Gabrielle Belz

Summary

Affiliation: Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research
Location: Melbourne, Australia
URL: http://www.wehi.edu.au/faculty_members/dr_gabrielle_belz
Summary:
Molecular Immunology
Viral Immunology
T cell memory
lymphocyte differentiation
dendritic cells
antigen presentation
Publications:
1. The linear range for accurately quantifying antigen-specific T-cell frequencies by tetramer staining during natural immune responses.
Seah SG, Sutherland RM, La Gruta NL, Brown LE, Carrington EM, Belz GT, Brady JL, Turner SJ, Zhan Y, Lew AM.
Eur J Immunol. 2011 May;41(5):1499-500. doi: 10.1002/eji.. Epub 2011 Apr 11. No abstract available.
PMID: [PubMed - in process]
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2. Diverse roles of inhibitor of differentiation 2 in adaptive immunity.
Rankin L, Belz GT.
Clin Dev Immunol. 2011;2011:281569. Epub 2011 Mar 17.
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3. Identification of the earliest NK cell precursor in the mouse bone marrow.
Carotta S, Pang SH, Nutt SL, Belz GT.
Blood. 2011 Mar 21. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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4. The transcription factors Blimp-1 and IRF4 jointly control the differentiation and function of effector regulatory T cells.
Cretney E, Xin A, Shi W, Minnich M, Masson F, Miasari M, Belz GT, Smyth GK, Busslinger M, Nutt SL, Kallies A.
Nat Immunol. 2011 Apr;12(4):304-11. Epub 2011 Mar 6.
PMID: [PubMed - in process]
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5. Bid and Bim collaborate during induction of T cell death in persistent infection.
Masson F, Kupresanin F, Mount A, Strasser A, Belz GT.
J Immunol. 2011 Apr 1;186(7):4059-66. Epub 2011 Feb 21.
PMID: [PubMed - in process]
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6. Interference with dendritic cell populations limits early antigen presentation in chronic ?-herpesvirus-68 infection.
Mount AM, Masson F, Kupresanin F, Smith CM, May JS, van Rooijen N, Stevenson PG, Belz GT.
J Immunol. 2010 Sep 15;185(6):3669-76. Epub 2010 Aug 18.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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7. A complementary role for the tetraspanins CD37 and Tssc6 in cellular immunity.
Gartlan KH, Belz GT, Tarrant JM, Minigo G, Katsara M, Sheng KC, Sofi M, van Spriel AB, Apostolopoulos V, Plebanski M, Robb L, Wright MD.
J Immunol. 2010 Sep 15;185(6):3158-66. Epub 2010 Aug 13.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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8. Current Opinion in Immunology. Editorial overview.
Belz GT, Wherry EJ.
Curr Opin Immunol. 2010 Jun;22(3):271-3. Epub 2010 May 27. No abstract available.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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9. Effector and memory CD8+ T cell differentiation: toward a molecular understanding of fate determination.
Belz GT, Kallies A.
Curr Opin Immunol. 2010 Jun;22(3):279-85. Epub 2010 Apr 29. Review.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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10. Interleukin-2 tickles T cell memory.
Belz GT, Masson F.
Immunity. 2010 Jan 29;32(1):7-9. Review.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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11. Mobilizing forces--CD4+ helper T cells script adaptive immunity.
Masson F, Belz GT.
Cell Res. 2010 Jan;20(1):1-3. No abstract available.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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12. Direct ex vivo activation of T cells for analysis of dendritic cells antigen presentation.
Belz GT.
Methods Mol Biol. 2010;595:351-69.
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13. Mouse models of viral infection: influenza infection in the lung.
Mount AM, Belz GT.
Methods Mol Biol. 2010;595:299-318.
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14. Membrane-bound Fas ligand only is essential for Fas-induced apoptosis.
O Reilly LA, Tai L, Lee L, Kruse EA, Grabow S, Fairlie WD, Haynes NM, Tarlinton DM, Zhang JG, Belz GT, Smyth MJ, Bouillet P, Robb L, Strasser A.
Nature. 2009 Oct 1;461(7264):659-63.
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15. Blimp-1 transcription factor is required for the differentiation of effector CD8(+) T cells and memory responses.
Kallies A, Xin A, Belz GT, Nutt SL.
Immunity. 2009 Aug 21;31(2):283-95. Epub 2009 Aug 6.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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16. Life in the balance: killer T-cell self-control fends off lethal influenza?
Belz GT.
Immunol Cell Biol. 2009 Jul;87(5):364-5. Epub 2009 Apr 14. No abstract available.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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17. Tissue destruction caused by cytotoxic T lymphocytes induces deletional tolerance.
Parish IA, Waithman J, Davey GM, Belz GT, Mintern JD, Kurts C, Sutherland RM, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 10;106(10):3901-6. Epub 2009 Feb 20.
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18. Selected Toll-like receptor ligands and viruses promote helper-independent cytotoxic T cell priming by upregulating CD40L on dendritic cells.
Johnson S, Zhan Y, Sutherland RM, Mount AM, Bedoui S, Brady JL, Carrington EM, Brown LE, Belz GT, Heath WR, Lew AM.
Immunity. 2009 Feb 20;30(2):218-27. Epub 2009 Feb 5.
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19. The race between infection and immunity: how do pathogens set the pace?
Davenport MP, Belz GT, Ribeiro RM.
Trends Immunol. 2009 Feb;30(2):61-6. Epub 2009 Jan 8.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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20. Kinetics of major histocompatibility class I antigen presentation in acute infection.
Lay MD, Zhang L, Ribeiro RM, Mueller SN, Belz GT, Davenport MP.
J Immunol. 2009 Jan 15;182(2):902-11.
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21. Differential MHC class II synthesis and ubiquitination confers distinct antigen-presenting properties on conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
Young LJ, Wilson NS, Schnorrer P, Proietto A, ten Broeke T, Matsuki Y, Mount AM, Belz GT, OKeeffe M, Ohmura-Hoshino M, Ishido S, Stoorvogel W, Heath WR, Shortman K, Villadangos JA.
Nat Immunol. 2008 Nov;9(11):1244-52. Epub 2008 Oct 12.
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22. Blood-stage Plasmodium infection induces CD8+ T lymphocytes to parasite-expressed antigens, largely regulated by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells.
