Nicole F Steinmetz


Affiliation: Case Western Reserve University
Country: USA


  1. Le D, Lee K, Shukla S, Commandeur U, Steinmetz N. Potato virus X, a filamentous plant viral nanoparticle for doxorubicin delivery in cancer therapy. Nanoscale. 2017;9:2348-2357 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results open the door for further development of PVX and other high aspect ratio plant VNPs for applications in cancer therapy. ..
  2. Wen A, Steinmetz N. Design of virus-based nanomaterials for medicine, biotechnology, and energy. Chem Soc Rev. 2016;45:4074-126 pubmed publisher
    ..We anticipate that this field will continue to evolve and grow, with exciting new possibilities stemming from advancements in the rational design of virus-based nanomaterials. ..
  3. Schimelman J, Dryden D, Poudel L, Krawiec K, Ma Y, Podgornik R, et al. Optical properties and electronic transitions of DNA oligonucleotides as a function of composition and stacking sequence. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2015;17:4589-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These insights may prove useful for applications in biology, bioelectronics, and mesoscale self-assembly. ..
  4. Lee K, Shukla S, Wu M, Ayat N, El Sanadi C, Wen A, et al. Stealth filaments: Polymer chain length and conformation affect the in vivo fate of PEGylated potato virus X. Acta Biomater. 2015;19:166-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Tailoring PEG chain length and conformation (brush vs. mushroom) allows tuning of the pharmacokinetics, yielding long-circulating stealth filaments for applications in nanomedicine. ..
  5. Pitek A, Veliz F, Jameson S, Steinmetz N. Interactions Between Plant Viral Nanoparticles (VNPs) and Blood Plasma Proteins, and Their Impact on the VNP In Vivo Fates. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1776:591-608 pubmed publisher
    ..We outline procedures for in vivo screening of VNP fates in a mouse model, which may be useful for evaluation of efficacy and biocompatibility of different VNP based formulations. ..
  6. Tiu B, Advincula R, Steinmetz N. Nanomanufacture of Free-Standing, Porous, Janus-Type Films of Polymer-Plant Virus Nanoparticle Arrays. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1776:143-157 pubmed publisher
    ..Through an electrochemical trigger, the polypyrrole-CPMV delaminates from the surface producing a self-sustaining polymer-protein membrane that can potentially be used for sensing and nanocargo applications. ..
  7. Bruckman M, Czapar A, Steinmetz N. Drug-Loaded Plant-Virus Based Nanoparticles for Cancer Drug Delivery. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1776:425-436 pubmed publisher
  8. Shukla S, Dickmeis C, Fischer R, Commandeur U, Steinmetz N. In Planta Production of Fluorescent Filamentous Plant Virus-Based Nanoparticles. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1776:61-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these features make genetically engineered fluorescent PVX particles ideally suited for molecular imaging applications. ..
  9. Uhde Holzem K, McBurney M, Tiu B, Advincula R, Fischer R, Commandeur U, et al. Production of Immunoabsorbent Nanoparticles by Displaying Single-Domain Protein A on Potato Virus X. Macromol Biosci. 2016;16:231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The new biomaterials presented could find applications as diagnostic tools for biomedical or environmental monitoring. ..

More Information


  1. Bruckman M, Czapar A, Vanmeter A, Randolph L, Steinmetz N. Tobacco mosaic virus-based protein nanoparticles and nanorods for chemotherapy delivery targeting breast cancer. J Control Release. 2016;231:103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we developed TMV and SNP formulations loaded with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin, and we demonstrate the application of TMV rods and spheres for chemotherapy delivery targeting breast cancer. ..
  2. Bruckman M, Randolph L, Vanmeter A, Hern S, Shoffstall A, Taurog R, et al. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and blood compatibility of native and PEGylated tobacco mosaic virus nano-rods and -spheres in mice. Virology. 2014;449:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, blood biocompatibility was supported, as none of the formulations induced clotting or hemolysis. This work lays the foundation for further application and tailoring of TMV for biomedical applications. ..
  3. Pitek A, Jameson S, Veliz F, Shukla S, Steinmetz N. Serum albumin 'camouflage' of plant virus based nanoparticles prevents their antibody recognition and enhances pharmacokinetics. Biomaterials. 2016;89:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, SA-coatings may provide an alternative and improved coating technique to yield (plant virus-based) NPs with improved in vivo properties enhancing drug delivery and molecular imaging. ..
  4. Shukla S, Myers J, Woods S, Gong X, Czapar A, Commandeur U, et al. Plant viral nanoparticles-based HER2 vaccine: Immune response influenced by differential transport, localization and cellular interactions of particulate carriers. Biomaterials. 2017;121:15-27 pubmed publisher
  5. Gulati N, Pitek A, Steinmetz N, Stewart P. Cryo-electron tomography investigation of serum albumin-camouflaged tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles. Nanoscale. 2017;9:3408-3415 pubmed publisher
  6. Czapar A, Steinmetz N. Plant viruses and bacteriophages for drug delivery in medicine and biotechnology. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2017;38:108-116 pubmed publisher
    ..Key target areas of development are their use in chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, pesticide-delivery, gene therapy, vaccine carriers, and immunotherapy. ..
  7. Le D, Hu H, Commandeur U, Steinmetz N. Chemical addressability of potato virus X for its applications in bio/nanotechnology. J Struct Biol. 2017;200:360-368 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further extend the understanding of the chemical properties of PVX and enable development of novel multifunctional platforms in bio/nanotechnology. ..