Christos Markopoulos


Affiliation: Athens Medical School
Location: Athens, Greece


  1. Markopoulos C, Mantas D, Kouskos E, Antonopoulou Z, Revenas C, Yiacoumettis A. Paraffinomas of the breast or oleogranulomatous mastitis-a rare entity. Breast. 2006;15:540-3 pubmed
    ..Complications due to paraffinoma reactions of breast tissue and skin, as well as progression of the disease and treatment of our patients, are presented here, together with a review of the relevant literature. ..
  2. Markopoulos C, Mantas D, Philipidis T, Kouskos E, Antonopoulou Z, Hatzinikolaou M, et al. Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast. World J Surg Oncol. 2008;6:44 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor, its clinical behavior reported to be rather aggressive so far, might varies depending on special characteristics such as low grade and strongly positive ER expression. ..
  3. Markopoulos C, Chrissochou M, Michailidou A, Tzoracoleftherakis E, Xepapadakis G, Papadiamantis J, et al. Effect of exemestane on the lipidemic profile of post-menopausal operable breast cancer patients following 5-7 years of adjuvant tamoxifen: preliminary results of the ATENA substudy. Anticancer Drugs. 2005;16:879-83 pubmed
  4. Polyzos A, Tsavaris N, Kosmas C, Gogas H, Toufexi H, Kosmidis C, et al. Full dose paclitaxel plus vinorelbine as salvage chemotherapy in anthracycline-resistant advanced breast cancer: a phase II study. J Chemother. 2003;15:607-12 pubmed
    ..The combination at these doses and schedules should be considered in the design of regimens for advanced breast cancer. ..
  5. Onyenadum A, Gogas H, Markopoulos C, Bafaloukos D, Aravantinos G, Mantzourani M, et al. Mitoxantrone plus vinorelbine in pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer. J Chemother. 2007;19:582-9 pubmed
    ..There were no treatment related deaths. The combination of mitoxantrone and vinorelbine is an effective regimen with manageable toxicity in pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer. ..
  6. Polyzos A, Tsavaris N, Kosmas C, Gogas H, Vadiaka M, Markopoulos C, et al. Docetaxel and epirubicin supported by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor first-line in advanced breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:2917-23 pubmed
    ..Although myelosuppression remains the major toxicity, prophylactic GCSF administration was associated with a small percentage of neutropenic fever. ..
  7. Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Gogas H, Kakisis J, Kyriakou V, Gogas J, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of intracystic breast carcinomas. Am Surg. 2002;68:783-6 pubmed
    ..Bloodstained aspirated cyst fluid should be sent for cytology and breast imaging should be carried out in all these cases. Residual mass after cyst aspiration is also an indication for open biopsy. ..
  8. Markopoulos C. Aromatase inhibitors in the management of early breast cancer: the TEAM trial. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2009;35:333 pubmed publisher
  9. Markopoulos C, Sampalis F, Givalos N, Gogas H. Association of breast cancer with meningioma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1998;24:332-4 pubmed
    ..The knowledge of this association is important in the differential diagnosis of patients with breast cancer who develop central nervous system manifestations. ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Markopoulos C, Dafni U, Misitzis J, Zobolas V, Tzoracoleftherakis E, Koukouras D, et al. Extended adjuvant hormonal therapy with exemestane has no detrimental effect on the lipid profile of postmenopausal breast cancer patients: final results of the ATENA lipid substudy. Breast Cancer Res. 2009;11:R35 pubmed publisher ID: NCT00810706. ..
  2. Kostoglou Athanassiou I, Ntalles K, Gogas J, Markopoulos C, Alevizou Terzaki V, Athanassiou P, et al. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with breast cancer on tamoxifen. Horm Res. 1997;47:116-20 pubmed
  3. Kouskos E, Markopoulos C, Mantas D, Revenas K, Antonopoulou Z, Kontzoglou K, et al. Missed cancers on mammograms: causes and measures of prevention. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2004;25:230-2 pubmed
  4. Tsitsilonis O, Bekris E, Voutsas I, Baxevanis C, Markopoulos C, Papadopoulou S, et al. The prognostic value of alpha-thymosins in breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 1998;18:1501-8 pubmed
    ..The fact that such relationships hold only for cancer tissues encourages the future use of alpha-thymosins as potent prognostic factors in breast cancer. ..