Lundie RJ, de Koning-Ward TF, Davey GM, Nie CQ, Hansen DS, Lau LS, Mintern JD, Belz GT, Schofield L, Carbone FR, Villadangos JA, Crabb BS, Heath WR.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 23;105(38):14509-14. Epub 2008 Sep 17.
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23. DC migration: hard-wired for T cell activation.
Belz GT.
Immunity. 2008 Sep 19;29(3):388-90.
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24. The Sir Mark Oliphant Conferences: international frontiers of science and technology.
Belz GT, De Groot A.
Hum Vaccin. 2008 Jul-Aug;4(4):260-1.
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25. Getting together: dendritic cells, T cells, collaboration and fates.
Belz GT.
Immunol Cell Biol. 2008 May-Jun;86(4):310-1. No abstract available.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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26. Dendritic cells: driving the differentiation programme of T cells in viral infections.
Masson F, Mount AM, Wilson NS, Belz GT.
Immunol Cell Biol. 2008 May-Jun;86(4):333-42. Epub 2008 Mar 18. Review.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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27. Multiple dendritic cell populations activate CD4+ T cells after viral stimulation.
Mount AM, Smith CM, Kupresanin F, Stoermer K, Heath WR, Belz GT.
PLoS One. 2008 Feb 27;3(2):e1691.
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28. BH3-only protein Puma contributes to death of antigen-specific T cells during shutdown of an immune response to acute viral infection.
Fischer SF, Belz GT, Strasser A.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 26;105(8):3035-40. Epub 2008 Feb 19.
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29. Apoptosis regulators Fas and Bim cooperate in shutdown of chronic immune responses and prevention of autoimmunity.
Hughes PD, Belz GT, Fortner KA, Budd RC, Strasser A, Bouillet P.
Immunity. 2008 Feb;28(2):197-205.
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30. Blimp-1 connects the intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of T cell homeostasis.
Nutt SL, Kallies A, Belz GT.
J Clin Immunol. 2008 Mar;28(2):97-106. Epub 2007 Dec 11. Review.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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31. Normal proportion and expression of maturation markers in migratory dendritic cells in the absence of germs or Toll-like receptor signaling.
Wilson NS, Young LJ, Kupresanin F, Naik SH, Vremec D, Heath WR, Akira S, Shortman K, Boyle J, Maraskovsky E, Belz GT, Villadangos JA.
Immunol Cell Biol. 2008 Feb;86(2):200-5. Epub 2007 Nov 20.
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32. Dendritic cells present lytic antigens and maintain function throughout persistent gamma-herpesvirus infection.
Kupresanin F, Chow J, Mount A, Smith CM, Stevenson PG, Belz GT.
J Immunol. 2007 Dec 1;179(11):7506-13.
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33. Dendritic cell preactivation impairs MHC class II presentation of vaccines and endogenous viral antigens.
Young LJ, Wilson NS, Schnorrer P, Mount A, Lundie RJ, La Gruta NL, Crabb BS, Belz GT, Heath WR, Villadangos JA.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Nov 6;104(45):17753-8. Epub 2007 Oct 31.
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34. Skin-derived dendritic cells can mediate deletional tolerance of class I-restricted self-reactive T cells.
Waithman J, Allan RS, Kosaka H, Azukizawa H, Shortman K, Lutz MB, Heath WR, Carbone FR, Belz GT.
J Immunol. 2007 Oct 1;179(7):4535-41.
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35. Minimal activation of memory CD8+ T cell by tissue-derived dendritic cells favors the stimulation of naive CD8+ T cells.
Belz GT, Bedoui S, Kupresanin F, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
Nat Immunol. 2007 Oct;8(10):1060-6. Epub 2007 Sep 2.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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36. A role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the rapid IL-18-dependent activation of NK cells following HSV-1 infection.
Barr DP, Belz GT, Reading PC, Wojtasiak M, Whitney PG, Heath WR, Carbone FR, Brooks AG.
Eur J Immunol. 2007 May;37(5):1334-42.
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37. Killer T cells regulate antigen presentation for early expansion of memory, but not naive, CD8+ T cell.
Belz GT, Zhang L, Lay MD, Kupresanin F, Davenport MP.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Apr 10;104(15):6341-6. Epub 2007 Mar 30.
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38. Shaping naive and memory CD8+ T cell responses in pathogen infections through antigen presentation.
Belz GT, Wilson NS, Kupresanin F, Mount AM, Smith CM.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;590:31-42. Review. No abstract available.
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39. CD4+ T cells specific for a model latency-associated antigen fail to control a gammaherpesvirus in vivo.
Smith CM, Rosa GT, May JS, Bennett NJ, Mount AM, Belz GT, Stevenson PG.
Eur J Immunol. 2006 Dec;36(12):3186-97.
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40. The dominant role of CD8+ dendritic cells in cross-presentation is not dictated by antigen capture.
Schnorrer P, Behrens GM, Wilson NS, Pooley JL, Smith CM, El-Sukkari D, Davey G, Kupresanin F, Li M, Maraskovsky E, Belz GT, Carbone FR, Shortman K, Heath WR, Villadangos JA.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 11;103(28):10729-34. Epub 2006 Jun 28.
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41. Transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 is essential for T cell homeostasis and self-tolerance.
Kallies A, Hawkins ED, Belz GT, Metcalf D, Hommel M, Corcoran LM, Hodgkin PD, Nutt SL.
Nat Immunol. 2006 May;7(5):466-74. Epub 2006 Mar 26.
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42. Systemic activation of dendritic cells by Toll-like receptor ligands or malaria infection impairs cross-presentation and antiviral immunity.
Wilson NS, Behrens GM, Lundie RJ, Smith CM, Waithman J, Young L, Forehan SP, Mount A, Steptoe RJ, Shortman KD, de Koning-Ward TF, Belz GT, Carbone FR, Crabb BS, Heath WR, Villadangos JA.
Nat Immunol. 2006 Feb;7(2):165-72. Epub 2006 Jan 15.
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43. Bone marrow-derived cells expand memory CD8+ T cells in response to viral infections of the lung and skin.
Belz GT, Wilson NS, Smith CM, Mount AM, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
Eur J Immunol. 2006 Feb;36(2):327-35.
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44. CD8alpha+ dendritic cells selectively present MHC class I-restricted noncytolytic viral and intracellular bacterial antigens in vivo.
Belz GT, Shortman K, Bevan MJ, Heath WR.
J Immunol. 2005 Jul 1;175(1):196-200.
