Affiliation: Medical University of Graz
Location: Graz, Austria
- Schneditz D, Yang Y, Christopoulos G, Kellner J. Rate of creatinine equilibration in whole blood. Hemodial Int. 2009;13:215-21 pubmed publisher..Therefore, when dialyzer outlet concentrations are sampled without equilibration the effective diffusion volume flow rate for creatinine is close to plasma water flow and does not include sizeable fractions of erythrocyte water flow. ..
- Schneditz D, van der Sande F, Bachler I, Rosales L, Wijnen E, Levin N. Access flow measurement by indicator dilution without indicator injection: effect of switch location. Int J Artif Organs. 2007;30:980-6 pubmed
- Rosales L, Schneditz D, Morris A, Rahmati S, Levin N. Isothermic hemodialysis and ultrafiltration. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;36:353-61 pubmed..The importance of body temperature control during hemodialysis increases with increased ultrafiltration requirements. ..
- Gutzwiller J, Schneditz D, Huber A, Schindler C, Garbani E, Zehnder C. Increasing blood flow increases kt/V(urea) and potassium removal but fails to improve phosphate removal. Clin Nephrol. 2003;59:130-6 pubmed..Increasing delivered Kt/Vu and potassium removal with higher Qb fails to produce the same desired effect with phosphate removal during high-flux hemodialysis. ..
- George T, Priester Coary A, Dunea G, Schneditz D, Tarif N, Daugirdas J. Cardiac output and urea kinetics in dialysis patients: evidence supporting the regional blood flow model. Kidney Int. 1996;50:1273-7 pubmed..93 +/- 2.70 liter/min), and the two CO measures correlated significantly (r = 0.63, P = 0.0003). The results provide support for the regional blood flow model of urea kinetics. ..
- Gutzwiller J, Schneditz D, Huber A, Schindler C, Gutzwiller F, Zehnder C. Estimating phosphate removal in haemodialysis: an additional tool to quantify dialysis dose. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17:1037-44 pubmed..It appears that other factors not adequately accounted for by Kt/V(urea) affect phosphate removal. Therefore, we propose an individual control and quantification of phosphate removal in HD. ..
- Schneditz D, Krivitski N. Vascular access recirculation: measurement and clinical implications. Contrib Nephrol. 2004;142:254-68 pubmed
- Schneditz D, Platzer D, Daugirdas J. A diffusion-adjusted regional blood flow model to predict solute kinetics during haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:2218-24 pubmed publisher..This new model should be applicable to modelling of other non-protein-bound candidate uraemic toxins, also. ..
- van der Sande F, Rosales L, Brener Z, Kooman J, Kuhlmann M, Handelman G, et al. Effect of ultrafiltration on thermal variables, skin temperature, skin blood flow, and energy expenditure during ultrapure hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:1824-31 pubmed..Although fluid removal has an effect on thermal variables, no single mechanism seems to be responsible for the increased heat accumulation during HD. ..
- Zhu F, Schneditz D, Wang E, Martin K, Morris A, Levin N. Validation of changes in extracellular volume measured during hemodialysis using a segmental bioimpedance technique. ASAIO J. 1998;44:M541-5 pubmed..This is a prerequisite for future studies on dynamics of regional fluid distribution during hemodialysis. ..
- Schneditz D, Bachler I, van der Sande F. Timing and reproducibility of access flow measurements using extracorporeal temperature gradients. ASAIO J. 2007;53:469-73 pubmed
- Schneditz D, Fan Z, Kaufman A, Levin N. Measurement of access flow during hemodialysis using the constant infusion approach. ASAIO J. 1998;44:74-81 pubmed..1 = 1.01*Qac.0, r2 = 0.98), with the regression line not different from the line of identity; however, in vivo results remain to be validated by an independent technique. ..
- Jung A, Korohoda P, Krisper P, Schneditz D. Relationship between kinetics of albumin-bound bilirubin and water-soluble urea in extracorporeal blood purification. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:1200-6 pubmed publisher..This information is then useful to estimate and predict the solute removal of conjugated bilirubin in ELS. ..