  5. Papachristodoulou A, Kouskos E, Markopoulos C, Karatzas G, Kouraklis G, Kostakis A. Local recurrence after radical surgery for colorectal cancer. Int Surg. 2002;87:19-24 pubmed
    ..The only hope for long-term survival for patients presenting with local recurrence from colorectal cancer after primary radical treatment is to identify local recurrence at an early stage and treat it in a radical manner. ..
  6. Markopoulos C, Polychronis A, Dafni U, Koukouras D, Zobolas V, Tzorakoleftherakis E, et al. Lipid changes in breast cancer patients on exemestane treatment: final results of the TEAM Greek substudy. Ann Oncol. 2009;20:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These data offer additional information with regard to the safety and tolerability of exemestane treatment in the adjuvant setting. ..
  7. Markopoulos C, Berger U, Wilson P, Gazet J, Coombes R. Oestrogen receptor content of normal breast cells and breast carcinomas throughout the menstrual cycle. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988;296:1349-51 pubmed
    ..In contrast, breast carcinoma cells either synthesise this protein continuously throughout the cycle or fail to express it despite fluctuations of serum hormone concentrations. ..
  8. Kouskos E, Gui G, Mantas D, Revenas K, Rallis N, Antonopoulou Z, et al. Wire localisation biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions: reasons for unsuccessful excision. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2006;27:262-6 pubmed
    ..An uncommon problem of this procedure is the failure to identify, localize or excise the breast lesion. In this review article, factors that contribute to the failed needle localization procedure are presented. ..
  9. Gazet J, Markopoulos C, Ford H, Coombes R, Bland J, Dixon R. Tamoxifen and breast cancer in the elderly. Lancet. 1988;1:1218 pubmed
  10. Markopoulos C, Sampalis F, Gogas H, Despotidis P, Kyriakou V. Cavernous haemangioma of the breast. A case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1998;19:246-8 pubmed
  11. Gogas J, Markopoulos C, Karydakis V, Gogas G, Delladetsima J. Carcinosarcoma of the submandibular salivary gland. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1999;25:333-5 pubmed
    ..A short review of the literature is also presented and the poor prognosis of these tumours, in spite of complete surgical removal and additional radiation therapy and chemotherapy, is discussed. ..
  12. Kouskos E, Markopoulos C, Revenas K, Koufopoulos K, Kyriakou V, Gogas J. Computer-aided preoperative diagnosis of microcalcifications on mammograms. Acta Radiol. 2003;44:43-6 pubmed
    ..Our study showed that computer analysis achieved statistically significantly better performance than that of physicians in the classification of malignant and benign calcifications. ..
  13. Gogas J, Kouskos E, Markopoulos C, Androulakis A, Mantas D, Gogas H, et al. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue thyroid lymphoma: a rare and not aggressive tumour. Eur J Surg. 2002;168:572-4 pubmed
  14. Vgenopoulou S, Lazaris A, Markopoulos C, Boltetsou E, Kyriakou V, Kavantzas N, et al. Immunohistochemical evaluation of immune response in invasive ductal breast cancer of not-otherwise-specified type. Breast. 2003;12:172-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, tumors with markers of poor prognosis exhibited increased numbers of lymphocytic infiltrates, and of NK cells in particular, and stronger MUC1 and MUC6 glycoprotein immunoreactivity than did the other tumors. ..
  15. Markopoulos C, Gazet J. Paget's disease of the nipple occurring after conservative management of early breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1988;14:77-8 pubmed
  16. Gogas J, Markopoulos C, Gogas H, Skandalakis P, Kontzoglou K, Stavridou A. Hamartomas of the breast. Am Surg. 1994;60:447-50 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis is difficult, and we emphasize that fine needle aspiration and cytology of the smears is not diagnostic for hamartomas. ..
  17. Gogas J, Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Gogas H, Kiriakou V. Metastatic retroperitoneal and mediastinal fibrosis as first sign of recurrence of breast cancer. Eur J Surg. 2001;167:715-8 pubmed
  18. Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Revenas K, Mantas D, Antonopoulou Z, Kontzoglou K, et al. Open surgical biopsy for nonpalpable breast lesions detected on screening mammography. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2005;26:311-4 pubmed
    ..Frozen section is feasible and accurate in the majority of these lesions, and therefore, diagnostic and therapeutic one-step surgical procedures could be performed. ..