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45. Transfer of antigen between migrating and lymph node-resident DCs in peripheral T-cell tolerance and immunity.
Carbone FR, Belz GT, Heath WR.
Trends Immunol. 2004 Dec;25(12):655-8. Review.
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46. Loss of Bim increases T cell production and function in interleukin 7 receptor-deficient mice.
Pellegrini M, Bouillet P, Robati M, Belz GT, Davey GM, Strasser A.
J Exp Med. 2004 Nov 1;200(9):1189-95. Epub 2004 Oct 25.
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47. Cognate CD4(+) T cell licensing of dendritic cells in CD8(+) T cell immunity.
Smith CM, Wilson NS, Waithman J, Villadangos JA, Carbone FR, Heath WR, Belz GT.
Nat Immunol. 2004 Nov;5(11):1143-8. Epub 2004 Oct 10.
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48. Cross-presentation, dendritic cell subsets, and the generation of immunity to cellular antigens.
Heath WR, Belz GT, Behrens GM, Smith CM, Forehan SP, Parish IA, Davey GM, Wilson NS, Carbone FR, Villadangos JA.
Immunol Rev. 2004 Jun;199:9-26. Review.
PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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49. DCs as targets for vaccine design.
Belz G, Smith C, Bharadwaj M, Rice A, Jackson D.
Cytotherapy. 2004;6(2):88-98. Review.
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50. Distinct migrating and nonmigrating dendritic cell populations are involved in MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation after lung infection with virus.
Belz GT, Smith CM, Kleinert L, Reading P, Brooks A, Shortman K, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jun 8;101(23):8670-5. Epub 2004 May 26.
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51. Helper T cells, dendritic cells and CTL Immunity.
Behrens G, Li M, Smith CM, Belz GT, Mintern J, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
Immunol Cell Biol. 2004 Feb;82(1):84-90. Review.
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52. Cutting edge: conventional CD8 alpha+ dendritic cells are generally involved in priming CTL immunity to viruses.
Belz GT, Smith CM, Eichner D, Shortman K, Karupiah G, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
J Immunol. 2004 Feb 15;172(4):1996-2000.
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53. Epidermal viral immunity induced by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells but not by Langerhans cells.
Allan RS, Smith CM, Belz GT, van Lint AL, Wakim LM, Heath WR, Carbone FR.
Science. 2003 Sep 26;301(5641):1925-8.
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54. Cross-presentation of antigens by dendritic cells.
Belz GT, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
Crit Rev Immunol. 2002;22(5-6):439-48. Review.
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55. Most lymphoid organ dendritic cell types are phenotypically and functionally immature.
Wilson NS, El-Sukkari D, Belz GT, Smith CM, Steptoe RJ, Heath WR, Shortman K, Villadangos JA.
Blood. 2003 Sep 15;102(6):2187-94. Epub 2003 Jun 5.
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56. Cutting edge: conventional CD8 alpha+ dendritic cells are preferentially involved in CTL priming after footpad infection with herpes simplex virus-1.
Smith CM, Belz GT, Wilson NS, Villadangos JA, Shortman K, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
J Immunol. 2003 May 1;170(9):4437-40.
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57. Absence of a functional defect in CD8+ T cells during primary murine gammaherpesvirus-68 infection of I-A(b-/-) mice.
Belz GT, Liu H, Andreansky S, Doherty PC, Stevenson PG.
J Gen Virol. 2003 Feb;84(Pt 2):337-41.
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58. Compromised influenza virus-specific CD8(+)-T-cell memory in CD4(+)-T-cell-deficient mice.
Belz GT, Wodarz D, Diaz G, Nowak MA, Doherty PC.
J Virol. 2002 Dec;76(23):12388-93.
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59. The CD8alpha(+) dendritic cell is responsible for inducing peripheral self-tolerance to tissue-associated antigens.
Belz GT, Behrens GM, Smith CM, Miller JF, Jones C, Lejon K, Fathman CG, Mueller SN, Shortman K, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
J Exp Med. 2002 Oct 21;196(8):1099-104.
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60. The role of dendritic cell subsets in selection between tolerance and immunity.
Belz GT, Heath WR, Carbone FR.
Immunol Cell Biol. 2002 Oct;80(5):463-8. Review.
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61. CD36 is differentially expressed by CD8+ splenic dendritic cells but is not required for cross-presentation in vivo.
Belz GT, Vremec D, Febbraio M, Corcoran L, Shortman K, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
J Immunol. 2002 Jun 15;168(12):6066-70.
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62. Cutting edge: precursor frequency affects the helper dependence of cytotoxic T cells.
Mintern JD, Davey GM, Belz GT, Carbone FR, Heath WR.
J Immunol. 2002 Feb 1;168(3):977-80.
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63. The role of antigen in the localization of naive, acutely activated, and memory CD8(+) T cells to the lung during influenza pneumonia.
Topham DJ, Castrucci MR, Wingo FS, Belz GT, Doherty PC.
J Immunol. 2001 Dec 15;167(12):6983-90.
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64. Viral neuraminidase treatment of dendritic cells enhances antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation, but does not account for the CD4(+) T cell independence of the CD8(+) T cell response during influenza virus infection.
Oh S, Belz GT, Eichelberger MC.
Virology. 2001 Aug 1;286(2):403-11.
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65. Perforin and Fas in murine gammaherpesvirus-specific CD8(+) T cell control and morbidity.
Topham DJ, Cardin RC, Christensen JP, Brooks JW, Belz GT, Doherty PC.
J Gen Virol. 2001 Aug;82(Pt 8):1971-81.
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66. Measuring the diaspora for virus-specific CD8+ T cells.
Marshall DR, Turner SJ, Belz GT, Wingo S, Andreansky S, Sangster MY, Riberdy JM, Liu T, Tan M, Doherty PC.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 22;98(11):6313-8. Epub 2001 May 8.
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67. Dissecting the host response to a gamma-herpesvirus.
Doherty PC, Christensen JP, Belz GT, Stevenson PG, Sangster MY.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001 Apr 29;356(1408):581-93. Review.
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68. Virus-specific and bystander CD8+ T-cell proliferation in the acute and persistent phases of a gammaherpesvirus infection.
Belz GT, Doherty PC.
J Virol. 2001 May;75(9):4435-8.
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69. Diversity of epitope and cytokine profiles for primary and secondary influenza a virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses.
Belz GT, Xie W, Doherty PC.