- Metry G, Adhikarla R, Schneditz D, Ronco C, Levin N. Effect of changes in the intravascular volume during hemodialysis on blood viscoelasticity. Indian J Nephrol. 2011;21:95-100 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, the hemorheological variables change after dialysis in the direction which may impede the flow inside the microvessels. ..
- Dorp E, Schneditz D, Moser M. The measurement of blood density to investigate protein deposition at the blood/hollow fiber membrane interface during ultrafiltration. Int J Artif Organs. 1991;14:424-9 pubmed..Protein deposition (Pt) with polysulfone membranes in relation to the effective capillary surface was in the range of 2.2. mg/(h x cm2) according to a logarithmic function (Pt = a + b x log(t)). ..
- Schneditz D, Rainer F, Kenner T. Viscoelastic properties of whole blood. Influence of fast sedimenting red blood cell aggregates. Biorheology. 1987;24:13-22 pubmed..This result is discussed to be due to the high packing density of the RBC in fast sedimenting aggregates. High packing density reduces the effective volume of the RBC but increases the stiffness of the aggregates. ..
- Hinghofer Szalkay H, Goswami N, Rössler A, Grasser E, Schneditz D. Reactive hyperemia in the human liver. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295:G332-7 pubmed publisher..We present evidence for physiological post-LBNP reactive hyperemia in the human liver. Further studies are needed to quantify the intensity of this response in relation to stimulus duration and magnitude, and clarify its mechanism. ..
- Jung A, Krisper P, Haditsch B, Stauber R, Trauner M, Holzer H, et al. Bilirubin kinetic modeling for quantification of extracorporeal liver support. Blood Purif. 2006;24:413-22 pubmed..Kinetic analysis provides an improved measure of treatment dose as generation, distribution, and elimination of conjugated bilirubin are jointly considered. ..
- Stadlbauer V, Krisper P, Beuers U, Haditsch B, Schneditz D, Jung A, et al. Removal of bile acids by two different extracorporeal liver support systems in acute-on-chronic liver failure. ASAIO J. 2007;53:187-93 pubmed..Although both devices eliminate total bile acids to a similar extent, clearance of individual bile acids is different, leading to a slight change of the bile acid profile toward hydrophobic bile acids during Prometheus treatments. ..
- Schneditz D, Kenner T. Noninvasive assessment of vascular function. Contrib Nephrol. 2005;149:306-14 pubmed
- Schneditz D. The arrow of bioimpedance. Kidney Int. 2006;69:1492-3 pubmed..These features make it very useful to measure body hydration in hemodialysis patients. ..
- Metry G, Spittle M, Rahmati S, Giller C, Giller A, Kaufman A, et al. Online monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;40:996-1004 pubmed..05). In both groups, DeltaMV were not significant. Results of this study suggest that CBF does not appear to be diminished significantly during HD. ..
- Schultze G, Hohl B, Klüssendorf D, Seeanner J, Schneditz D. Power spectra of heart rate related to hemodynamic changes during hemodialysis. Contrib Nephrol. 1994;106:129-34 pubmed
- Załuska W, Schneditz D, Swatowski A, Jaroszyński A, Ksiazek A. Comparison of prescribed and delivered doses of dialysis using anthropometrically and bioelectrically measured patient volumes. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9:CR405-10 pubmed..The overestimation of prescribed dialysis dose based on bioimpedance analysis suggests caution in the use of bioimpedance volumes, because of the risk of prescribing inadequate dialysis. ..
- Schneditz D, Heimel H, Stabinger H. Sound speed, density and total protein concentration of blood. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1989;27:803-6 pubmed..G., 8054 Graz, Austria). The relationship of sound speed, density and temperature permits the calculation of the total protein concentration with an accuracy of 1 g/kg. The resolution of the measurement is in the order of 0.1 g/kg. ..
- Krisper P, Quehenberger F, Schneditz D, Holzer H, Polaschegg H. Prediction of time-averaged concentration of haemoglobin in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:2082-7 pubmed..Because Hb-tac more reliably reflects a 'true' Hb level of haemodialysis patients, it represents a potentially useful tool for future scientific and clinical work. ..