  19. Konstantopoulou I, Rampias T, Ladopoulou A, Koutsodontis G, Armaou S, Anagnostopoulos T, et al. Greek BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation spectrum: two BRCA1 mutations account for half the carriers found among high-risk breast/ovarian cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;107:431-41 pubmed
    ..The suggested protocol can impact on the clinical management of breast-ovarian cancer families on a national healthcare system level. ..
  20. Ioakim Liossi A, Karakitsos P, Markopoulos C, Aroni K, Gogas J, Kyrkou K. DNA ploidy and vimentin expression in primary breast cancer. Cytopathology. 1995;6:325-30 pubmed
    ..05) Clonal heterogeneity was observed in 25% of breast carcinomas, and was associated with increased vimentin expression. These changes may be indicative of genomic alteration and tumour aggressiveness. ..
  21. Markopoulos C, Gogas H, Sampalis F, Kyriakou B. Bilateral Paget's disease of the breast. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1997;18:495-6 pubmed
    ..A rare case of metachronous bilateral Paget's disease of the nipple is presented. The occasional failure of routine follow-up to detect certain tumours until biologically advanced and the value of patient observations are mentioned. ..
  22. Ioakim Liossi A, Karakitsos P, Markopoulos C, Aroni K, Athanassiadou P, Delivelioti K, et al. p53 protein expression and oestrogen and progesterone receptor status in invasive ductal breast carcinomas. Cytopathology. 2001;12:197-202 pubmed
    ..The last subset of patients could actually benefit from adjuvant therapy. ..
  23. Kataki A, Gomatos I, Pararas N, Armakolas A, Panousopoulos D, Karantzikos G, et al. Identification of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic alterations in Greek breast cancer moderate-risk and low-risk individuals--correlation with clinicopathological data. Clin Genet. 2005;67:322-9 pubmed
    ..Breast cancer due to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes appears to be a heterogeneous syndrome in the Greek population. ..
  24. Petridou E, Chavelas C, Dikalioti S, Dessypris N, Terzidis A, Nikoulis D, et al. Breast cancer risk in relation to most prevalent IgE specific antibodies: a case control study in Greece. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:1709-13 pubmed
  25. Markopoulos C. Safely promoting breast-conserving surgery and preventing early relapses with an aromatase inhibitor. Surg Oncol. 2008;17:113-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Early and long-term-risk reduction with AI treatment should be discussed with patients, as should the management of common AI-associated adverse events. ..
  26. Armakolas A, Ladopoulou A, Konstantopoulou I, Pararas B, Gomatos I, Kataki A, et al. BRCA2 gene mutations in Greek patients with familial breast cancer. Hum Mutat. 2002;19:81-2 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that there is a cluster of novel mutations in exons 10 and 11 in Greek patients with familial breast cancer. These mutations appear to have a milder clinical phenotype when compared to the rest of the study group. ..
  27. Markopoulos C, Mantas D, Kouskos E, Antonopoulou Z, Lambadariou K, Revenas K, et al. Surgical management of nipple discharge. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2006;27:275-8 pubmed
    ..Most of them will require a microdochectomy, as the possibility of finding a carcinoma among those women is between 10-15%. However, single duct papilloma is the most common cause of bloody discharge. ..
  28. Gogas J, Papachristodoulou A, Zografos G, Papastratis G, Gardikis S, Markopoulos C, et al. [Experiences with surgical therapy of hepatic echinococcosis]. Zentralbl Chir. 1997;122:339-43 pubmed
    ..Of the 49 patients available for follow-up (87%), three (6%) developed recurrent disease. ..
  29. Gorgoulis V, Koutroumbi E, Kotsinas A, Zacharatos P, Markopoulos C, Giannikos L, et al. Alterations of p16-pRb pathway and chromosome locus 9p21-22 in sporadic invasive breast carcinomas. Mol Med. 1998;4:807-22 pubmed
  30. Gogas J, Kouskos E, Markopoulos C, Mantas D, Antonopoulou Z, Kontzoglou K, et al. Carcinosarcoma of the breast: report of two cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2003;24:93-5 pubmed
    ..This tumor should be distinguished from other forms of metaplastic carcinomas because it is very aggressive and has an ominous prognosis. ..