J Immunol. 2001 Apr 1;166(7):4627-33. Erratum in: J Immunol 2001 Aug 1;167(3):1839.
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70. Quantitative analysis of the CD8+ T-cell response to readily eliminated and persistent viruses.
Doherty PC, Riberdy JM, Belz GT.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000 Aug 29;355(1400):1093-101. Review.
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71. Contemporary analysis of MHC-related immunodominance hierarchies in the CD8+ T cell response to influenza A viruses.
Belz GT, Stevenson PG, Doherty PC.
J Immunol. 2000 Sep 1;165(5):2404-9.
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72. A previously unrecognized H-2D(b)-restricted peptide prominent in the primary influenza A virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell response is much less apparent following secondary challenge.
Belz GT, Xie W, Altman JD, Doherty PC.
J Virol. 2000 Apr;74(8):3486-93.
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73. Postexposure vaccination massively increases the prevalence of gamma-herpesvirus-specific CD8+ T cells but confers minimal survival advantage on CD4-deficient mice.
Belz GT, Stevenson PG, Castrucci MR, Altman JD, Doherty PC.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Mar 14;97(6):2725-30.
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74. A gamma-herpesvirus sneaks through a CD8(+) T cell response primed to a lytic-phase epitope.
Stevenson PG, Belz GT, Castrucci MR, Altman JD, Doherty PC.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 3;96(16):9281-6.
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75. Changing patterns of dominance in the CD8+ T cell response during acute and persistent murine gamma-herpesvirus infection.
Stevenson PG, Belz GT, Altman JD, Doherty PC.
Eur J Immunol. 1999 Apr;29(4):1059-67.
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76. Virus-specific CD8(+) T cell numbers are maintained during gamma-herpesvirus reactivation in CD4-deficient mice.
Stevenson PG, Belz GT, Altman JD, Doherty PC.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Dec 22;95(26):15565-70.
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77. Characteristics of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in the liver during the control and resolution phases of influenza pneumonia.
Belz GT, Altman JD, Doherty PC.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13812-7.
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78. Virus-specific CD8+ T cells in primary and secondary influenza pneumonia.
Flynn KJ, Belz GT, Altman JD, Ahmed R, Woodland DL, Doherty PC.
Immunity. 1998 Jun;8(6):683-91.
PMID: 9655482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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79. Intercellular and lymphatic pathways associated with tonsils of the soft palate in young pigs.
Belz GT.
Anat Embryol (Berl). 1998 Apr;197(4):331-40.
PMID: 9565326 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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80. An unusual structure of venules in tonsils of the soft palate of young pigs.
Belz GT.
J Anat. 1998 Jan;192 ( Pt 1):131-5.
PMID: 9568568 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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81. Tonsils of the soft palate of young pigs: crypt structure and lymphoepithelium.
Belz GT, Heath TJ.
Anat Rec. 1996 May;245(1):102-13.
PMID: 8731046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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82. Lymphatic drainage from the tonsil of the soft palate in pigs.
Belz GT, Heath TJ.
J Anat. 1995 Oct;187 ( Pt 2):491-5.
PMID: 7592012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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83. Pathways of blood flow to and through superficial lymph nodes in the dog.
Belz GT, Heath TJ.
J Anat. 1995 Oct;187 ( Pt 2):413-21.
PMID: 7592004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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84. Intercellular and lymphatic pathways of the canine palatine tonsils.
Belz GT, Heath TJ.
J Anat. 1995 Aug;187 ( Pt 1):93-105.
PMID: 7591989 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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85. The epithelium of canine palatine tonsils.
Belz GT, Heath TJ.
Anat Embryol (Berl). 1995 Aug;192(2):189-94.
PMID: 7486015 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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86. Lymph pathways of the medial retropharyngeal lymph node in dogs.
Belz GT, Heath TJ.
J Anat. 1995 Jun;186 ( Pt 3):517-26.
PMID: 7559125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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87. An investigation of the use of chromium, platinum and gold coating for scanning electron microscopy of casts of lymphoid tissues.
Belz GT, Auchterlonie GJ.
Micron. 1995;26(2):141-4.
PMID: 7767633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Publications

  1. Belz G, Heath T. Intercellular and lymphatic pathways of the canine palatine tonsils. J Anat. 1995;187 ( Pt 1):93-105 pubmed
    ..Basal vessels course within the central lamina and converge to form efferent lymphatic vessels which emerge at the caudal region of the palatine tonsil and convey lymph to the medial retropharyngeal lymph node. ..
  2. Cretney E, Xin A, Shi W, Minnich M, Masson F, Miasari M, et al. The transcription factors Blimp-1 and IRF4 jointly control the differentiation and function of effector regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study defines a differentiation pathway that leads to the acquisition of T(reg) cell effector functions and requires both IRF4 and Blimp-1. ..
  3. Gartlan K, Belz G, Tarrant J, Minigo G, Katsara M, Sheng K, et al. A complementary role for the tetraspanins CD37 and Tssc6 in cellular immunity. J Immunol. 2010;185:3158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in the absence of both CD37 and Tssc6, immune function is further altered when compared with CD37(-/-) or Tssc6(-/-) mice, demonstrating a complementary role for these two molecules in cellular immunity...
  4. Belz G, Shortman K, Bevan M, Heath W. CD8alpha+ dendritic cells selectively present MHC class I-restricted noncytolytic viral and intracellular bacterial antigens in vivo. J Immunol. 2005;175:196-200 pubmed
    ..We show that regardless of the type of intracellular infection, CD8alpha(+) DCs are the principal DC subset that initiate CD8(+) T cell immunity. ..
  5. Belz G, Kallies A. Effector and memory CD8+ T cell differentiation: toward a molecular understanding of fate determination. Curr Opin Immunol. 2010;22:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of the molecular wiring of this differentiation process. ..
  6. Belz G, Doherty P. Virus-specific and bystander CD8+ T-cell proliferation in the acute and persistent phases of a gammaherpesvirus infection. J Virol. 2001;75:4435-8 pubmed
    ..The overall conclusion is that turnover rates substantially in excess of 5 to 10% over 6 days for CD8+ "memory" T-cell populations are likely to be reflective of continued antigenic exposure. ..
