arteriovenous malformations in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. J Clin Neurosci. 2018;51:22-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This robust patient cohort of brain AVMs in 39 patients with HHT advances the collective understanding of this disease's varied presentation, diagnostic workup, genetic underpinnings, and available treatment options. ..
  38. Hornyak M, Digre K, Couldwell W. Neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations of benign anterior skull base lesions. Postgrad Med. 2009;121:103-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we review the presentation, evaluation, and surgical treatment of patients with benign skull base lesions presenting with visual disturbance...
  39. Raheja A, Karsy M, Eli I, Guan J, Couldwell W. Endonasal Operative Corridor Expansion by Sphenoidal Pneumosinus Dilatans in Tuberculum Sellae Meningiomas. World Neurosurg. 2017;106:686-692 pubmed publisher
    ..This may lead to operative corridor expansion for endonasal access to TSM associated with sphenoidal PSD. A radiologic classification scheme for sphenoidal PSD associated with TSM is suggested that may aid surgical decision-making. ..
  40. Guan J, Karsy M, Schmidt M, Dailey A, Bisson E. Multivariable analysis of factors affecting length of stay and hospital charges after single-level corpectomy. J Clin Neurosci. 2017;44:279-283 pubmed publisher
    ..Avoidance of postoperative anemia may help to reduce length of stay following ACCF. ..
  41. Raheja A, Couldwell W. Management of Cavernous Sinus Involvement in Sinonasal and Ventral Skull Base Malignancies. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2017;50:365-383 pubmed publisher
    ..The principles and nuances of a high-flow cerebral revascularization procedure are mentioned. ..
  42. Guan J, Holland C, Schmidt M, Dailey A, Mahan M, Bisson E. Association of low perioperative prealbumin level and surgical complications in long-segment spinal fusion patients: A retrospective cohort study. Int J Surg. 2017;39:135-140 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations are needed to better define this association and to determine whether effective interventions may be implemented in this subset of patients to attenuate this relationship. ..
  43. Park M, Brock A, Mortimer V, Taussky P, Couldwell W, Quigley E. GoPro Hero Cameras for Creation of a Three-Dimensional, Educational, Neurointerventional Video. J Digit Imaging. 2017;30:561-565 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional videos can be created in a similar fashion of more complicated neurointerventional cases. The GoPro HERO 3+ camera and Dual HERO System can be used to create educational videos of neurointerventional procedures. ..
  44. request reprint
    Raheja A, Couldwell W. Microsurgical resection of skull base meningioma-expanding the operative corridor. J Neurooncol. 2016;130:263-267 pubmed
  45. Karsy M, Guan J, Brock A, Amin A, Park M. Emerging Technologies in Flow Diverters and Stents for Cerebrovascular Diseases. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2017;17:96 pubmed publisher
    ..Endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular disease is rapidly advancing via continued development of new technology. ..
  46. Yoon N, Awad A, Gee J, Taussky P. Ruptured Persistent Trigeminal Artery Causing Direct Cavernous Sinus Fistula Treated with Pipeline Embolization and Minimal Coiling. World Neurosurg. 2018;109:471-475.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a rare case where undercoiling of the cavernous sinus occluded a cavernous sinus fistula because of the adjunct use of a Pipeline embolization device in the presence of a traumatic rupture of a persistent trigeminal artery. ..
  47. Alzhrani G, Sivakumar W, Park M, Taussky P, Couldwell W. Delayed Complications After Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Adenomas. World Neurosurg. 2018;109:233-241 pubmed publisher
  48. Alzhrani G, Shelton C, Couldwell W. Middle fossa approach for resection of vestibular schwannoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2017;159:1023-1026 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, learning the technical nuances of the MFA adds to the neurosurgeon's armamentarium, especially for treatment of small intracanalicular VSs in young patients who wish to preserve hearing. ..