- Pepper M, Baetens D, Mandriota S, Di Sanza C, Oikemus S, Lane T, et al. Regulation of VEGF and VEGF receptor expression in the rodent mammary gland during pregnancy, lactation, and involution. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:507-24 pubmed..These results point to a causal role for the VEGF ligand-receptor pairs in pregnancy-associated angiogenesis in the mammary gland, and suggest that they may also regulate vascular permeability during lactation. ..