  7. Waithman J, Allan R, Kosaka H, Azukizawa H, Shortman K, Lutz M, et al. Skin-derived dendritic cells can mediate deletional tolerance of class I-restricted self-reactive T cells. J Immunol. 2007;179:4535-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, self-Ag can be carried to the draining lymph nodes by skin-derived DCs and there presented by these same cells for tolerization of the circulating T cell pool. ..
  8. Doherty P, Christensen J, Belz G, Stevenson P, Sangster M. Dissecting the host response to a gamma-herpesvirus. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356:581-93 pubmed
    ..Perhaps the main lesson learned to date is that all the components of immunity are likely to be important for the control of these complex viruses...
  9. Oh S, Belz G, Eichelberger M. Viral neuraminidase treatment of dendritic cells enhances antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation, but does not account for the CD4(+) T cell independence of the CD8(+) T cell response during influenza virus infection. Virology. 2001;286:403-11 pubmed
    ..This was not the case. Future studies will determine the factors that are responsible for the CD4(+) T-cell-independent influenza virus-specific CTL response. ..

More Information

Publications87

  1. Belz G. Getting together: dendritic cells, T cells, collaboration and fates. Immunol Cell Biol. 2008;86:310-1 pubmed publisher
  2. Belz G, Wherry E. Current Opinion in Immunology. Editorial overview. Curr Opin Immunol. 2010;22:271-3 pubmed publisher
  3. Belz G, Heath T. Tonsils of the soft palate of young pigs: crypt structure and lymphoepithelium. Anat Rec. 1996;245:102-13 pubmed
    ..Further investigation will be required to determine molecular specializations of the apical membrane of M cells which may facilitate interactions with antigenic material. ..
  4. Rankin L, Belz G. Diverse roles of inhibitor of differentiation 2 in adaptive immunity. Clin Dev Immunol. 2011;2011:281569 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the current understanding of the role of Id2 in lymphopoiesis and in the development of the adaptive immune response required for maintaining immune homeostasis and immune protection. ..
  5. Masson F, Mount A, Wilson N, Belz G. Dendritic cells: driving the differentiation programme of T cells in viral infections. Immunol Cell Biol. 2008;86:333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we endeavour to examine how the molecular signals imparted by DCs coordinate to generate protective CD8(+) T-cell immunity. ..
  6. Belz G. An unusual structure of venules in tonsils of the soft palate of young pigs. J Anat. 1998;192 ( Pt 1):131-5 pubmed
    ..In the tonsils of the soft palate of pigs, HEV may mediate both lymphocyte migration to and from the lymphoid tissue. Further investigation is required to determine the importance of these 2 migration pathways. ..
  7. Heath W, Belz G, Behrens G, Smith C, Forehan S, Parish I, et al. Cross-presentation, dendritic cell subsets, and the generation of immunity to cellular antigens. Immunol Rev. 2004;199:9-26 pubmed
    ..In this review, we examine the molecular basis for cross-presentation, discuss the role of DC subsets, and examine the contribution of this process to immunity, with some emphasis on DNA vaccination. ..
  8. O Reilly L, Tai L, Lee L, Kruse E, Grabow S, Fairlie W, et al. Membrane-bound Fas ligand only is essential for Fas-induced apoptosis. Nature. 2009;461:659-63 pubmed publisher
  9. Behrens G, Li M, Smith C, Belz G, Mintern J, Carbone F, et al. Helper T cells, dendritic cells and CTL Immunity. Immunol Cell Biol. 2004;82:84-90 pubmed
    ..CD4 T cells may only be capable of activating one dendritic cell during the period that CD8 T cells are primed. In this case, corecognition of this same dendritic cell would be essential. ..
  10. Schnorrer P, Behrens G, Wilson N, Pooley J, Smith C, El Sukkari D, et al. The dominant role of CD8+ dendritic cells in cross-presentation is not dictated by antigen capture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10729-34 pubmed
    ..This conclusion has important implications for the design of vaccination strategies based on antigen targeting to DC. ..
  11. Barr D, Belz G, Reading P, Wojtasiak M, Whitney P, Heath W, et al. A role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the rapid IL-18-dependent activation of NK cells following HSV-1 infection. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1334-42 pubmed
    ..These data identify IL-18 as a crucial factor for pDC-mediated NK cell regulation. ..
  12. Belz G, Wilson N, Smith C, Mount A, Carbone F, Heath W. Bone marrow-derived cells expand memory CD8+ T cells in response to viral infections of the lung and skin. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:327-35 pubmed
    ..As Langerhans cells are radioresistant, unlike other DC populations, these studies also demonstrate that the radiosensitive DC responsible for secondary expansion of HSV-specific memory are not Langerhans cells. ..
  13. Belz G. Direct ex vivo activation of T cells for analysis of dendritic cells antigen presentation. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;595:351-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding these interactions has begun to allow us to understand how integration of different populations in the DC network responds to multiple scenarios of infection. ..
  14. Stevenson P, Belz G, Altman J, Doherty P. Virus-specific CD8(+) T cell numbers are maintained during gamma-herpesvirus reactivation in CD4-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15565-70 pubmed
    ..It seems that CD8(+) T cells alone are insufficient to maintain long-term control of this persistent gamma-herpesvirus. ..
  15. Belz G, Heath T. Lymphatic drainage from the tonsil of the soft palate in pigs. J Anat. 1995;187 ( Pt 2):491-5 pubmed
    ..As the vessels from the tonsils course over the surface of the pharynx, the muscular movements of swallowing may help propel lymph towards the primary nodes and the bloodstream. ..
  16. Smith C, Rosa G, May J, Bennett N, Mount A, Belz G, et al. CD4+ T cells specific for a model latency-associated antigen fail to control a gammaherpesvirus in vivo. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:3186-97 pubmed
    ..Latent antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells therefore either failed to recognize key virus-infected cell populations in vivo or lacked the effector functions required to control them...
  17. Belz G, Wodarz D, Diaz G, Nowak M, Doherty P. Compromised influenza virus-specific CD8(+)-T-cell memory in CD4(+)-T-cell-deficient mice. J Virol. 2002;76:12388-93 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with mathematical models that predict virus-host dynamics in this, and other, models of infection. ..
  18. Belz G, Auchterlonie G. An investigation of the use of chromium, platinum and gold coating for scanning electron microscopy of casts of lymphoid tissues. Micron. 1995;26:141-4 pubmed
    ..Negligible charging and maximal cast thermal stability and structural information was obtained from casts which were tumbled during chromium coating. ..