  31. Mantzoros C, Petridou E, Dessypris N, Chavelas C, Dalamaga M, Alexe D, et al. Adiponectin and breast cancer risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1102-7 pubmed
    ..Future studies are needed to prove causality and provide further insights into both the mechanisms underlying the actions of this hormone and its potential role in breast cancer. ..
  32. Markopoulos C, Chrissochou M, Antonopoulou Z, Xepapadakis G, Papadiamantis J, Tzoracoleftherakis E, et al. Duration of tamoxifen effect on lipidemic profile of postmenopausal breast cancer patients following deprivation of treatment. Oncology. 2006;70:301-5 pubmed
    ..A 'rebound effect' on the lipidemic parameters should be expected and those patients should be monitored carefully. ..
  33. Papachristodoulou A, Zografos G, Papastratis G, Papavassiliou V, Markopoulos C, Mandrekas D, et al. Fournier's gangrene: still highly lethal. Langenbecks Arch Chir. 1997;382:15-8 pubmed
  34. Gogas J, Markopoulos C, Skandalakis P, Gogas H. Bilateral breast cancer. Am Surg. 1993;59:733-5 pubmed
    ..4 per cent. Our results indicate that the risk of developing, a contralateral breast cancer is related to the patient's age, family history of breast cancer, and lobular histology of the tumor. ..
  35. Markopoulos C, Gogas H, Eleftheriou G, Floros D. Endometrioid carcinoma arising in a scar of caesarean section. Case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1996;17:520-1 pubmed
    ..Development of malignancy in such a lesion is very unusual. A rare case of primary endometrioid carcinoma in the endometriosis of a caesarean scar is described. ..
  36. Karakitsos P, Botsoli Stergiou E, Ioakim Liossi A, Georgoulakis J, Markopoulos C, Gogas J, et al. Evaluation of cytological morphologic criteria and AgNOR expression in male breast lesions. Cytopathology. 1998;9:107-13 pubmed
    ..Our experience suggests that FNA is an acceptable procedure for the investigation of male breast lesions. ..
  37. Markopoulos C, Kakisis J, Koufopoulos K, Alevras P, Gogas H, Tziortziotis D, et al. Radial scar of the breast. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1999;20:147-9 pubmed
    ..The surgeon, the radiologist and the pathologist should be aware of this clinical entity which, in spite of its benign character, has the ability to simulate invasive carcinoma clinically, mammographically and histopathologically. ..
  38. Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Phillipidis T, Floros D. Adenosis tumor of the breast. Breast J. 2003;9:255-6 pubmed
  39. Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Phillipidis T. Development of early malignant bilateral breast disease in relation to antidepressant treatment. Acta Chir Belg. 2005;105:660-1 pubmed
    ..The role of that type of agents in the breast pathology is briefly discussed, based on the data of the current literature. ..
  40. Markopoulos C, Spyropoulou A, Zervas I, Christodoulou G, Papageorgiou C. Phantom breast syndrome: The effect of in situ breast carcinoma. Psychiatry Res. 2010;179:333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of infiltration in primary tumour histology, probably through an unknown pathophysiological mechanism, might play a role for the significantly higher incidence of PBS in women undergoing mastectomy for DCIS. ..
  41. Papachristodoulou A, Zografos G, Markopoulos C, Fotiadis C, Gogas J, Sechas M, et al. Obstructive colonic cancer. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1993;38:296-8 pubmed
    ..The high incidence of advanced disease, advanced age, delay in tumour excision and unprepared bowel are some of the factors resulting in the poor prognosis of these patients. ..
  42. Koutselini H, Markopoulos C, Lambropoulou S, Gogas H, Kandaraki C, Gogas J. Relationship of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and vimentin expression and various prognostic factors in breast cancer patients. Cytopathology. 1995;6:14-21 pubmed
    ..Co-expression of EGFR, PCNA and vimentin was determined in most cases. These data suggest that EGFR status, PCNA index and vimentin expression may be important for the prediction of biologically aggressive tumours. ..
  43. Markopoulos C, Kakisis J, Kouskos S, Kontzoglou K, Koufopoulos K, Gogas J. Management of nonpalpable, mammographically detectable breast lesions. World J Surg. 1999;23:434-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the needle localization of nonpalpable breast lesions is a simple, accurate method for early detection of small cancers with favorable prognosis. ..