- Roob J, Schneditz D, Haas G, Horina J, Pogglitsch H. [Continuous measurement of blood volume changes in hemodialysis using an ultrasound method]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1990;102:131-6 pubmed..16 +/- 1.11% (normal ultrafiltration) to 1.67 +/- 0.8% (normal ultrafiltration + 10%) (p less than 0.05). Thus, normalized blood volume reduction may serve as an approximation to adjust the patient's dry weight. ..
- Schneditz D, Moser M, Smolle Jüttner F, Dorp E, Pogglitsch H, Kenner T. Methods in clinical hemorheology: the continuous measurement of arterial blood density and blood sound speed in man. Biorheology. 1990;27:895-902 pubmed..The measurement of concentrations at an accessible measuring site may be used to investigate the rheology of blood in the human microvasculature. ..
- Barth C, Boer W, Garzoni D, Kuenzi T, Ries W, Schaefer R, et al. Characteristics of hypotension-prone haemodialysis patients: is there a critical relative blood volume?. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:1353-60 pubmed..In most IME-prone patients, these RBV values were stable with only narrow variability, thus making it a useful indicator to mark the individual window of haemodynamic instabilities. ..
- Schneditz D, Rosales L, Kaufman A, Kaysen G, Levin N. Heat accumulation with relative blood volume decrease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;40:777-82 pubmed..97* RBV; r2 = 0.63). Results show that the probability for the effect of heat stress during hemodialysis increases with ultrafiltration-induced blood volume changes. Temperature control is an important aspect of hemodialysis treatment. ..
- Schneditz D, Levin N. The (wind) chill factor controlled. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;40:426-8 pubmed
- Schneditz D, Van Stone J, Daugirdas J. A regional blood circulation alternative to in-series two compartment urea kinetic modeling. ASAIO J. 1993;39:M573-7 pubmed..Total body water derived by nomogram was 38.1 +/- 2.0 L. Our results suggest that the parallel-flow model for urea transport can be used to explain the amount and time course of post dialysis R on a physiologic basis. ..
- Zehnder C, Gutzwiller J, Huber A, Schindler C, Schneditz D. Low-potassium and glucose-free dialysis maintains urea but enhances potassium removal. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001;16:78-84 pubmed..Potassium removal has no influence on urea elimination. High potassium removal, when needed, does not impair dialysis efficiency as measured by urea kinetics in high-flux, glucose-free, 40 mmol/l bicarbonate HD. ..
- Krisper P, Haditsch B, Stauber R, Jung A, Stadlbauer V, Trauner M, et al. In vivo quantification of liver dialysis: comparison of albumin dialysis and fractionated plasma separation. J Hepatol. 2005;43:451-7 pubmed..Reduction ratios of bilirubin and urea should be reported in clinical studies on liver dialysis, since delivered dose is likely to be linked to the clinical effectiveness of extracorporeal liver support therapies. ..
- Schneditz D, Hafner Giessauf H, Thomaseth K, Bachler I, Obermayer Pietsch B, Holzer H. Insulinogenic index in non-diabetics during haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:3365-72 pubmed publisher..The insulin to glucose relationship is measurable within 10 min of glucose administration and unaffected by extracorporeal clearance. This could be helpful to characterize the insulin response to a glucose stimulus during haemodialysis. ..
- Wimmer J, Bachler I, Haditsch B, Stadlbauer V, Holzer H, Schneditz D. Device and technique for extracorporeal blood volume sequestration during hemodialysis. ASAIO J. 2006;52:662-9 pubmed..The method provides rapid, reversible, and safe volume shifts between the patient and the extracorporeal circulation with the potential to elicit a hemodynamic response for characterizing the patient during each dialysis treatment. ..
- Schneditz D, Kenner T, Gallasch E, Rainer F. Quick measurement of hematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation-rate by means of a density tracking method. Blut. 1987;55:153-63 pubmed..The particular arrangement of the tilted sedimentation-tube facilitates a determination of the maximum sedimentation-rate within 15 min at most. ..