  19. Belz G, Zhang L, Lay M, Kupresanin F, Davenport M. Killer T cells regulate antigen presentation for early expansion of memory, but not naive, CD8+ T cell. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6341-6 pubmed
    ..The ability of the memory T cells to remove antigen-presenting cells provides a negative-feedback loop to directly limit the duration of antigen presentation in vivo. ..
  20. Belz G. Intercellular and lymphatic pathways associated with tonsils of the soft palate in young pigs. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1998;197:331-40 pubmed
    ..Septal, basal and efferent lymphatic vessels contain prominent valves and many lymphocytes. Lymphatic sinuses appear to be a significant pathway for lymphocytes migrating from the tonsillar lymphoid tissue. ..
  21. Young L, Wilson N, Schnorrer P, Mount A, Lundie R, La Gruta N, et al. Dendritic cell preactivation impairs MHC class II presentation of vaccines and endogenous viral antigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17753-8 pubmed
    ..These observations have important implications for the design of prophylactic and therapeutic DC vaccines and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms causing immunosuppression during systemic blood infections. ..
  22. Wilson N, Behrens G, Lundie R, Smith C, Waithman J, Young L, et al. Systemic activation of dendritic cells by Toll-like receptor ligands or malaria infection impairs cross-presentation and antiviral immunity. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:165-72 pubmed
    ..Moreover, inhibition of cross-presentation was overcome by injection of dendritic cells bearing antigen, which provides a new strategy for generating immunity during immunosuppressive blood infections. ..
  23. Belz G, Carbone F, Heath W. Cross-presentation of antigens by dendritic cells. Crit Rev Immunol. 2002;22:439-48 pubmed
  24. Belz G, Xie W, Altman J, Doherty P. A previously unrecognized H-2D(b)-restricted peptide prominent in the primary influenza A virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell response is much less apparent following secondary challenge. J Virol. 2000;74:3486-93 pubmed
    ..Previous CD8(+)-T-cell immunodominance heirarchies defined largely by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assays may need to be revised. ..
  25. Lay M, Zhang L, Ribeiro R, Mueller S, Belz G, Davenport M. Kinetics of major histocompatibility class I antigen presentation in acute infection. J Immunol. 2009;182:902-11 pubmed
    ..Understanding how such contrasting kinetics of Ag presentation impacts on the growth and size of developing protective T cell populations has important implications for the design of vaccines and immunotherapies. ..
  26. Johnson S, Zhan Y, Sutherland R, Mount A, Bedoui S, Brady J, et al. Selected Toll-like receptor ligands and viruses promote helper-independent cytotoxic T cell priming by upregulating CD40L on dendritic cells. Immunity. 2009;30:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CD40L upregulation on DCs promoted optimal priming of CD8(+) T cells without CD4(+) T cells, providing a mechanism by which pathogens may elicit helper-independent CTL immunity. ..
  27. Marshall D, Turner S, Belz G, Wingo S, Andreansky S, Sangster M, et al. Measuring the diaspora for virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6313-8 pubmed
    ..Any population of "resting" CD8(+) memory T cells is thus phenotypically heterogeneous, widely dispersed, and subject to broad homeostatic and local environmental effects irrespective of epitope specificity or magnitude. ..
  28. Mintern J, Davey G, Belz G, Carbone F, Heath W. Cutting edge: precursor frequency affects the helper dependence of cytotoxic T cells. J Immunol. 2002;168:977-80 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that when precursor frequencies are high, priming of CD8 T cell responses may not require CD4 T cell help. ..
  29. Mount A, Belz G. Mouse models of viral infection: influenza infection in the lung. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;595:299-318 pubmed publisher
  30. Belz G, Xie W, Doherty P. Diversity of epitope and cytokine profiles for primary and secondary influenza a virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses. J Immunol. 2001;166:4627-33 pubmed
    ..The results for the K(b)PB1(703) epitope and the PB2(198) mimotope also provide a cautionary tale for those using the cytokine staining approach to identity antigenic peptides. ..
  31. Topham D, Cardin R, Christensen J, Brooks J, Belz G, Doherty P. Perforin and Fas in murine gammaherpesvirus-specific CD8(+) T cell control and morbidity. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1971-81 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that some degree of cytotoxicity via either perforin or Fas is essential for CD8(+) T cells to control this DNA virus. ..
  32. Carotta S, Pang S, Nutt S, Belz G. Identification of the earliest NK-cell precursor in the mouse BM. Blood. 2011;117:5449-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro differentiation studies demonstrate that pre-pro NK cells are committed to NK-cell lineage and appear to be upstream of the previously identified NK-cell progenitor population. ..
  33. Belz G, Heath T. Lymph pathways of the medial retropharyngeal lymph node in dogs. J Anat. 1995;186 ( Pt 3):517-26 pubmed
    ..Efferent vessels emerge along the hilus and coalesce to form the tracheal trunk. The tracheal trunk has several layers of smooth muscle cells, well developed elastic laminae and connective tissue, surrounding the lymphatic endothelium. ..
  34. Belz G, Bedoui S, Kupresanin F, Carbone F, Heath W. Minimal activation of memory CD8+ T cell by tissue-derived dendritic cells favors the stimulation of naive CD8+ T cells. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:1060-6 pubmed
  35. Masson F, Kupresanin F, Mount A, Strasser A, Belz G. Bid and Bim collaborate during induction of T cell death in persistent infection. J Immunol. 2011;186:4059-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data uncover a role for Bid in coordinating apoptotic signaling pathways to ensure appropriate shutdown of T cell immune responses in the setting of persistent Ag exposure. ..
  36. Mount A, Smith C, Kupresanin F, Stoermer K, Heath W, Belz G. Multiple dendritic cell populations activate CD4+ T cells after viral stimulation. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1691 pubmed publisher
    ..CD4(+) T cell priming by DC subsets that is dependent upon the route of administration raises the possibility that vaccination approaches could be tailored to prime helper T cell immunity. ..
  37. Mount A, Masson F, Kupresanin F, Smith C, May J, Van Rooijen N, et al. Interference with dendritic cell populations limits early antigen presentation in chronic ?-herpesvirus-68 infection. J Immunol. 2010;185:3669-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that a pathogen with the capacity to interfere with early Ag presentation can establish suboptimal conditions for rapid induction of the adaptive immune response and thus favor establishment of viral persistence. ..