  44. Markopoulos C. Senology: the urgent need for establishing rules for expert training and organization of multidisciplinary breast units. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1999;20:53-5 pubmed
  45. Kouvaraki M, Gorgoulis V, Rassidakis G, Liodis P, Koutroumbi E, Markopoulos C, et al. Alterations of the 16q22.1 and 16q24.3 chromosomal loci in sporadic invasive breast carcinomas: correlation with proliferative activity, ploidy and hormonal status of the tumors. Anticancer Res. 2001;21:991-9 pubmed
    ..The statistical association between LOH of 16q24.3 and progesterone receptors need to be further investigated in larger series. ..
  46. Gogas J, Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Gogas H, Mantas D, Antonopoulou Z, et al. Granular cell tumor of the breast: a rare lesion resembling breast cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2002;23:333-4 pubmed
    ..Computer tomography (CT) showed a 3.74 cm mass in the mammary tail of Spencer. The findings were suspicious for malignancy and the lesion was widely resected. Pathologic examination showed granular cell tumor. ..
  47. Markopoulos C, Mantas D, Revenas K, Kouskos E, Tzonou A, Liapis C, et al. Breast arterial calcifications as an indicator of systemic vascular disease. Acta Radiol. 2004;45:726-9 pubmed
    ..Screening mammograms might be useful in the detection of women at risk for systemic vascular disease. ..
  48. Markopoulos C, Polychronis A, Zobolas V, Xepapadakis G, Papadiamantis J, Koukouras D, et al. The effect of exemestane on the lipidemic profile of postmenopausal early breast cancer patients: preliminary results of the TEAM Greek sub-study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005;93:61-6 pubmed
    ..These data offer additional information with regard to the safety and tolerability of exemestane in postmenopausal breast cancer patients and support further investigation of its potential usefulness in the adjuvant setting. ..
  49. Spyropoulou A, Papageorgiou C, Markopoulos C, Christodoulou G, Soldatos K. Depressive symptomatology correlates with phantom breast syndrome in mastectomized women. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;258:165-70 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence that PBS is associated with higher scores of depressive symptomatology and younger age. The nature of such an association remains unclear and calls for further investigation. ..
  50. Markopoulos C, Gogas H, Livaditou A, Floros D. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the breast. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1998;19:291-3 pubmed
    ..This report describes a case of high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the breast with a disease-free interval of 5 years, despite of unfavourable histologic features at the time of diagnosis. ..
  51. Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Koufopoulos K, Kyriakou V, Gogas J. Use of artificial neural networks (computer analysis) in the diagnosis of microcalcifications on mammography. Eur J Radiol. 2001;39:60-5 pubmed
  52. Papachristodoulou A, Angouras D, Papavassiliou V, Delladetsima J, Markopoulos C, Gogas J. Primary actinomycosis of the greater omentum. J Infect. 2001;43:159-60 pubmed
  53. Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Mantas D, Kontzoglou K, Antonopoulou K, Revenas Z, et al. Fibroadenomas of the breast: is there any association with breast cancer?. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2004;25:495-7 pubmed
    ..9%). Coexistence of fibroadenomas and breast cancer is relatively rare, but it should not be ignored by breast surgeons, and patients should be properly informed. ..
  54. Kostopoulos I, Arapantoni Dadioti P, Gogas H, Papadopoulos S, Malamou Mitsi V, Scopa C, et al. Evaluation of the prognostic value of HER-2 and VEGF in breast cancer patients participating in a randomized study with dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006;96:251-61 pubmed
    ..No predictive ability of HER-2 status or VEGF overexpression for T treatment was evident. ..
  55. Markopoulos C, Tsaroucha A, Kouskos E, Mantas D, Antonopoulou Z, Karvelis S. Impact of breast cancer surgery on the self-esteem and sexual life of female patients. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:182-8 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis of breast cancer has a negative psychological impact on the patient, but the type of surgery has a significant role in post-operative self-esteem and sexual life. ..
  56. van Nes J, Seynaeve C, Jones S, Markopoulos C, Putter H, van de Velde C, et al. Variations in locoregional therapy in postmenopausal patients with early breast cancer treated in different countries. Br J Surg. 2010;97:671-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1) per cent. Despite international consensus guidelines, wide global variations were observed in treatment practices of early breast cancer. There should be further efforts to optimize locoregional treatment for breast cancer worldwide. ..