- Schneditz D, Bachler I, Stadlbauer V, Stauber R. Albumin infusion fails to restore circulatory function following paracentesis of tense ascites as assessed by beat-to-beat haemodynamic measurements. Int J Clin Pract. 2008;62:1851-7 pubmed..Further studies combining albumin with vasopressors for prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory changes are needed. ..
- Zaluska W, Schneditz D, Kaufman A, Morris A, Levin N. Relative underestimation of fluid removal during hemodialysis hypotension measured by whole body bioimpedance. ASAIO J. 1998;44:823-7 pubmed..However, this information could be helpful in identifying patients with delayed peripheral fluid removal that may occur when either target weight is too low or UFR rates are too high. ..
- Schneditz D, Wimmer J. Modeling indicator dispersion in extracorporeal blood lines. Int J Artif Organs. 2005;28:638-47 pubmed..With this information indicator dilution curves measured in extracorporeal blood lines can be corrected for extracorporeal effects...
- Schneditz D, Mekaroonkamol P, Haditsch B, Stauber R. Measurement of indocyanine green dye concentration in the extracorporeal circulation. ASAIO J. 2005;51:376-8 pubmed..This approach greatly simplifies the diagnostic use of ICG, which may be of importance in patients treated with extracorporeal blood purification techniques. ..
- Schneditz D. Extracorporeal sensing techniques. Contrib Nephrol. 2005;149:35-41 pubmed..This, however, requires valid and reliable measurement of the specific patient variables of interest. ..
- Goswami N, Roessler A, Lackner H, Schneditz D, Grasser E, Hinghofer Szalkay H. Heart rate and stroke volume response patterns to augmented orthostatic stress. Clin Auton Res. 2009;19:157-65 pubmed publisher..These characteristics are a prerequisite to use the combined graded orthostatic paradigm for hemodynamic testing and identification. ..
- Zhu F, Hoenich N, Kaysen G, Ronco C, Schneditz D, Murphy L, et al. Measurement of intraperitoneal volume by segmental bioimpedance analysis during peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:167-72 pubmed..41 +/- 0.31 L). Bland-Altman analysis yielded limits of agreement of 0.12 L. The SBIA technique provides a continuous noninvasive approach to the measurement of changes in intraperitoneal fluid volume. ..
- Schneditz D, Kaufman A, Levin N. Surveillance of access function by the blood temperature monitor. Semin Dial. 2003;16:483-7 pubmed..BTM recirculation to detect fistulas for revision is sensitive (81.8%) and specific (98.6%) in the presence of cardiopulmonary recirculation and can be done with minimum intervention and without loss of efficient treatment time. ..
- Johner C, Chamney P, Schneditz D, Kramer M. Evaluation of an ultrasonic blood volume monitor. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13:2098-103 pubmed..8 g Hb/dl. In summary the blood volume monitor allows precise and reliable measurement of relative blood volume. It provides the instrumentation essential for feedback control of relative blood volume during dialysis. ..
- Schneditz D, Fan Z, Kaufman A, Levin N. Stability of access resistance during haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13:739-44 pubmed..AR is related to the physical structure of the peripheral access. Because of its intradialytic stability AR may be better suited as an indicator of access function. ..
- Schneditz D, Martin K, Kramer M, Kenner T, Skrabal F. Effect of controlled extracorporeal blood cooling on ultrafiltration-induced blood volume changes during hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997;8:956-64 pubmed..Despite the larger reduction in intravascular volume, intradialytic hemodynamic stability was maintained with extracorporeal cooling and cool dialysate prescription. ..
- Krisper P, Martinelli E, Zierler E, Schilcher G, Tiesenhausen K, Schneditz D. More may be less: increasing extracorporeal blood flow in an axillary arterio-arterial access decreases effective clearance. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:2401-3 pubmed publisher..Therefore, a Q(b) above access flow has to be avoided since any increase beyond that threshold reduces effective clearance. ..
- Schneditz D, Kaufman A, Polaschegg H, Levin N, Daugirdas J. Cardiopulmonary recirculation during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1992;42:1450-6 pubmed
- Schneditz D, Hafner Giessauf H, Holzer H, Thomaseth K. Intracorporeal glucose disposal during hemodialysis after a standardized glucose load. ASAIO J. 2010;56:204-9 pubmed publisher..This measure could be of interest in surveillance of glucose control in hemodialysis patients. ..