  38. Young L, Wilson N, Schnorrer P, Proietto A, Ten Broeke T, Matsuki Y, et al. Differential MHC class II synthesis and ubiquitination confers distinct antigen-presenting properties on conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1244-52 pubmed publisher
    ..As the antigen-presenting abilities of cDCs and pDCs are fundamentally distinct, these two cell types may activate largely nonoverlapping repertoires of CD4(+) T cells. ..
  39. Belz G. Life in the balance: killer T-cell self-control fends off lethal influenza?. Immunol Cell Biol. 2009;87:364-5 pubmed publisher
  40. Belz G, Behrens G, Smith C, Miller J, Jones C, Lejon K, et al. The CD8alpha(+) dendritic cell is responsible for inducing peripheral self-tolerance to tissue-associated antigens. J Exp Med. 2002;196:1099-104 pubmed
  41. Belz G, Altman J, Doherty P. Characteristics of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in the liver during the control and resolution phases of influenza pneumonia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13812-7 pubmed
  42. Smith C, Belz G, Wilson N, Villadangos J, Shortman K, Carbone F, et al. Cutting edge: conventional CD8 alpha+ dendritic cells are preferentially involved in CTL priming after footpad infection with herpes simplex virus-1. J Immunol. 2003;170:4437-40 pubmed
    ..Given that such class I-restricted presentation is essential for CTL priming, this implies that these conventional CD8alpha(+) dendritic cells are the key subset involved in CTL immunity to this virus. ..
  43. Belz G, Stevenson P, Castrucci M, Altman J, Doherty P. Postexposure vaccination massively increases the prevalence of gamma-herpesvirus-specific CD8+ T cells but confers minimal survival advantage on CD4-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2725-30 pubmed
    ..Even very high levels of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells thus provide only transient protection against the uniformly lethal consequences of gammaHV-68 infection under conditions of CD4(+) T cell deficiency. ..
  44. Belz G, Stevenson P, Doherty P. Contemporary analysis of MHC-related immunodominance hierarchies in the CD8+ T cell response to influenza A viruses. J Immunol. 2000;165:2404-9 pubmed
  45. Allan R, Smith C, Belz G, van Lint A, Wakim L, Heath W, et al. Epidermal viral immunity induced by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells but not by Langerhans cells. Science. 2003;301:1925-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the traditional view of Langerhans cells in epidermal immunity needs to be revisited to accommodate a requirement for other dendritic cells in this response. ..
  46. Wilson N, El Sukkari D, Belz G, Smith C, Steptoe R, Heath W, et al. Most lymphoid organ dendritic cell types are phenotypically and functionally immature. Blood. 2003;102:2187-94 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the lymphoid organs contain a large cohort of immature DCs, most likely for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, which can respond to infections reaching those organs and mature in situ. ..
  47. Belz G, Smith C, Eichner D, Shortman K, Karupiah G, Carbone F, et al. Cutting edge: conventional CD8 alpha+ dendritic cells are generally involved in priming CTL immunity to viruses. J Immunol. 2004;172:1996-2000 pubmed
    ..These data highlight the general role played by CD8alpha(+) DCs in CTL priming to viral infection and raises the possibility that this DC subset is specialized for viral immunity. ..
  48. Topham D, Castrucci M, Wingo F, Belz G, Doherty P. The role of antigen in the localization of naive, acutely activated, and memory CD8(+) T cells to the lung during influenza pneumonia. J Immunol. 2001;167:6983-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, although Ag is required to activate the T cells, the subsequent localization of T cells to the lung during a virus infection is a property of recently activated and memory T cells and is not necessarily driven by Ag in the lung. ..
  49. Belz G, Heath W, Carbone F. The role of dendritic cell subsets in selection between tolerance and immunity. Immunol Cell Biol. 2002;80:463-8 pubmed
    ..Here we review recent experiments that provide insights into how DC subsets control the outcome of T cell activation and in so doing select between immunity and tolerance induction. ..
  50. Parish I, Waithman J, Davey G, Belz G, Mintern J, Kurts C, et al. Tissue destruction caused by cytotoxic T lymphocytes induces deletional tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3901-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that despite the capacity of CTLs to produce inflammatory cytokines and to cause tissue damage, their responses are not sustaining, but instead favor induction of self-tolerance. ..
  51. Doherty P, Riberdy J, Belz G. Quantitative analysis of the CD8+ T-cell response to readily eliminated and persistent viruses. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000;355:1093-101 pubmed
  52. Belz G, Liu H, Andreansky S, Doherty P, Stevenson P. Absence of a functional defect in CD8+ T cells during primary murine gammaherpesvirus-68 infection of I-A(b-/-) mice. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:337-41 pubmed
    ..Thus CTL immunity was independent of CD4+ T cells in a chronic herpesvirus infection, but was still inadequate to control virus replication. ..
  53. Masson F, Belz G. Mobilizing forces--CD4+ helper T cells script adaptive immunity. Cell Res. 2010;20:1-3 pubmed publisher
  54. Belz G, Masson F. Interleukin-2 tickles T cell memory. Immunity. 2010;32:7-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Immunity, Pipkin et al. (2010) and Kalia et al. (2010) link differential interleukin-2 signaling and inflammation with the transcriptional events leading to the development of effector and memory cells. ..
  55. Belz G, De Groot A. The Sir Mark Oliphant Conferences: international frontiers of science and technology. Hum Vaccin. 2008;4:260-1 pubmed
    ..The conference was funded by the Australian Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. ..
  56. Stevenson P, Belz G, Castrucci M, Altman J, Doherty P. A gamma-herpesvirus sneaks through a CD8(+) T cell response primed to a lytic-phase epitope. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:9281-6 pubmed
  57. Wilson N, Young L, Kupresanin F, Naik S, Vremec D, Heath W, et al. Normal proportion and expression of maturation markers in migratory dendritic cells in the absence of germs or Toll-like receptor signaling. Immunol Cell Biol. 2008;86:200-5 pubmed
  58. Stevenson P, Belz G, Altman J, Doherty P. Changing patterns of dominance in the CD8+ T cell response during acute and persistent murine gamma-herpesvirus infection. Eur J Immunol. 1999;29:1059-67 pubmed
    ..The CD8+ T cell population recognizing productively infected epithelial cells thus differed substantially from that responding during the IM illness. ..
  59. Belz G, Smith C, Bharadwaj M, Rice A, Jackson D. DCs as targets for vaccine design. Cytotherapy. 2004;6:88-98 pubmed
    ..In this review, we identify some of the features and properties of DCs, and how these properties can be exploited in the design of smart vaccines. ..