  57. Gazet J, Markopoulos C, Ford H, Coombes R, Bland J, Dixon R. Prospective randomised trial of tamoxifen versus surgery in elderly patients with breast cancer. Lancet. 1988;1:679-81 pubmed
    ..There were 13 deaths in the tamoxifen group and 11 in the surgical arm, of which 8 and 9, respectively, were attributable to breast cancer. Disease-free survival did not differ between the groups. ..
  58. Kostoglou Athanassiou I, Ntalles K, Markopoulos C, Athanassiou P, Gogas J, Proukakis C. Thyroid function in postmenopausal women with breast cancer on tamoxifen. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1998;19:150-4 pubmed
    ..05) after tamoxifen therapy. It is concluded that tamoxifen administration changes thyroid hormone concentrations. However free thyroid hormone levels remain unchanged and the patients remain euthyroid after long-term tamoxifen therapy. ..
  59. Markopoulos C, Sampalis F, Zerva C, Kiriaki D, Kitsou E, Alevizou Terzaki V, et al. 99mTc Tetrofosmin imaging in breast tumours. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1998;19:163-6 pubmed
    ..The sensitivity of the method was 90.32% and the specificity 91.30%, with a positive predictive value of 96.55%. We conclude that breast scanning with 99mTc Tetrofosmin may play an important role in the detection of breast malignancies. ..
  60. Ioakim Liossi A, Gagos S, Athanassiades P, Athanassiadou P, Gogas J, Davaris P, et al. Changes of chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 11 in metastatic effusions arising from breast and ovarian cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1999;110:34-40 pubmed
    ..This study provides further cytogenetic evidence for the involvement of these chromosomes in breast and ovarian malignancy. ..
  61. Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Gogas H, Mandas D, Kakisis J, Gogas J. Factors affecting axillary lymph node metastases in patients with T1 breast carcinoma. Am Surg. 2000;66:1011-3 pubmed
    ..g., elderly patients with clinically negative axilla). Axillary dissection (at least levels I and II) should be performed in all cases with primary invasive breast cancer with tumor size > 5 mm. ..
  62. Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Kontzoglou K, Gogas G, Kyriakou V, Gogas J. Breast cancer in ectopic breast tissue. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2001;22:157-9 pubmed
    ..They were all successfully treated by surgery and adjuvant therapy. A review of the literature on the incidence and pathology of ectopic mammary tissue is also presented. ..
  63. Fountzilas G, Dafni U, Gogas H, Linardou H, Kalofonos H, Briasoulis E, et al. Postoperative dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel and CMF in patients with high-risk breast cancer: safety analysis of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group randomized phase III trial HE 10/00. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:853-60 pubmed
    ..Both regimens as used in the present study are well tolerated and safe. The rates of severe taxane-related toxic effects and thrombocytopenia, although low overall, are significantly increased with the dose-dense sequential regimen. ..
  64. Gogas H, Kirkwood J, Falk C, Dafni U, Sondak V, Tsoutsos D, et al. Correlation of molecular human leukocyte antigen typing and outcome in high-risk melanoma patients receiving adjuvant interferon. Cancer. 2010;116:4326-33 pubmed publisher
    ..HLA-Cw 06-positive patients have better relapse-free and overall survival. ..
  65. Correa C, McGale P, Taylor C, Wang Y, Clarke M, Davies C, et al. Overview of the randomized trials of radiotherapy in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2010;2010:162-77 pubmed publisher
    ..0% (SE 5.5, 12.1% vs 30.1%, 2P = .002). After 10 years of follow-up, there was, however, no significant effect on breast cancer mortality, mortality from causes other than breast cancer, or all-cause mortality. ..
  66. Gogas J, Markopoulos C, Skandalakis P, Sechas M. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Am Surg. 1987;53:347-9 pubmed
    ..The best chance of cure lies in early diagnosis and an aggressive surgical removal of the primary tumor and any cervical metastases. ..
  67. Gogas H, Ignatiadis T, Markopoulos C, Karageorgopoulou S, Floros D, Vaiopoulos G. Solitary spleen metastasis and amyloidosis in a patient with endometrial cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2004;25:391-3 pubmed
    ..The patient remains free of recurrence, 46 months later. A case of solitary spleen metastasis with amyloidosis in a patient with endometrial cancer is presented. ..
