- Ciccarelli R, D Alimonte I, Ballerini P, D Auro M, Nargi E, Buccella S, et al. Molecular signalling mediating the protective effect of A1 adenosine and mGlu3 metabotropic glutamate receptor activation against apoptosis by oxygen/glucose deprivation in cultured astrocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:1369-80 pubmed..These data suggest that pharmacological activation of A(1) and mGlu3 receptors protects astrocytes against hypoxic/ischemic damage by stimulating the PI3K and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways. ..