  60. Belz G, Heath T. Pathways of blood flow to and through superficial lymph nodes in the dog. J Anat. 1995;187 ( Pt 2):413-21 pubmed
    ..This contrasts with the commonly accepted description which implies that all blood vessels to all lymph nodes pass through a well defined hilus. ..
  61. Belz G, Heath T. The epithelium of canine palatine tonsils. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1995;192:189-94 pubmed
    ..A fenestrated basement membrane allows cell transport between the intraepithelial passageways of the reticular epithelium and the subepithelial lymphoid tissues. ..
  62. Kallies A, Hawkins E, Belz G, Metcalf D, Hommel M, Corcoran L, et al. Transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 is essential for T cell homeostasis and self-tolerance. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:466-74 pubmed
    ..These data identify Blimp-1 as an essential regulator of T cell homeostasis and suggest that Blimp-1 regulates both B cell and T cell differentiation. ..
  63. Seah S, Sutherland R, La Gruta N, Brown L, Carrington E, Belz G, et al. The linear range for accurately quantifying antigen-specific T-cell frequencies by tetramer staining during natural immune responses. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1499-500 pubmed publisher
  64. Flynn K, Belz G, Altman J, Ahmed R, Woodland D, Doherty P. Virus-specific CD8+ T cells in primary and secondary influenza pneumonia. Immunity. 1998;8:683-91 pubmed
    ..The delay reflects that the recall response develops first in the MLN, which contains relatively few mCTL. The response to a subdominant epitope is less obvious after secondary challenge. ..
  65. Belz G, Vremec D, Febbraio M, Corcoran L, Shortman K, Carbone F, et al. CD36 is differentially expressed by CD8+ splenic dendritic cells but is not required for cross-presentation in vivo. J Immunol. 2002;168:6066-70 pubmed
    ..In these models, CD36 knockout DCs were equivalent to wild-type DCs in their capacity to cross-present either foreign or self Ags, indicating that CD36 is not essential for cross-presentation of cellular Ags in vivo. ..
  66. Kallies A, Xin A, Belz G, Nutt S. Blimp-1 transcription factor is required for the differentiation of effector CD8(+) T cells and memory responses. Immunity. 2009;31:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies Blimp-1 as a master regulator of the terminal differentiation of CD8(+) effector T cells and uncovers a conservation of the pathways that regulate the terminal differentiation of T and B cells. ..
  67. Davenport M, Belz G, Ribeiro R. The race between infection and immunity: how do pathogens set the pace?. Trends Immunol. 2009;30:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the 'rules of the race' for slow growing pathogens has important implications for vaccine design and immune control of many chronic infections. ..
  68. Lundie R, de Koning Ward T, Davey G, Nie C, Hansen D, Lau L, et al. Blood-stage Plasmodium infection induces CD8+ T lymphocytes to parasite-expressed antigens, largely regulated by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14509-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, using three different experimental approaches, we provide evidence that CTL specific for parasite-expressed antigens contribute to ECM. ..
  69. Belz G. DC migration: hard-wired for T cell activation. Immunity. 2008;29:388-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Immunity, Aoshi et al. (2008) highlight the fact that the migratory route DCs take to drive T cell activation is independent of the architecture of lymphoid tissues. ..
  70. Fischer S, Belz G, Strasser A. BH3-only protein Puma contributes to death of antigen-specific T cells during shutdown of an immune response to acute viral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3035-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings show that Puma contributes to the death of antigen-specific T cells during shutdown of an immune response. ..
  71. Hughes P, Belz G, Fortner K, Budd R, Strasser A, Bouillet P. Apoptosis regulators Fas and Bim cooperate in shutdown of chronic immune responses and prevention of autoimmunity. Immunity. 2008;28:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify critical overlapping roles for Fas and Bim in T cell death in immune response shutdown and prevention of immunopathology and thereby resolve a long-standing controversy. ..
  72. Nutt S, Kallies A, Belz G. Blimp-1 connects the intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of T cell homeostasis. J Clin Immunol. 2008;28:97-106 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, Blimp-1 expression is controlled by the same cgammaC cytokines that regulate T cell homeostasis suggesting a direct link between the extrinsic and intrinsic arms of the process. ..
  73. Kupresanin F, Chow J, Mount A, Smith C, Stevenson P, Belz G. Dendritic cells present lytic antigens and maintain function throughout persistent gamma-herpesvirus infection. J Immunol. 2007;179:7506-13 pubmed
    ..Our results support that, during persistent viral infection, continual presentation of lytic Ags by DC leads to T cell activation critical for maintaining CD8(+) T cells capable of limiting persistent viral infection. ..
  74. Belz G, Smith C, Kleinert L, Reading P, Brooks A, Shortman K, et al. Distinct migrating and nonmigrating dendritic cell populations are involved in MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation after lung infection with virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8670-5 pubmed
    ..Presentation by a nonairway-derived DC population argues that cytotoxic T lymphocyte priming may involve interplay between different DC subsets, not all of which originate within the site of infection. ..
  75. Smith C, Wilson N, Waithman J, Villadangos J, Carbone F, Heath W, et al. Cognate CD4(+) T cell licensing of dendritic cells in CD8(+) T cell immunity. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:1143-8 pubmed
    ..In situations in which DCs are poorly licensed by pathogen-derived signals, our findings suggest that CTL immunity may be heavily dependent on cognate DC licensing. ..
  76. Pellegrini M, Bouillet P, Robati M, Belz G, Davey G, Strasser A. Loss of Bim increases T cell production and function in interleukin 7 receptor-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 2004;200:1189-95 pubmed
    ..This indicates that pharmacological inhibition of Bim function might be useful for boosting immune responses in immunodeficient patients. ..
  77. Carbone F, Belz G, Heath W. Transfer of antigen between migrating and lymph node-resident DCs in peripheral T-cell tolerance and immunity. Trends Immunol. 2004;25:655-8 pubmed
    ..This Opinion describes this finding in the context of antigen transfer between migrating and lymphoid-resident DCs in cases of T-cell priming and tolerance induction. ..
  78. Belz G, Wilson N, Kupresanin F, Mount A, Smith C. Shaping naive and memory CD8+ T cell responses in pathogen infections through antigen presentation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;590:31-42 pubmed