  68. Gogas H, Ioannovich J, Dafni U, Stavropoulou Giokas C, Frangia K, Tsoutsos D, et al. Prognostic significance of autoimmunity during treatment of melanoma with interferon. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:709-18 pubmed
  69. Polyzos A, Gogas H, Markopoulos C, Tsavaris N, Papadopoulos O, Polyzos K, et al. Salvage chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and capecitabine for breast cancer patients pretreated with anthracyclines and taxanes. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:2851-6 pubmed
    ..The present regimen was well tolerated with a rather moderate effectiveness but very significant for this group of patients. Further studies where the combination could be compared with single agent capecitabine are warranted. ..
  70. Kouvaraki M, Gorgoulis V, Rassidakis G, Liodis P, Markopoulos C, Gogas J, et al. High expression levels of p27 correlate with lymph node status in a subset of advanced invasive breast carcinomas: relation to E-cadherin alterations, proliferative activity, and ploidy of the tumors. Cancer. 2002;94:2454-65 pubmed
  71. Gogas J, Mantas D, Gogas H, Kouskos E, Markopoulos C, Vgenopoulou S. Metastatic melanoma in the gallbladder: report of a case. Surg Today. 2003;33:135-7 pubmed
    ..Surgical removal of a solitary metastatic focus remains the treatment of choice for isolated metastasis of a malignant melanoma; however, the effectiveness of complementary chemotherapy and immunotherapy is still being examined. ..
  72. Fountzilas G, Pectasides D, Kalogera Fountzila A, Skarlos D, Kalofonos H, Papadimitriou C, et al. Paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy combined with gefitinib (IRESSA) in patients with advanced breast cancer: a phase I/II study conducted by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005;92:1-9 pubmed
    ..7 and 42.7%, respectively), with the majority (72.1%) negative for cytoplasmic p27(kipl). The observed efficacy data in this study were similar to those reported for the combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin alone. ..
  73. Fountzilas G, Skarlos D, Dafni U, Gogas H, Briasoulis E, Pectasides D, et al. Postoperative dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin, followed by CMF with or without paclitaxel, in patients with high-risk operable breast cancer: a randomized phase III study conducted by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. Ann Oncol. 2005;16:1762-71 pubmed
    ..However, our study has shown clearly that high-dose paclitaxel can be safely incorporated to dose-dense sequential chemotherapy. ..
  74. Gogas H, Polyzos A, Stavrinidis I, Frangia K, Tsoutsos D, Panagiotou P, et al. Temozolomide in combination with celecoxib in patients with advanced melanoma. A phase II study of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. Ann Oncol. 2006;17:1835-41 pubmed
    ..Randomized studies are needed to explore the role of celecoxib in combination with chemotherapy or as maintenance treatment in these patients. ..
  75. Markopoulos C, Tzoracoleftherakis E, Polychronis A, Venizelos B, Dafni U, Xepapadakis G, et al. Management of anastrozole-induced bone loss in breast cancer patients with oral risedronate: results from the ARBI prospective clinical trial. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12:R24 pubmed publisher
  76. Gogas H, Dafni U, Koon H, Spyropoulou Vlachou M, Metaxas Y, Buchbinder E, et al. Evaluation of six CTLA-4 polymorphisms in high-risk melanoma patients receiving adjuvant interferon therapy in the He13A/98 multicenter trial. J Transl Med. 2010;8:108 pubmed publisher
    ..No polymorphisms of CTLA-4 defined by the SNPs studied were correlated with improved RFS, OS, or autoimmunity in this high-risk group of melanoma patients. ..
  77. Tsitsiloni O, Stiakakis J, Koutselinis A, Gogas J, Markopoulos C, Yialouris P, et al. Expression of alpha-thymosins in human tissues in normal and abnormal growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:9504-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest an in vivo relationship of the expression of alpha-thymosins with the human tissue cell proliferation activity. ..
  78. Ioakim Liossi A, Karakitsos P, Markopoulos C, Aroni K, Delivelioti K, Gogas J, et al. Expression of pS2 protein and estrogen and progesterone receptor status in breast cancer. Acta Cytol. 1997;41:713-6 pubmed
    ..001). Two groups of breast cancer cases can be distinguished: one group that is ER+, PR+ and pS2+, with low malignancy potential, and another group that is ER-, PR- and pS2-, with high malignancy potential. ..
  79. Ioakim Liossi A, Karakitsos P, Markopoulos C, Aroni K, Delivelioti K, Gogas J, et al. DNA content and p53 protein expression in ductal breast cancer. Cytopathology. 1997;8:322-7 pubmed
    ..Clonal DNA heterogeneity was observed in 26.6% of cases analysed and was correlated with p53 protein expression (P < 0.001). These changes probably reflect genomic alterations which may affect potential malignancy of breast cancer. ..