- Schneditz D. Temperature and thermal balance in hemodialysis. Semin Dial. 2001;14:357-64 pubmed..Since thermoregulation responds to changes in body temperature, treatments should be characterized as isothermic, hypothermic, and hyperthermic. ..
- Kaufman A, Schneditz D, Smye S, Polaschegg H, Levin N. Solute disequilibrium and multicompartment modeling. Adv Ren Replace Ther. 1995;2:319-29 pubmed..Allowance for compartment effects is particularly important in patients receiving treatment with a high ratio of dialyzer clearance to total body water, now commonly encountered during short-time, high-efficiency dialysis. ..
- Krisper P, Aschauer M, Tiesenhausen K, Leitner G, Holzer H, Schneditz D. Access recirculation in a native fistula in spite of a seemingly adequate access flow. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;35:529-32 pubmed..This case proves that seemingly adequate access flow does not necessarily prevent access recirculation in native AV fistulae. We suggest monitoring both access flow and recirculation in hemodialysis accesses on a regular basis. ..
- Wimmer J, Batzel J, Haditsch B, Schneditz D. Evolution of volume sensitivity during hemodialysis and ultrafiltration. Clin Auton Res. 2011;21:353-60 pubmed publisher..05). The changes in arterial pressures during hemodialysis appear to relate to an unbalanced response of barocontrol mechanisms characterized by a compromised chronotropy and vascular over-reactivity. ..
- Platzer D, Bilgici E, Schneditz D. Comparison of numerical methods applied to field stimulated cardiomyocytes. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005;4:3889-90 pubmed..Rapid prototyping environments for dynamic system simulation as well as dedicated liberaries for high performance computing are employed to serve the varying needs. ..
- Schneditz D, Daugirdas J. Formal analytical solution to a regional blood flow and diffusion based urea kinetic model. ASAIO J. 1994;40:M667-73 pubmed..3 l/min, V = 35l, UFV = 2.8l, fQHFS = 0.8, QAc = 0.8l/min). Thus, this urea kinetic model establishes a previously missing link between hemodynamics and solute removal. ..
- Wijnen E, van der Sande F, Kooman J, de Graaf T, Tordoir J, Leunissen K, et al. Measurement of hemodialysis vascular access flow using extracorporeal temperature gradients. Kidney Int. 2007;72:736-41 pubmed..Our studies show that the novel TGM method showed excellent agreement and reproducibility with the saline dilution method without the need for indicator dilution. ..
- Schneditz D. Theoretical and practical issues in recirculation; assessment of vascular access. EDTNA ERCA J. 1998;24:3-6 pubmed..The larger of the two recirculation values can be used to identify accesses with insufficient access flow and access recirculation which require immediate intervention. ..
- Schneditz D. Glucose-added dialysis fluid prevents asymptomatic hypoglycaemia in regular haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:1066-7; author reply 1067 pubmed
- Zhu F, Schneditz D, Wang E, Levin N. Dynamics of segmental extracellular volumes during changes in body position by bioimpedance analysis. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998;85:497-504 pubmed..06 +/- 0.07%, P = NS). The sum of segmental ECVs is not sensitive to changes in body position, which otherwise interferes with the estimation of ECV in bioimpedance analysis when ECVWB is used. ..
- Schneditz D, Roob J, Vaclavik M, Holzer H, Kenner T. Noninvasive measurement of blood volume in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1996;7:1241-4 pubmed
- Schneditz D, Ronco C, Levin N. Temperature control by the blood temperature monitor. Semin Dial. 2003;16:477-82 pubmed..The delivery of isothermic dialysis, that is, dialysis where body temperature is controlled to remain constant during the treatment, has impressively improved hemodynamic stability in hypotension prone patients. ..
- Schneditz D, Kainz T, Moser M, Kenner T. Influence of tonicity on the viscoelastic properties of blood during isovolemic dilution. Basic Res Cardiol. 1987;82:388-95 pubmed
- Schneditz D, Roob J, Oswald M, Pogglitsch H, Moser M, Kenner T, et al. Nature and rate of vascular refilling during hemodialysis and ultrafiltration. Kidney Int. 1992;42:1425-33 pubmed..Due to the small but definite protein content of refilling volume, the model accounts for increased blood volume recovery and occasional overshoot of blood and plasma volumes following ultrafiltration. ..
- Schneditz D, Polaschegg H, Levin N, Cu G, Morris A, Kramer M, et al. Cardiopulmonary recirculation in dialysis. An underrecognized phenomenon. ASAIO J. 1992;38:M194-6 pubmed..This "cardiopulmonary recirculation" can cause dilution of urea in dialyzer inlet blood, with resulting errors in urea kinetic modeling and in computing access recirculation. ..
- Goswami N, Grasser E, Roessler A, Schneditz D, HINGHOFER SZALKAY H. The cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure in humans depends on seal location. Physiol Res. 2009;58:311-8 pubmed..Finally, application of LBNP with the seal at the upper abdomen induced a markedly larger reduction in central blood volume and greater increases in heart rate than when the seal was located at the iliac crest. ..
- Schneditz D, Pogglitsch H, Horina J, Binswanger U. A blood protein monitor for the continuous measurement of blood volume changes during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1990;38:342-6 pubmed
- Krivitski N, Schneditz D. Arteriovenous vascular access flow measurement: accuracy and clinical implications. Contrib Nephrol. 2004;142:269-84 pubmed
- Schneditz D, Daugirdas J. Compartment effects in hemodialysis. Semin Dial. 2001;14:271-7 pubmed..Whether compartmentalization is increased in vasoconstricted intensive care unit patients receiving acute dialysis remains an open question. ..
- Schneditz D, Zaluska W, Morris A, Levin N. Effect of ultrafiltration on peripheral urea sequestration in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001;16:994-8 pubmed..Because of the link between UF and blood flow, limited solute clearance treatment modes that optimize fluid removal such as variable UF will also have favourable effects on delivered dose of dialysis. ..
- Schneditz D, Levin N. Keep your temper: how to avoid heat accumulation in haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001;16:7-9 pubmed
- Wang E, Schneditz D, Levin N. Predictive value of access blood flow and stenosis in detection of graft failure. Clin Nephrol. 2000;54:393-9 pubmed..Access flow is a more sensitive predictor of graft failure than stenosis. Examination of trend in decline of access flow is a more powerful indicator to detect graft dysfunction than an individual single flow value. ..
- Daugirdas J, Schneditz D. Overestimation of hemodialysis dose depends on dialysis efficiency by regional blood flow but not by conventional two pool urea kinetic analysis. ASAIO J. 1995;41:M719-24 pubmed..6 x K/V + 0.03. The results show that the regional blood flow model predicts the observed relation between delta Kt/V and K/V, whereas the intracellular/extracellular model fails in this task unless one arbitrarily ties Kc to V. ..
- Zhu F, Schneditz D, Kaufman A, Levin N. Estimation of body fluid changes during peritoneal dialysis by segmental bioimpedance analysis. Kidney Int. 2000;57:299-306 pubmed..Correct estimation of fluid volume in the trunk is a prerequisite for applications in which direct analysis of fluid changes cannot be performed such as with peritoneal equilibration tests and continuous flow PD. ..
- Zhu F, Schneditz D, Levin N. Sum of segmental bioimpedance analysis during ultrafiltration and hemodialysis reduces sensitivity to changes in body position. Kidney Int. 1999;56:692-9 pubmed..The volume estimation based on the sum of segmental bioimpedance measurements is independent of body position, which is a prerequisite for applications in everyday practice. ..
- Schneditz D, Wang E, Levin N. Validation of haemodialysis recirculation and access blood flow measured by thermodilution. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999;14:376-83 pubmed..There was no bias between techniques. BTM thermodilution yields results which are consistent with the HDM ultrasound dilution technique with regard to both recirculation and access flow measurement. ..
- Daugirdas J, Schneditz D, Leehey D. Effect of access recirculation on the modeled urea distribution volume. Am J Kidney Dis. 1996;27:512-8 pubmed