  80. Markopoulos C, Karakitsos P, Botsoli Stergiou E, Pouliakis A, Ioakim Liossi A, Kyrkou K, et al. Application of the learning vector quantizer to the classification of breast lesions. Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 1997;19:453-60 pubmed
  81. Petridou E, Papadiamantis Y, Markopoulos C, Spanos E, Dessypris N, Trichopoulos D. Leptin and insulin growth factor I in relation to breast cancer (Greece). Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11:383-8 pubmed
    ..We have found evidence, however, that leptin may be inversely related to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. The latter finding is not biologically implausible and deserves to be examined in additional datasets. ..
  82. Gogas J, Kouskos E, Tseleni Balafouta S, Markopoulos C, Revenas K, Gogas G, et al. Autoimmune thyroid disease in women with breast carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2001;27:626-30 pubmed
    ..7% whereas the control groups had respective rates of 19% and 18.4% autoantibody positivity). There is evidence of high incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis in Greek breast cancer patients, increasing in relation to cancer stage. ..
  83. Onyenadum A, Gogas H, Kosmidis P, Aravantinos G, Bafaloukos D, Bacoyiannis H, et al. Mitoxantrone plus gemcitabine in pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer. J Chemother. 2006;18:192-8 pubmed
    ..There were no treatment related deaths. The authors conclude that the combination of mitoxantrone and gemcitabine is an effective regimen in pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer. Toxicity was manageable. ..
  84. Van De Velde C, Rea D, Seynaeve C, Putter H, Hasenburg A, Vannetzel J, et al. Adjuvant tamoxifen and exemestane in early breast cancer (TEAM): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011;377:321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment regimens of exemestane alone or after tamoxifen might be judged to be appropriate options for postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer. Pfizer. ..
  85. Ioakim Liossi A, Markopoulos C, Karakitsos P, Safioleas M, Gogas J, Vaiopoulos G. p53 protein expression in benign and malignant breast lesions. Acta Cytol. 1998;42:918-22 pubmed
    ..Immunocytochemical p53 protein expression in cytologic material is a simple method that can be applied in routine cytologic laboratories for the identification of genetic alterations in primary ductal breast cancer. ..
  86. Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Dimitrios M, Kontzoglou K, Pappis H, Galanos A, et al. Breast cancer in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49:1004-5 pubmed
  87. Gogas H, Papadimitriou C, Kalofonos H, Bafaloukos D, Fountzilas G, Tsavdaridis D, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with a combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx) and paclitaxel in locally advanced breast cancer: a phase II study by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. Ann Oncol. 2002;13:1737-42 pubmed
    ..There were no treatment-related deaths. The combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and paclitaxel was active in locally advanced breast cancer. The primary toxicity was cutaneous toxicity and it was manageable. ..
  88. Markopoulos C, Kouskos E, Mantas D, Kakisis J, Antonopoulou Z, Kontzoglou K, et al. Mondor's disease of the breast: is there any relation to breast cancer?. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2005;26:213-4 pubmed
    ..Only one of our patients had surgical management (vein excision) due to delayed remission. None of our cases was related to breast cancer. ..
  89. Gogas H, Markopoulos C, Blamey R. Should women be advised to take prophylactic endocrine treatment outside of a clinical trial setting?. Ann Oncol. 2005;16:1861-6 pubmed
    ..High-risk women should not be advised to take anti-estrogens outside of a clinical trial setting. ..
  90. Markopoulos C. Managing bone health in women with breast cancer under adjuvant treatment with aromatase inhibitors: pretreatment bone mineral density is important. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12:403 pubmed publisher
  91. Markopoulos C. Minimizing early relapse and maximizing treatment outcomes in hormone-sensitive postmenopausal breast cancer: efficacy review of AI trials. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2010;29:581-94 pubmed publisher
  92. Bartlett J, Brookes C, Robson T, Van De Velde C, Billingham L, Campbell F, et al. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor as predictive biomarkers of response to endocrine therapy: a prospectively powered pathology study in the Tamoxifen and Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:1531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative analysis of ER and PgR expression provides highly significant information on risk of early relapse (within 1 to 3 years) during treatment. ..